Patterns of Anthracycline-Based Chemotherapy-Induced Adverse Drug Reactions and Their Impact on Relative Dose Intensity among Women with Breast Cancer in Ethiopia: A Prospective Observational Study.
ABSTRACT: Background:The breast cancer chemotherapy leads to diverse aspects of noxious or unintended adverse drug reactions (ADRs) that cause the relative dose intensity (RDI) reduced to below optimal (i.e., if the percentage of actual dose received per unit time divided by planned dose per unit time is less than 85%). Hence, this prospective observational study was conducted to evaluate chemotherapy-induced ADRs and their impact on relative dose intensity among women with breast cancer in Ethiopia. Methods:The study was conducted with a cohort of 146 patients from January 1 to September 30, 2017, Gregorian Calendar (GC) at the only nationwide oncology center, Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The ADRs of the chemotherapy were collected using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) (version 4.03). The patients were personally interviewed for subjective toxicities, and laboratory results and supportive measures were recorded at each cycle. SPSS version 22 was used for analysis. Results:Grade 3 neutropenia (23 (15.8%)) was the most frequently reported ADR among grade 3 hematological toxicity on cycle 4. However, overall grade fatigue (136 (93.2%)) and grade 3 nausea (31 (21.2%)) were the most frequently reported nonhematological toxicities on cycle 1. The majority of ADRs were reported during the first four cycles except for peripheral neuropathy. Oral antibiotics and G-CSF use (17 (11.6%)) and treatment delay (31 (21.2%)) were frequently reported on cycle 3. Overall, 61 (41.8%) and 42 (28.8%) of study participants experienced dose delay and used G-CSF, respectively, at least once during their enrollment. Of the 933 interventions observed, 95 (10%) cycles were delayed due to toxicities in which neutropenia attributed to the delay of 89 cycles. Forty-four (30.1%) of the patients received overall RDI?
Project description:Chemotherapy-induced hematologic toxicity is the primary reasons of dose reductions and/or delays, low relative dose intensity (RDI), and predicts anticancer response. We investigated the incidence and predictors of chemotherapy-induced hematologic toxicities and reduced RDI in Ethiopian breast cancer patients, and implication of pharmacogenetics variations. Breast cancer patients (n = 249) were enrolled prospectively to receive cyclophosphamide based chemotherapy. Hematological toxicity (neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia) were monitored throughout chemotherapy cycle. The primary and secondary outcomes were incidence of grade 3 or 4 toxicity and reduced RDI, respectively. CYP2B6?6, CYP3A5?3, CYP2C9 (?2,?3), CYP2C19 (?2,?3), CYP2J2?7, POR?28, and ABCB1 (rs3842) genotyping were done. Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression were used to estimate risk predictors of toxicity and reduced RDI, respectively. Majority (73.5%) of the patients were < 45 years of age. The incidence of grade 3 or 4 hematological toxicity was 51.0% (95% CI = 44.54-57.46%). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression indicated CYP2J2?7 genotype [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.14-2.90], pretreatment grade 1 leukopenia (HR = 2.75; 95% CI = 1.47-5.15) or grade 1 or 2 neutropenia (HR = 2.75; 95% CI = 1.73-4.35) as significant predictors of hematologic toxicities. The odds of having hematologic toxicities was lower in CYP2C9?2 or ?3 carriers (p = 0.024). The prevalence of reduced RDI was 56.6% (95% CI = 50.3-62.9%). Higher risk of reduced RDI was associated with CYP2J2?7 allele [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.79; 95% CI = 1.21-6.46], BMI ? 18.4 kg/m2 (AOR = 5.98; 95% CI = 1.36-26.23), baseline grade 1 leukopenia (AOR = 6.09; 95% CI = 1.24-29.98), and baseline neutropenia (AOR = 3.37; 95% CI = 1.41-8.05). The odds of receiving reduced RDI was lower in patients with CYP2B6 ?6/?6 genotype (AOR = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.06-0.77). We report high incidence of chemotherapy-induced hematological toxicities causing larger proportion of patients to receive reduced RDI in Ethiopian breast cancer patients. Patients carrying CYP2J2?7 allele and low baseline blood counts are at a higher risk for chemotherapy-induced hematologic toxicities and receiving reduced RDI, and may require prior support and close follow up during chemotherapy.
