Persistent Opioid Use Among Pediatric Patients After Surgery.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Despite efforts to reduce nonmedical opioid misuse, little is known about the development of persistent opioid use after surgery among adolescents and young adults. We hypothesized that there is an increased incidence of prolonged opioid refills among adolescents and young adults who received prescription opioids after surgery compared with nonsurgical patients. METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study by using commercial claims from the Truven Health Marketscan research databases from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014. We included opioid-naïve patients ages 13 to 21 years who underwent 1 of 13 operations. A random sample of 3% of nonsurgical patients who matched eligibility criteria was included as a comparison. Our primary outcome was persistent opioid use, which was defined as ?1 opioid prescription refill between 90 and 180 days after the surgical procedure. RESULTS:Among eligible patients, 60.5% filled a postoperative opioid prescription (88?637 patients). Persistent opioid use was found in 4.8% of patients (2.7%-15.2% across procedures) compared with 0.1% of those in the nonsurgical group. Cholecystectomy (adjusted odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.26) and colectomy (adjusted odds ratio 2.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-5.34) were associated with the highest risk of persistent opioid use. Independent risk factors included older age, female sex, previous substance use disorder, chronic pain, and preoperative opioid fill. CONCLUSIONS:Persistent opioid use after surgery is a concern among adolescents and young adults and may represent an important pathway to prescription opioid misuse. Identifying safe, evidence-based practices for pain management is a top priority, particularly among at-risk patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prescription opioid misuse has become a leading cause of unintentional injury and death among adolescents and young adults in the United States. However, there is limited information on how adolescents and young adults obtain prescription opioids. There are also inadequate recent data on the prevalence of additional drug abuse among those misusing prescription opioids. In this study, we evaluated past-year prevalence of prescription opioid use and misuse, sources of prescription opioids, and additional substance use among adolescents and young adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS:This was a retrospective analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for the years 2015 and 2016. Prevalence of opioid use, misuse, use disorder, and additional substance use were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), stratified by age group and other demographic variables. Sources of prescription opioids were determined for respondents reporting opioid misuse. We calculated past-year prevalence of opioid use and misuse with or without use disorder, sources of prescription opioids, and prevalence of additional substance use. We included 27,857 adolescents (12-17 years of age) and 28,213 young adults (18-25 years of age) in our analyses, corresponding to 119.3 million individuals in the extrapolated national population. There were 15,143 respondents (27.5% [95% CI 27.0-28.0], corresponding to 32.8 million individuals) who used prescription opioids in the previous year, including 21.0% (95% CI 20.4-21.6) of adolescents and 32.2% (95% CI 31.4-33.0) of young adults. Significantly more females than males reported using any prescription opioid (30.3% versus 24.8%, P < 0.001), and non-Hispanic whites and blacks were more likely to have had any opioid use compared to Hispanics (28.9%, 28.1%, and 25.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). Opioid misuse was reported by 1,050 adolescents (3.8%; 95% CI 3.5-4.0) and 2,207 young adults (7.8%; 95% CI 7.3-8.2; P < 0.001). Male respondents using opioids were more likely to have opioid misuse without use disorder compared with females (23.2% versus 15.8%, respectively; P < 0.001), with similar prevalence by race/ethnicity. Among those misusing opioids, 55.7% obtained them from friends or relatives, 25.4% from the healthcare system, and 18.9% through other means. Obtaining opioids free from friends or relatives was the most common source for both adolescents (33.5%) and young adults (41.4%). Those with opioid misuse reported high prevalence of prior cocaine (35.5%), hallucinogen (49.4%), heroin (8.7%), and inhalant (30.4%) use. In addition, at least half had used tobacco (55.5%), alcohol (66.9%), or cannabis (49.9%) in the past month. Potential limitations of the study are that we cannot exclude selection bias in the study design or socially desirable reporting among participants, and that longitudinal data are not available for long-term follow-up of individuals. CONCLUSIONS:Results from this study suggest that the prevalence of prescription opioid use among adolescents and young adults in the US is high despite known risks for future opioid and other drug use disorders. Reported prescription opioid misuse is common among adolescents and young adults and often associated with additional substance abuse, underscoring the importance of drug and alcohol screening programs in this population. Prevention and treatment efforts should take into account that greater than half of youths misusing prescription opioids obtain these medications through friends and relatives.
