Paediatric emergency department utilisation rates and maternal migration status in the Born in Bradford cohort: A cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Globally, international migration is increasing. Population growth, along with other demographic changes, may be expected to put new pressures on healthcare systems. Some studies across Europe suggest that emergency departments (EDs) are used more, and differently, by migrants compared to non-migrant populations, which may be a result of unfamiliarity with the healthcare systems and difficulties accessing primary healthcare. However, little evidence exists to understand how migrant parents, who are typically young and of childbearing age, utilise EDs for their children. This study aimed to examine the association between paediatric ED utilisation in the first 5 years of life and maternal migration status in the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort study. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We analysed linked data from the BiB study-an ongoing, multi-ethnic prospective birth cohort study in Bradford. Bradford is a large, ethnically diverse city in the north of England. In 2017, more than a third of births in Bradford were to mothers who were born outside the UK. Between March 2007 and December 2010, pregnant women were recruited to BiB during routine antenatal care, and the children born to these mothers have been, and continue to be, followed over time to assess how social, genetic, environmental, and behavioural factors impact on health from childhood to adulthood. Data analysed in this study included baseline questionnaire data from BiB mothers, and Bradford Royal Infirmary ED episode data for their children. Main outcomes were likelihood of paediatric ED use (no visits versus at least 1 ED visit in the first 5 years of life) and ED utilisation rates (number and frequency of ED visits) for children who have accessed the ED. The main explanatory variable was mother's migrant status (foreign-born versus UK/Irish-born). Multivariable analyses (logistic and zero-truncated negative binomial regression) were conducted adjusting for socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. The final dataset included 10,168 children born between April 2007 and June 2011, of whom 35.6% were born to migrant mothers. Foreign-born mothers originated from South Asia (28.6%), Europe/Central Asia (3.2%), Africa (2.1%), East Asia/Pacific (1.1%), and the Middle East (0.6%). At recruitment the mothers ranged in age from 15 to 49 years old. Overall, 3,104 (30.5%) children had at least 1 ED visit in the first 5 years of life, with the highest proportion of visits being in the first year of life (36.7%). The proportion of children who visited the ED at least once was lower for children of migrant mothers as compared to children of non-migrant mothers (29.4% versus 31.2%). Children of migrant mothers were found to be less likely to visit the ED (odds ratio 0.88 [95% CI 0.80 to 0.97], p = 0.012). However, among children who visited the ED, the utilisation rate was significantly higher for children of migrant mothers (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.19 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.40], p = 0.040). Utilisation rates were higher for children born to mothers from Europe (IRR 1.71 [95% CI 1.07 to 2.71], p = 0.024) and established migrants (?5 years living in UK) (IRR 1.24 [95% CI 1.02 to 1.51], p = 0.032) compared to UK/Irish-born mothers. Important limitations include being unable to measure children's underlying health status and the urgency of ED attendance, as well as the analysis being limited by missing data. CONCLUSIONS:In this study we observed that there is no higher likelihood of first paediatric ED attendance in the first 5 years of life for children in the BiB cohort for migrant mothers. However, among ED users, children of migrant mothers attend the service more frequently than children of UK/Irish-born mothers. Our findings show that patterns of ED utilisation differ by mother's region of origin and time since arrival in the UK.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Worldwide, the Irish diaspora experience health inequalities persisting across generations. The present study sought to establish the prevalence of psychological morbidity in the children of migrant parents from Ireland, and reasons for differences.<h4>Methods</h4>Data from two British birth cohorts were used for analysis. Each surveyed 17 000 babies born in one week in 1958 and 1970 and followed up through childhood. Validated scales assessed psychological health.<h4>Results</h4>Relative to the rest of the cohort, second-generation Irish children grew up in material hardship and showed greater psychological problems at ages 7, 11 (1958 cohort) and 16 (both cohorts). Adjusting for material adversity and maternal psychological distress markedly reduced differences. Relative to non-Irish parents, Irish-born parents were more likely to report chronic health problems (odds ratio [OR]: 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.54), and Irish-born mothers were more likely to be psychologically distressed (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.13-1.84, when child was 10). Effect sizes diminished once material adversity was taken into account.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Second-generation Irish children experienced high levels of psychological morbidity, but this was accounted for through adverse material circumstances in childhood and psychological distress in parents. Public health initiatives focusing on settlement experiences may reduce health inequalities in migrant children.