Project description:The hepatocyte growth factor/c-MET pathway has been implicated in the pathobiology of multiple myeloma, and c-MET inhibitors induce myeloma cell apoptosis, suggesting that they could be useful clinically. We conducted a phase II study with the c-MET inhibitor tivantinib in patients with relapsed, or relapsed and refractory myeloma whose disease had progressed after one to four prior therapies. Tivantinib, 360 mg orally per dose, was administered twice daily continuously over a 4-week treatment cycle without a cap on the number of allowed cycles, barring undue toxicities or disease progression. Primary objectives were to determine the overall response rate and the toxicities of tivantinib in this patient population. Sixteen patients were enrolled in a two-stage design. Notable grade 3 and 4 hematological adverse events were limited to neutropenia in five and four patients, respectively. Nonhematological adverse events of grade 3 or higher included hypertension (in four patients); syncope, infection, and pain (two each); and fatigue, cough, and pulmonary embolism (one each). Four of 11 evaluable patients (36%) had stable disease as their best response, while the remainder showed disease progression. Overall, tivantinib as a single agent did not show promise for unselected relapsed/refractory myeloma patients. However, the ability to achieve stable disease does suggest that combination regimens incorporating targeted inhibitors in patients with c-MET pathway activation could be of interest.
Project description:Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD), a classical formula of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has an impact on promoting hematopoiesis. The aim of our study was to determine whether DBD can prevent myelosuppression in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. We conducted a phase II randomized prospective controlled clinical study. From December 2013 to February 2015, 106 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1) to the TCM group and control group. The primary end point was incidence of grade 3-4 neutropenia. The secondary end points included incidence of grade 3-4 neutropenia in each cycle, incidence of anemia, and incidence of thrombopenia during 4 cycles. Seventeen patients withdrew from this study, and 89 patients were included in the final analysis. Incidences of grade 3-4 neutropenia during 4 cycles were 57.1% in the TCM group and 59.6% in the control group, and there was no significant difference ( P = .816). Similarly, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups for incidence of grade 3-4 neutropenia in each cycle. While incidences of anemia were 54.8% and 66.6% for the TCM group and control group, respectively ( P = .280), incidences of thrombopenia were 11.9% for the TCM group and 4.3% for the control group ( P = .248). No significant differences were observed for the incidence of other nonhematological toxicities between the 2 groups. DBD failed to prevent myelosuppression in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Further studies are warranted to validate the efficacy of DBD in selected patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Eribulin mesylate, a synthetic analog of halichondrin B, is a novel tubulin-binding agent that inhibits cancer cell proliferation at low-nanomolar levels. METHODS:In a multicenter ECOG trial, patients with progressive metastatic CRPC, ECOG 0-2 were treated with eribulin 1.4?mg/m as an IV bolus over 5 minutes on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. This noncomparative study stratified points to either a chemonaive (CN), prior-taxane (Tax) only, or 2 prior cytotoxic (TCx) chemotherapy arm. The trial was powered to detect a 50% PSA reduction using Consensus Criteria in at least 40% versus 20% (90% power, one-sided ?=0.10) for the CN stratum and 25% versus. 10% (power 87%, one-sided ?=0.10) for the Tax and TCx strata. RESULTS:In total, 119 pts received treatment of which 116 were eligible for the primary response determination in this study. Median age 70 years (range, 45 to 88); median number of treatment cycles 4 (range, 1 to 20+); ECOG 0-1 90%. Confirmed PSA response rates (50% decline from baseline) were 29% (90% [18.2%, 41.2%]; P=0.20), 10% (90% [5.2%, 27.1%]; P=1.00), and 4% ([0.2%, 18.3%]; P=0.59) in the chemonaive stratum, the prior-taxane stratum, and the 2-prior-chemotherapy stratum, respectively. Median progression-free survival was 3.5 months (95% CI, 2.0, 5.9), 2.3 months (95% CI, 2.0, 2.9) and 3.7 months (95% CI, 2.1, 4.2) for the chemonaive stratum, the prior-taxane stratum and the 2-prior-chemotherapy stratum, respectively. Nonhematological toxicities of any grade (mainly grade 1 and 2) were fatigue (74%), neuropathy (40%), alopecia (39%), nausea (35%), and anorexia (34%). Common hematological toxicities were decreased leukocytes (75%), decreased neutrophils (72%), and decreased hemoglobin (66%). The most common grade ? 3 toxicities were decreased neutrophils (55%), decreased leukocytes (42%), sensory neuropathy (13%), and fatigue (11%). Overall, there was a 4% rate of febrile neutropenia. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, per the prespecified study endpoints, eribulin did not have adequate activity in chemotherapy naïve or chemotherapy pretreated patients with metastatic CRPC to support further study in this setting.