Project description:BACKGROUND:One in five adolescents and emerging adults have reported prescription opioid misuse (POM), posing significant risks for opioid-related adverse outcomes. Devising prevention strategies requires a better understanding of the decisional factors underlying risky misuse behavior. This research examined the associations between past opioid use behavior, opioid risk knowledge and perceptions, and intentional POM decisions. METHODS:Participants aged 15-23years completed surveys assessing past prescription opioid use and misuse, opioid risk knowledge, opioid risk perceptions, and pain relief preferences (i.e., analgesic benefit vs. risk aversion preference). The outcome, Willingness to Misuse (i.e., intentional decisions to use a prescription opioid in a non-compliant manner) was measured using hypothetical pain decision scenarios. RESULTS:Surveys were completed by 972 adolescents and young adults. In total, 44% had taken a prescription opioid and 32% of these reported past POM. Willingness to Misuse was significantly associated with lower opioid misuse risk perceptions (??=?.75 [95% CI .66-.86]) and past opioid misuse (??=?1.81 [95% CI 1.13-2.91]) but not simple risk knowledge (??=?.81 [95% CI .58-1.11]. The probability of future misuse was highest for those who reported past opioid misuse and had low risk perceptions (58.7% [95% CI 51.3-65.8]) and high pain relief preferences (53.4% [95% CI 45.3%-61.3%]). CONCLUSIONS:Findings suggest that simple knowledge of prescription opioid risks is insufficient to curtail misuse among adolescents and emerging adults. Rather, it may be important to heighten opioid risk perceptions and strengthen opioid risk aversion values when prescribing opioid analgesics to better prevent future misuse in this high risk population.
Project description:Introduction Adolescents and young adults are a vulnerable patient population for development of substance use disorder. However, the long-term impact of opioid prescribing in young adult patients with renal colic is not known. Our objective was to describe rates of opioid prescription and identify risk factors for persistent opioid use in patients age 25 years or younger with renal colic from kidney stones. Methods Using previously validated, linked administrative databases, we performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study of opioid-naive patients age 25 years or younger with renal colic between July 1, 2013 and September 30, 2017 in Ontario. All family practitioner, urgent care, and specialist visits in the province were captured. Our primary outcome was persistent opioid use, defined as filling a prescription for an opioid between 91 and 180 days after initial visit. Ontario uses a narcotic monitoring system, which captures all opioids dispensed in the province. Results Of the 6962 patients identified, 56% were prescribed an opioid at presentation and 34% of those were dispensed more than 200 oral morphine equivalents. There was persistent opioid use in 313 (8.1%) patients who filled an initial opioid prescription. In adjusted analysis, those prescribed an opioid initially had a significantly higher risk of persistent opioid use (odds ratio [OR] 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50–2.29) and opioid overdose (OR 3.45; 1.08–11.04). There was a dose-dependent increase in risk of persistent opioid use with escalating initial opioid dose. History of mental illness (OR 1.32; 1.02–1.71) and need for surgery (OR 1.71; 1.24–2.34) were also associated with persistent opioid use. Conclusions Among patients with kidney stones age 25 years or younger, filling an opioid prescription after presentation is associated with an increased risk of persistent opioid use 3–6 months later and a higher risk of serious long-term complications, such as opioid overdose.