Project description:The UK COVID-19 lockdown has included restricting social movement and interaction to slow the spread of disease and reduce demand on NHS acute services. It is likely that the impacts of restrictions will hit the least advantaged disproportionately and will worsen existing structural inequalities amongst deprived and ethnic minority groups. The aim of this study is to deliver rapid intelligence to enable an effective COVID-19 response, including co-production of interventions, that address key issues in the City of Bradford, UK, and nationally. In the longer term we aim to understand the impacts of the response on health trajectories and inequalities in these. In this paper we describe our approach and protocol. We plan an adaptive longitudinal mixed methods approach embedded with Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohorts which have rich existing data (including questionnaire, routine health and biobank). All work packages (WP) interact and are ongoing. WP1 uses co-production and engagement methods with communities, decision-makers and researchers to continuously set (changing) research priorities and will, longer-term, co-produce interventions to aid the City's recovery. In WP2 repeated quantitative surveys will be administered during lockdown (April-June 2020), with three repeat surveys until 12 months post-lockdown with an ethnically diverse pool of BiB participants (parents, children aged 9-13 years, pregnant women: total sample pool N=7,652, N=5,154, N=1,800). A range of health, social, economic and education outcomes will be assessed. In WP3 priority topics identified in WP1 and WP2 will be explored qualitatively. Initial priority topics include children's mental wellbeing, health beliefs and the peri/post-natal period. Feedback loops will ensure findings are fed directly to decision-makers and communities (via WP1) to enable co-production of acceptable interventions and identify future priority topic areas. Findings will be used to aid development of local and national policy to support recovery from the pandemic and minimise health inequalities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A healthy migrant effect on birth outcomes has been reported, however, whether this protective effect persists throughout childhood is unknown. The effect of urbanicity on child health among an immigrant population is unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate and cumulative incidence of severe diseases among urban children of Taiwan-born mothers, rural children of Taiwan-born mothers, urban children of foreign-born mothers, and rural children of foreign-born mothers. METHODS:A nationwide cohort study was conducted for children born in Taiwan during 2004-2011 and follow-up till age 4 to 11?years old by linkage the Taiwan Birth Registry 2004-2011, Taiwan Death Registry 2004-2015, and National Health Insurance Research Database 2004-2015. Cox proportional hazards model (multivariable) was used to examine differences among the four study groups. RESULTS:There were 682,982 urban children of Taiwan-born mothers, 662,818 rural children of Taiwan-born mothers, 61,570 urban children of foreign-born mothers, 87,473 rural children of foreign-born mothers. Children of foreign-born mothers had a lower incidence of vasculitis, mainly Kawasaki disease. The incidences of congenital disorders did not differ between children of foreign-born mothers and children of Taiwan-born mothers. The incidence of psychotic disorders was higher in urban children. However, children in rural areas had a higher incidence of major trauma/burn and a higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS:A healthy migrant effect was only seen for Kawasaki disease. The mental health of urban children born to immigrant mothers warrants concern.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Born in Bradford (BiB) is a prospective multi-ethnic pregnancy and birth cohort study that was established to examine determinants of health and development during childhood and, subsequently, adult life in a deprived multi-ethnic population in the north of England. Between 2007 and 2010, the BiB cohort recruited 12,453 women who experienced 13,776 pregnancies and 13,858 births, along with 3353 of their partners. Forty five percent of the cohort are of Pakistani origin. Now that children are at primary school, the first full follow-up of the cohort is taking place. The aims of the follow-up are to investigate the determinants of children's pre-pubertal health and development, including through understanding parents' health and wellbeing, and to obtain data on exposures in childhood