Project description:Amrubicin is one of the most active chemotherapeutic drugs for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Previous studies reported its effectiveness and severe hematological toxicity. However, the efficacy of amrubicin monotherapy in elderly patients with SCLC has not been described. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of amrubicin monotherapy in elderly patients and its efficacy for relapsed SCLC.A retrospective cohort study design was used. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical effects and adverse events of amrubicin treatment in elderly (?70 years) SCLC patients with relapsed SCLC.Between November 2003 and September 2015, 86 patients (aged ?70 years) received amrubicin monotherapy for relapsed SCLC at four institutions. There were 42 cases of sensitive relapse (S) and 44 of refractory relapse (R). S cases with median age of 75 years (range 70-85 years) and R cases with median age of 74 years (range 70-84 years) were included in our analysis. The median number of treatment cycles was three (range 1-9), and the response rate was 33.7% (40.5% in the S and 27.2% in the R cases). Median progression-free survival time was 4.0 months in the S and 2.7 months in the R patients (p = 0.013). Median survival time from the start of amrubicin therapy was 7.6 months in the S and 5.5 months in the R cases (p = 0.26). The frequencies of grade ?3 hematological toxicities were as follows: leukopenia, 60.4%; neutropenia, 74.4%; anemia, 11.6%; thrombocytopenia, 16.2%; and febrile neutropenia, 17.4%. Treatment-related death was observed in one patient.Although hematological toxicities, particularly neutropenia, were severe, amrubicin showed favorable efficacy, not only in the S but also in the R cases, as shown in previous studies. Amrubicin could be a preferable standard treatment in elderly patients with relapsed SCLC. These results warrant further evaluation of amrubicin in elderly patients with relapsed SCLC by a prospective trial.
Project description:The combination of fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) is the standard of care for advanced pancreatic cancer, but causes hematological and gastrointestinal toxicities, leading to treatment delay and dose reduction; optimal modification based on toxicities is needed. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of initial relative dose intensity (RDI) on FOLFIRINOX efficacy by conducting a Japanese nationwide survey. We evaluated overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients administered two or more cycles of FOLFIRINOX, and determined RDIs for each drug within the first two cycles. RDI's effect on efficacy was evaluated using a multivariate analysis with a Cox regression hazard model. Of 399 patients enrolled, 359 and 346 were evaluated for OS and PFS, respectively. Median RDI was 71.8%, 64.7%, 23.4%, and 76.9% for oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and bolus and continuous infusions of 5-FU, respectively. A high RDI for 5-FU bolus resulted in poor prognosis in terms of PFS (hazard ratio: 1.34; p = 0.022) and negatively correlated with objective response (coefficient: -0.70; p = 0.021), and a high RDI for CPT-11 positively correlated with objective response (coefficient: 1.02; p = 0.031). In conclusion, low and high RDIs for irinotecan and 5-FU bolus, respectively, resulted in poor FOLFIRINOX efficacy.
Project description:Although small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is initially sensitive to chemotherapy, it recurs in most cases. Standard regimens for salvage chemotherapy have not been established, and the prognosis of relapsed SCLC remains poor. In the present study, we investigated the clinical efficacy and safety of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) regimens for the treatment of relapsed SCLC.In this retrospective multicenter analysis, 14 patients (3 women and 11 men; median age 71 years) with relapsed SCLC received nab-paclitaxel alone or in combination with carboplatin between February 2013 and July 2014. The safety and efficacy of the regimens were evaluated.The response rates, disease control rates, and median overall survival for the total patient population were 36%, 64%, and 7.8 months, respectively. Response rates, disease control rates, and the median overall survival were 11%, 44%, and 4 months, respectively, in the monotherapy group; and 80%, 100%, and 10.6 months, respectively, in the combination therapy group. The most common adverse events were hematological toxicities such as neutropenia and anemia. Severe neutropenia appeared in some patients, although it was resolved by treatment in all. The most common nonhematological toxicity was anorexia (64%), followed by neurotoxicity and constipation. All nonhematological toxicities were mild and manageable.Our results suggest that chemotherapy with nab-paclitaxel regimens for relapsed SCLC exhibits moderate clinical efficacy and is well-tolerated. Further clinical trials in relapsed SCLC patients are warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Alteration of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is a common genomic abnormality detected in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Everolimus acts synergistically with eribulin in TNBC cell lines and xenograft models. This phase I trial was designed to test the safety and tolerability of combining eribulin and everolimus in patients with metastatic