Project description:Background. Prescription opioids are the most frequently misused class of prescription drug among young adults aged 18-25, yet trajectories of opioid misuse and escalation are understudied. We sought to model opioid misuse patterns and relationships between opioid misuse, sociodemographic factors, and other substance uses. Methods. Participants were 575 young adults age 16-25 who had misused opioids in the last 90 days. Latent class analysis was performed with models based on years of misuse, recency of misuse, and alternate modes of administration within the past 12 months, 3 months, and 30 days. Results. Four latent classes emerged that were differentially associated with heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine use, tranquilizer misuse, daily opioid misuse, and opioid withdrawal. Alternate modes of administering opioids were associated with increased risk for these outcomes. Sociodemographic factors, homelessness, prescription history, and history of parental drug use were significantly associated with riskier opioid misuse trajectories. Conclusion. Young adults who reported more debilitating experiences as children and adolescents misused opioids longer and engaged in higher risk alternate modes of administering opioids. Data on decisions both to use and to alter a drug's form can be combined to describe patterns of misuse over time and predict important risk behaviors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prescription drug misuse (PDM) rates are highest in adolescents and young adults. Little research in these high-risk groups has examined PDM differences by educational status or attainment. This investigation attempted to further our understanding of adolescent and young adult prescription drug use and misuse through examining PDM type (i.e., nonmedical misuse, medical misuse and mixed misuse) and substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms from PDM by educational status/attainment. METHODS:Data were from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, with 13,585 adolescent and 14,553 young adult respondents. Participants were categorized by educational status separately in adolescents and young adults. Outcomes were rates of past-year prescription drug use, PDM, PDM type, and SUD symptoms, with analyses performed separately by age group and for opioids, stimulants and sedatives/tranquilizers. Analyses used logistic regression and controlled for age, race/ethnicity and sex. RESULTS:In adolescents and across medication classes, the highest rates of any use, PDM, medical misuse, nonmedical misuse and presence of two or more SUD symptoms were seen in those with poor school adjustment or not in school. In young adults, opioid-PDM and related outcomes were more prevalent in those not in school, especially high school dropouts. For stimulants, rates were highest in full-time college students and college graduates. CONCLUSIONS:These results further suggest the importance of assessing educational status in adolescent and educational attainment in young adult PDM investigations. Adolescents poorly engaged in school or not in school appear especially in need of interventions to limit PDM and associated SUD symptoms.
Project description:Importance:Prior studies have found a substantial risk of persistent opioid use among adolescents and young adults undergoing surgical and dental procedures. It is unknown whether family-level factors, such as long-term opioid use in family members, is associated with persistent opioid use. Objective:To determine whether long-term opioid use in family members is associated with persistent opioid use among opioid-naive adolescents and young adults undergoing surgical and dental procedures. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective cohort study used data from a commercial insurance claims database for January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2016, to study 346?251 opioid-naive patients aged 13 to 21 years who underwent 1 of 11 surgical and dental procedures and who were dependents on a family insurance plan. Exposures:Long-term opioid use in family members, defined as having 1 or more family members who (1) filled opioid prescriptions totaling a 120 days' supply or more during the 12 months before the procedure date or (2) filled 3 or more opioid prescriptions in the 90 days before the procedure date. Main Outcomes and Measures:The main outcome measure was persistent opioid use, defined as 1 or more postoperative prescription opioid fills between 91 and 180 days among patients with an initial opioid prescription fill. Generalized estimating equations with robust SEs clustered at the family level were used to model persistent opioid use as a function of long-term opioid use among family members, controlling for procedure, total morphine milligram equivalents of the initial fill, and patient and family characteristics. Results:A total of 346?251 patients (mean [SD] age, 17.0?[2.3] years; 175?541 [50.7%] female) were studied. Among these patients, 257?085 (74.3%) had an initial opioid fill. Among patients with an initial opioid fill, 11?016 (4.3%) had long-term opioid use in a family member. Persistent opioid use occurred in 453 patients (4.1%) with long-term opioid use in a family member compared with 5940 patients (2.4%) without long-term opioid use in a family member (adjusted odds ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.39-1.71). Conclusion and Relevance:The findings suggest that long-term opioid use among family members is associated with persistent opioid use among opioid-naive adolescents and young adults undergoing surgical and dental procedures. Physicians should screen young patients for long-term opioid use in their families and implement heightened efforts to prevent opioid dependence among patients with this important risk factor.
Project description:Background. National data from Canada and the United States identify women to be at greater risk than men for the misuse of prescription opioid medications. Various sex- and gender-based factors and patient and physician practices may affect women's use and misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Objectives. To explore the particular risks, issues, and treatment considerations for prescription opioid misuse among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Methods. A scoping review for articles published between January 1990 and May 2014 was conducted on sex- and gender-based risks and treatment considerations among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Results. A total of 57 articles were identified. The present narrative review summarizes the specific risks for the misuse of prescription opioid medication among women who have experienced violence and trauma, Aboriginal women, adolescents and young women, older women, pregnant women, women of a sexual minority, and transwomen. Discussion. The majority of the literature is descriptive, with few studies that evaluate approaches and interventions to respond to the issue of chronic pain, trauma, and misuse of prescription opioids among women, particularly vulnerable subgroups of women. Conclusions. Trauma-informed and women-centred approaches that address women's vulnerabilities and complex needs require further attention.