that might influence future health. METHODS:We are employing a multi-method approach across three data collection arms (community-based family visits, school based physical assessment, and whole classroom cognitive, motor function and wellbeing measures) to follow-up over 9000 BiB children aged 7-11 years and their families between 2017 and 2021. We are collecting detailed parent and child questionnaires, cognitive and sensorimotor assessments, blood pressure, anthropometry and blood samples from parents and children. Dual x-ray absorptiometry body scans, accelerometry and urine samples are collected on subsamples. Informed consent is collected for continued routine data linkage to health, social care and education records. A range of engagement activities are being used to raise the profile of BiB and to disseminate findings. DISCUSSION:Our multi-method approach to recruitment and assessment provides an efficient method of collecting rich data on all family members. Data collected will enhance BiB as a resource for the international research community to study the interplay between ethnicity, socioeconomic circumstances and biology in relation to cardiometabolic health, mental health, education, cognitive and sensorimotor development and wellbeing.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:There is evidence that, from birth, South Asians are fatter, for a given body mass, than Europeans. The role of developmental overnutrition related to maternal adiposity and circulating glucose in these ethnic differences is unclear. Our aim was to compare associations of maternal gestational adiposity and glucose with adiposity at age 4/5 years in white British and Pakistani children. METHODS:Born in Bradford is a prospective study of children born between 2007 and 2010 in Bradford, UK. Mothers completed an OGTT at 27-28 weeks of gestation. We examined associations between maternal gestational BMI, fasting glucose, post-load glucose and diabetes (GDM) and offspring height, weight, BMI and subscapular skinfold (SSF) and triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness at age 4/5 years, using data from 6060 mother-offspring pairs (2717 [44.8%] white British and 3343 [55.2%] Pakistani). RESULTS:Pakistani mothers had lower BMI and higher fasting and post-load glucose and were twice as likely to have GDM (defined using modified WHO criteria) than white British women (15.8% vs 6.9%). Pakistani children were taller and had lower BMI than white British children; they had similar SSF and lower TSF. Maternal BMI was positively associated with the adiposity of offspring in both ethnic groups, with some evidence of stronger associations in Pakistani mother-offspring pairs. For example, the difference in adjusted mean BMI per 1 kg/m2 greater maternal BMI was 0.07 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.05, 0.08) and 0.10 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.09. 0.11) in white British and Pakistani children, respectively, with equivalent results for SSF being 0.07 mm (95% CI 0.05, 0.08) and 0.09 mm (95% CI 0.08. 0.11) (p for ethnic difference < 0.03 for both). There was no strong evidence of association of fasting and post-load glucose, or GDM, with outcomes in either group. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:At age 4/5 years, Pakistani children are taller and lighter than white British children. While maternal BMI is positively associated with offspring adiposity, gestational glycaemia is not clearly related to offspring adiposity in either ethnic group.
Project description:The fetal environment has been increasingly implicated in later psychological health, but the role of lipids is unknown. Drawing on the ethnically diverse Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort, the current study related levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides in umbilical cord blood to 1,369 children's teacher-rated psychosocial competence approximately 5 years later. Results of ordinal logistic regressions indicated that low levels of HDL, high levels of VLDL, and high levels of triglycerides predicted greater likelihood of being rated as less competent in domains of emotion regulation, self-awareness, and interpersonal functioning. Furthermore, these results generalized across ethnic background and children's sex and were not accounted for by variables reflecting mothers' psychological or physical health, children's physical health, or children's special education status. Together, these results identify fetal exposure to anomalous lipid levels as a possible contributor to subsequent psychological health and social functioning.