TNBC. METHODS:The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and toxicities of the combination. Patients with metastatic TNBC who had up to four lines of prior chemotherapies were enrolled. The combination of eribulin and everolimus was tested using three dosing levels: A1 (everolimus 5?mg daily; eribulin 1.4?mg/m2?days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks), A2 (everolimus 7.5?mg daily; eribulin 1.4?mg/m2, days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks), and B1 (everolimus 5?mg daily; eribulin 1.1?mg/m2?days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks). RESULTS:Twenty-seven patients with median age 55?years were enrolled. Among 8 evaluable patients who received dose level A1, 4 had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). Among 3 evaluable patients treated with dose level A2, 2 had DLTs. Among 12 evaluable patients who received dose level B1, 4 had DLTs. The DLTs were neutropenia, stomatitis, and hyperglycemia. Over the study period, 59% had a ??grade 3 toxicity, 44% had ??grade 3 hematologic toxicities, and 22% had grade 4 hematologic toxicities. The most common hematological toxicities were neutropenia, leukopenia, and lymphopenia. Thirty-three percent had grade 3 non-hematologic toxicities. The most common non-hematological toxicities were stomatitis, hyperglycemia, and fatigue. The median number of cycles completed was 4 (range 0-8). Among 25 eligible patients, 9 patients (36%) achieved the best response as partial response, 9 (36%) had stable disease, and 7 (28%) had progression. The median time to progression was 2.6?months (95% CI [2.1, 4.0]), and median overall survival (OS) was 8.3?months (95% CI [5.5, undefined]). CONCLUSION:Eribulin 1.1?mg/m2?days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks with everolimus 5?mg daily was defined as the highest dose with acceptable toxicity (RP2D). The combination is safe, and efficacy is modest. A post hoc analysis showed that participants that used dexamethasone mouthwash stayed on treatment for one additional cycle. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02120469. Registered 18 April 2014.
Project description:PURPOSE:Concomitant treatment with radium-223 and paclitaxel is a potential option for cancer patients with bone metastases; however, myelosuppression risk during coadministration is unknown. This phase Ib study in cancer patients with bone metastases evaluated the safety of radium-223 and paclitaxel. METHODS:Eligible patients had solid tumor malignancies with ?2 bone metastases and were candidates for paclitaxel. Treatment included seven paclitaxel cycles (90 mg/m2 per week intravenously per local standard of care; 3 weeks on/1 week off) plus six radium-223 cycles (55 kBq/kg intravenously; one injection every 4 weeks, starting at paclitaxel cycle 2). The primary end point was percentage of patients with grade 3/4 neutropenia or thrombocytopenia during coadministration of radium-223 and paclitaxel (cycles 2, 3) versus paclitaxel alone (cycle 1). RESULTS:Of 22 enrolled patients, 15 were treated (safety population), with 7 completing all six radium-223 cycles. Treated patients had primary cancers of breast (n?=?7), prostate (n?=?4), bladder (n?=?1), non-small cell lung (n?=?1), myxofibrosarcoma (n?=?1), and neuroendocrine (n?=?1). No patients discontinued treatment from toxicity of the combination. In the 13 patients who completed cycle 3, the rates of grade 3 neutropenia in cycles 2 and 3 were 31% and 8%, respectively, versus 23% in cycle 1; there were no cases of grade 4 neutropenia or grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia. Breast cancer subgroup safety results were similar to the overall safety population. CONCLUSION:Radium-223 was tolerated when combined with weekly paclitaxel, with no clinically relevant additive toxicities. This combination should be explored further in patients with bone metastases.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Objectives were used to describe guardian proxy-report and child self-report quality of life (QoL) during chemotherapy for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. METHODS:Patients enrolled on the phase 3 AML trial AAML1031 who were 2-18 years of age with English-speaking guardians were eligible. Instruments used were the PedsQL Generic Core Scales, Acute Cancer Module, and Multidimensional Fatigue Scale. Assessments were obtained at the beginning of Induction 1 and following completion of cycles 2-4. Potential predictors of QoL included the total number of nonhematological grade 3-4 Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event (CTCAE) submissions. RESULTS:There were 505 eligible guardians who consented to participate and 348 of their children provided at least one self-report assessment. The number of submitted CTCAE toxicities was significantly associated with worse physical health summary scores (? ± standard error (SE) -3.00 ± 0.69; P < 0.001) and general fatigue (? ± SE -2.50 ± 0.66; P < 0.001). Older age was significantly associated with more fatigue (? ± SE -0.58 ± 0.25; P = 0.022). Gender, white race, Hispanic ethnicity, private insurance status, risk status, bortezomib assignment, and duration of neutropenia were not significantly associated with QoL. DISCUSSION:The number of CTCAE toxicities was the primary factor influencing QoL among children with AML. Reducing toxicities should improve QoL; identifying approaches to ameliorate them should be a priority.