Project description:BACKGROUND:New persistent opioid use occurs in 3% to 14% of patients after elective surgery, but is poorly described after cardiothoracic surgery. We examined the association of prescription size with new persistent opioid use after cardiothoracic surgery. METHODS:Opioid-naive Medicare patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery between 2009 and 2015 were identified. Patients who filled an opioid prescription between 30 days before surgery and 14 days after discharge and with continuous Medicare enrollment 12 months before and 6 months after surgery were selected (n = 24,549). New persistent use was defined as continued prescription fills 91 to 180 days after surgery. Prescription size was reported in oral morphine equivalents. Multivariable regression was performed for risk adjustment, and new persistent use rate was estimated. RESULTS:Patient age was 71 ± 8 years, 9222 (38%) were female, and 20,898 (85%) were white. Overall new persistent use was 12.8% (3153 of 24,549), and declined yearly from 17% in 2009 to 7.1% in 2015 (P < .001). Prescription size, preoperative prescription fills, black race, gastrointestinal complications, disability status, open lung resection, dual eligibility (Medicare and Medicaid), drug and substance abuse, female sex, tobacco use, high comorbidity, pain disorders, longer hospital stay, and younger age were associated with new persistent use. Adjusted new persistent use was 19.6% (95% confidence interval, 18.7% to 20.4%) among patients prescribed more than 450 oral morphine equivalents, compared with 10.4% (95% confidence interval, 9.9% to 10.8%) among those prescribed 200 oral morphine equivalents or less (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:Size and timing of perioperative opioid prescriptions were the strongest predictors of new persistent opioid use after cardiothoracic surgery. Modifiable risk factors such as prescription size should be targeted to reduce new persistent use.
Project description:Introduction: Minimally invasive surgery offers reduced pain and opioid use postoperatively compared with open surgery, but large-scale comparative studies are lacking. We assessed the incidence of persistent opioid use after open and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective claims database cohort study of opioid-naive (i.e., no opioid prescriptions 30-180 days before index surgery) adult males who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer from July 2013 to June 2017. For patients who filled a perioperative opioid prescription (30 days before to 14 days after surgery), we calculated the incidence of new persistent postoperative opioid use (?1 prescription 90-180 days after surgery). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate the association between the surgical approach, patient risk factors, and persistent opioid use. Results: Twelve thousand two hundred seventy-eight radical prostatectomy patients filled an opioid prescription perioperatively (1510 [12%] open and 10,768 [88%] robot assisted). Of these, 846 (6.9%) patients continued to fill opioid prescription(s) 90 to 180 days after surgery. Patients undergoing RARP were 35% less likely to develop new persistent opioid use compared with those undergoing open radical prostatectomy (6.5% vs 9.7%; adjusted odds ratio 0.65; 95% confidence interval 0.54, 0.79). Other independent risk factors included living in the southern, western, or north central United States; preoperative comorbidity; and tobacco use. Conclusions: Approximately 6.9% of opioid-naive patients continued to fill opioid prescriptions 90 days after radical prostatectomy. The risk of persistent opioid use was significantly lower among patients undergoing a robot-assisted vs open approach. Further efforts are needed to develop postoperative opioid prescription protocols for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.
Project description:To quantify the effects of varying opioid prescribing patterns after surgery on dependence, overdose, or abuse in an opioid naive population.Retrospective cohort study.Surgical claims from a linked medical and pharmacy administrative database of 37?651?619 commercially insured patients between 2008 and 2016.1?015?116 opioid naive patients undergoing surgery.Use of oral opioids after discharge as defined by refills and total dosage and duration of use. The primary outcome was a composite of misuse identified by a diagnostic code for opioid dependence, abuse, or overdose.568?612 (56.0%) patients received postoperative opioids, and a code for abuse was identified for 5906 patients (0.6%, 183 per 100?000 person years). Total duration of opioid use was the strongest predictor of misuse, with each refill and additional week of opioid use associated with an adjusted increase in the rate of misuse of 44.0% (95% confidence interval 40.8% to 47.2%, P<0.001), and 19.9% increase in hazard (18.5% to 21.4%, P<0.001), respectively.Each refill and week of opioid prescription is associated with a large increase in opioid misuse among opioid naive patients. The data from this study suggest that duration of the prescription rather than dosage is more strongly associated with ultimate misuse in the early postsurgical period. The analysis quantifies the association of prescribing choices on opioid misuse and identifies levers for possible impact.