Project description:Few studies have examined how the settlement experiences of migrant parents might impact on the downstream adult health of second-generation minority ethnic children. We used prospective data to establish if childhood adversity relating to the settlement experiences of Irish-born parents might account for downstream adverse health-related behaviours in second-generation Irish respondents in adulthood.Cohort data from the National Child Development Study, comprising 17 000 births from a single week in 1958, from Britain, were analysed. Respondents were followed to mid-life. Dependent variables were alcohol and tobacco use. The contribution of life-course experiences in accounting for health-related behaviours was examined.Relative to the rest of the cohort, the prevalence of harmful/hazardous alcohol use was elevated in early adulthood for second-generation men and women, although it reduced by age 42. Second-generation Irish men were more likely to report binge alcohol use (odds ratio 1.45; 95% confidence interval 0.99, 2.11; P = 0.05), and second-generation Irish women were more likely to smoke (odds ratio 1.67; 95% confidence interval 1.23, 2.23; P = 0.001), at mid-life. Childhood disadvantage partially mediated associations between second-generation Irish status and mid-life alcohol and tobacco use, although these were modest for associations with smoking in Irish women.The findings suggest mechanisms for the intergenerational 'transmission' of health disadvantage in migrant groups, across generations. More attention needs to focus on the public health legacy of inequalities transferring from one migrant generation to the next.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to examine the associations of TV parameters with adiposity in early life. METHODS:Data were collected as part of the Born in Bradford (BiB) longitudinal birth cohort study. Child TV viewing duration was parent reported, and BMI, the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and waist circumference were measured at ~12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age in 1,338 children. Mixed effects models were used to quantify adjusted associations of TV viewing duration with adiposity markers, incorporating data from all time points. Linear regression was used to investigate differences in adiposity levels across frequencies of eating meals and snacks while watching TV at age ~24 months and between children who did and did not have a TV in their bedroom at age ~36 months. RESULTS:Every 1 h/d of TV viewing was associated with a 0.075-cm larger (95% CI: 0.0034-0.15) waist circumference, independent of covariates including sleep duration, dietary factors, and physical activity level. There was no evidence for any other associations. CONCLUSIONS:TV viewing duration is independently associated with abdominal adiposity in young children. Limiting TV viewing from an early age may be important for primary prevention of obesity.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine presenting visual acuity levels and explore the factors associated with failing vision screening in a multi-ethnic population of UK children aged 4-5 years. METHODS:Visual acuity (VA) using the logMAR Crowded Test was measured in 16,541 children in a population-based vision screening programme. Referral for cycloplegic examination was based on national recommendations (>0.20logMAR in one or both eyes). Presenting visual impairment (PVI) was defined as VA >0.3logMAR in the better eye. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of ethnicity, maternal, and early-life factors with failing vision screening and PVI in participants of the Born in Bradford birth cohort. RESULTS:In total, 2467/16,541 (15%) failed vision screening, 732 (4.4%) had PVI. Children of Pakistani (OR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.74-3.60) and other ethnicities (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.28-3.12) showed increased odds of PVI compared to white children. Children born to older mothers (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.19-2.24) and of low birth weight (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00-2.34) also showed increased odds. Follow-up results were available for 1068 (43.3%) children, 993 (93%) were true positives; 932 (94%) of these had significant refractive error. Astigmatism (>1DC) (44%) was more common in children of Pakistani ethnicity and hypermetropia (>3.0DS) (27%) in white children (Fisher's exact, p?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:A high prevalence of PVI is reported. Failing vision screening and PVI were highly associated with ethnicity. The positive predictive value of the vision screening programme was good, with only 7% of children followed up confirmed as false positives.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Emergency Department (ED) can be considered an indicator of accessibility and quality and can be influenced in period of economic downturns. In the last fifteen years, the number of migrants in Italy has doubled (from 2.4 million in 2005 to 5.2 in 2019, 4.1 and 8.7% of the total population, respectively). However, evidence about migrants' healthcare use is poor, and no studies focused on the ED utilisation rate during the Great Recession are available. This study aims to analyse trends in all-cause and cause-specific ED utilisation among migrants and Italians residing in Rome, Italy, before and after 2008. METHODS:Longitudinal study based on data from the Municipal Register of Rome linked to the Emergency Department Register from 2005 to 2015. We analysed 2,184,467 individuals, aged 25-64 in each year. We applied a Hurdle model to estimate the propensity to use the ED and to model how often individuals accessed the ED. RESULTS:Migrants were less likely to be ED users than Italians, except for Africans (RR?=?1.46, 95%CI 1.40-1.52) and Latin Americans (RR?=?1.04, 95%CI 1.00-1.08) who had higher all-cause utilisation rates than non-migrants. Compared to the pre-2008 period, in the post-2008 we found an increase in the likelihood of being an ED user (OR?=?1.34, 95%CI 1.34-1.35), and a decrease in ED utilisation rates (RR?=?0.96, 95%CI 0.96-0.97) for the whole population, with differences among migrant subgroups, regardless of cause. CONCLUSIONS:This study shows differences in the ED utilisation between migrants and Italians, and within the migrant population, during the Great Recession. The findings may reflect differentials in the health status, and barriers to access primary and secondary care among migrants. In this regard, health policies and cuts in health spending measures may have played a key role, and interventions to tackle health and access disparities should include policy measures addressing the underlying factors, adopting a Health in All Policies perspective. Further researches focusing on specific groups of migrants, and on the causes and diagnoses related to the ED utilisation, may help to explain the differences observed.