Bicomponent polymeric micelles for pH-controlled delivery of doxorubicin.
ABSTRACT: Stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems (DDSs) are expected to realize site-specific drug release and kill cancer cells selectively. In this study, a pH-responsive micelle was designed utilizing the pH-sensitivity of borate bonds formed between dopamine and boronic acid. First, methyl (polyethylene glycol)-block-polycaprolactone (mPEG-PCL) was conjugated with 4-cyano-4-(thiobenzoylthio)pentanoic acid (CTP) to obtain a macroinitiator. Two different segments poly(dopamine methacrylamide) (PDMA) and poly(vinylphenylboronic acid) (PVBA) were then grafted to the end of mPEG-PCL. Two triblock copolymers, mPEG-PCL-PDMA and mPEG-PCL-PVBA, were then obtained by reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization. These copolymers and their mixture self-assembled in aqueous solution to form micelles that were able to load hydrophobic anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). These two-component micelles were found to be pH-sensitive, in contrast to the one-component micelles. Furthermore, MTT studies showed that the micelles were almost nontoxic. The DOX-loaded micelles showed cytotoxicity equivalent to that of DOX at high concentration. In vivo antitumor experiments showed that this pH-sensitive polymeric micellar system had an enhanced therapeutic effect on tumors. These two-component boronate-based pH micelles are universally applicable to the delivery of anticancer drugs, showing great potential for cancer therapy.
Project description:The side effects of doxorubicin (DOX) extremely limit its application in the treatment of malignant tumors. Nano-sized polymeric drugs based on the acidic microenvironment of tissular- or intra- tumor have attracted ample attention because of their potential in reducing side effects. In this research, an amphiphilic diblock copolymer based on poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and functionalized polycaprolactone (PCL) was synthesized and utilized as the drug carrier. DOX was chemically conjugated with the polymer via acid-cleavable imine bonds to obtain a novel pH-sensitive DOX prodrug (mPEG-PCL-Imi-DOX). mPEG-PCL-Imi-DOX (24.2 wt % DOX content) formed micelles with an average diameter of 125 nm through a simple solvent evaporation method. The in vitro release profile demonstrated that DOX release of the prodrug micelles was pH-responsive and able to be accelerated with the decrease of pH. In vitro cytotoxicity assay tests revealed that the pH-sensitive DOX prodrug micelles exhibited relatively lower toxicity and similar antitumor efficacy towards MCF-7 cells compared with free DOX. Hence, the DOX prodrug micelles with imine bonds can offer a carrier with great potential for chemo-therapeutics.
Project description:Amphiphilic poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly[2-(α-d-mannopyranosyloxy) ethyl acrylamide] (PCL-b-PManEA) block copolymers were synthesized via a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP), reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and reactive ester-amine reaction. The PCL-b-PManEA block copolymers can self-assemble into micelles and encapsulate anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). To enhance mucoadhesive property of the resulting DOX-loaded PCL-b-PManEA micelles, Concanavalin A (ConA) lectin was further conjugated with the micelles. Turbidimetric assay using mucin shows that the DOX-loaded PCL-b-PManEA@ConA micelles are mucoadhesive. DOX release from the DOX-loaded PCL-b-PManEA@ConA micelles in artificial urine at 37 °C exhibits an initial burst release, followed by a sustained and slow release over three days. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) images indicate that the DOX-loaded PCL-b-PManEA@ConA micelles can be effectively internalized by UMUC3 human urothelial carcinoma cells. The DOX-loaded PCL-b-PManEA@ConA micelles exhibit significant cytotoxicity to these cells.
Project description:The differences in micro-environment between cancer cells and the normal ones offer the possibility to develop stimuli-responsive drug-delivery systems for overcoming the drawbacks in the clinical use of anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel, doxorubicin, and etc. Hence, we developed a novel endosomal pH-sensitive paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug micelles based on functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) diblock polymer with an acid-cleavable acetal (Ace) linkage (mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX). The mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX₅ with a high drug content of 23.5 wt % was self-assembled in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, 10 mM) into nanosized micelles with an average diameter of 68.5 nm. The in vitro release studies demonstrated that mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX₅ micelles was highly pH-sensitive, in which 16.8%, 32.8%, and 48.2% of parent free PTX was released from mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX₅ micelles in 48 h at pH 7.4, 6.0, and 5.0, respectively. Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assays suggested that the pH-sensitive PTX prodrug micelles displayed higher therapeutic efficacy against MCF-7 cells compared with free PTX. Therefore, the PTX prodrug micelles with acetal bond may offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy.
Project description:Acne is the over growth of the commensal bacteria Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) on human skin. Lauric acid (LA) has been investigated as an effective candidate to suppress the activity of P. acnes. Although LA is nearly insoluble in water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been reported to effectively solubilize LA. However, the toxicity of DMSO can limit the use of LA on the skin. In this study, LA-loaded poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) micelles (PCL-PEG-PCL) were developed to improve the bactericidal effect of free LA on P. acnes. The block copolymers mPEG-PCL and PCL-PEG-PCL with different molecular weights were synthesized and characterized using ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (¹H NMR), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In the presence of LA, mPEG-PCL diblock copolymers did not self-assemble into nano-sized micelles. On the contrary, the average particle sizes of the PCL-PEG-PCL micelles ranged from 50⁻198 nm for blank micelles and 27⁻89 nm for LA-loaded micelles. The drug loading content increased as the molecular weight of PCL-PEG-PCL polymer increased. Additionally, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of free LA were 20 and 80 μg/mL, respectively. The MICs and MBCs of the micelles decreased to 10 and 40 μg/mL, respectively. This study demonstrated that the LA-loaded micelles are a potential treatment for acne.
Project description:Stimuli-responsive polymeric micelles (PMs) have shown great potential in drug delivery and controlled release in cancer chemotherapy. Herein, inspired by the features of the tumor microenvironment, we developed dual pH/redox-responsive mixed PMs which are self-assembled from two kinds of amphiphilic diblock copolymers (poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-b-poly(?-amino esters) (mPEG-b-PAE) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-grafted disulfide-poly(?-amino esters) (PAE-ss-mPEG)) for anticancer drug delivery and controlled release. The co-micellization of two copolymers is evaluated by measurement of critical micelle concentration (CMC) values at different ratios of the two copolymers. The pH/redox-responsiveness of PMs is thoroughly investigated by measurement of base dissociation constant (p<i>K</i><sub>b</sub>) value, particle size, and zeta-potential in different conditions. The PMs can encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) efficiently, with high drug-loading efficacy. The DOX was released due to the swelling and disassembly of nanoparticles triggered by low pH and high glutathione (GSH) concentrations in tumor cells. The in vitro results demonstrated that drug release rate and cumulative release are obviously dependent on pH values and reducing agents. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity test showed that the mixed PMs have negligible toxicity, whereas the DOX-loaded mixed PMs exhibit high cytotoxicity for HepG2 cells. Therefore, the results demonstrate that the dual pH/redox-responsive PMs self-assembled from PAE-based diblock copolymers could be potential anticancer drug delivery carriers with pH/redox-triggered drug release, and the fabrication of stimuli-responsive mixed PMs could be an efficient strategy for preparation of intelligent drug delivery platform for disease therapy.
Project description:In this work, micelles composed of doxorubicin-conjugated Y-shaped copolymers (YMs) linked via an acid-labile linker were constructed. Y-shaped copolymers of mPEG-b-poly(glutamate-hydrazone-doxorubicin)2 and linear copolymers of mPEG-b-poly(glutamate-hydrazone-doxorubicin) were synthesized and characterized. Particle size, size distribution, morphology, drug loading content (DLC) and drug release of the micelles were determined. Alterations in size and DLC of the micelles could be achieved by varying the hydrophobic block lengths. Moreover, at fixed DLCs, YMs showed a smaller diameter than micelles composed of linear copolymers (LMs). Also, all prepared micelles showed sustained release behaviors under physiological conditions over 72 h. DOX loaded in YMs was released more completely, with 30% more drug released in acid. The anti-tumor efficacy of the micelles against HeLa cells was evaluated by MTT assays, and YMs exhibited stronger cytotoxic effects than LMs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cellular uptake studied by CLSM indicated that YMs and LMs were readily taken up by HeLa cells. According to the results of this study, doxorubicin-conjugated Y-shaped PEG-(polypeptide)2 copolymers showed advantages over linear copolymers, like assembling into smaller nanoparticles, faster drug release in acid, which may correspond to higher cellular uptake and enhanced extracellular/intracellular drug release, indicating their potential in constructing nano-sized drug delivery systems.
Project description:Chemo-photothermal therapy shows great potential for inhibiting tumor growth. However, achieving maximal chemo-photothermal synergistic efficacy is challenging because of the low efficiency of controllable chemo-drug release in response to external or internal triggers. Thus, a nano-delivery system that could effectively achieve photothermal therapy and dual stimuli-responsive (heat and pH) drug release to inhibit both primary breast tumor growth and metastases is required. Methods: Herein, a thermo- and pH-responsive polymer (mPEG-PAAV) with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) was synthesized to fabricate a DOX- and IR780-loaded micellar system. After systematic studies of the photothermal performance and controllable drug release of mPEG-PAAV micelles/IR780+DOX under NIR irradiation at different pH values, their chemo-photothermal synergetic therapy efficacies were also estimated both in in vitro and in vivo. Results: Because of the photothermal conversion of mPEG-PAAV micelle/IR780+DOX (~200 nm, 3.82 mV), high local temperature could be induced at the tumor site under NIR laser irradiation. This hyperthermia not only produced an enhanced tumor necrosis, but also broke down the micelles under the decreased pH environment, resulting in rapid DOX release and enhanced intracellular drug accumulation after NIR laser irradiation. In addition, photoacoustic imaging (PAI) of mPEG-PAAV/IR780+DOX micelle was adopted to monitor the morphology and micro-vascular distribution of the tumor tissue, which could also guide the chemo-photothermal therapy. Most importantly, the systemic administration of mPEG-PAAV micelles/IR780+DOX combined with NIR laser irradiation could simultaneously eliminate the 4T1 breast tumor and thoroughly suppress lung metastasis without any obvious adverse effects. Conclusion: Herein, a pH- and thermo-dual responsive UCST micelle system was developed for delivering IR780 and DOX, which could achieve NIR laser-controlled drug release and PA imaging guidance for chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy of both primary breast tumors and their metastases.
Project description:Amphiphilic A2(BC)2 miktoarm star polymers [poly(?-caprolactone)]2-[poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-b- poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)]2 [(PCL)2(PDEA-b-PPEGMA)2] were developed by a combination of ring opening polymerization (ROP) and continuous activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) values were extremely low (0.0024 to 0.0043 mg/mL), depending on the architecture of the polymers. The self-assembled empty and doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles were spherical in morphologies, and the average sizes were about 63 and 110 nm. The release of DOX at pH 5.0 was much faster than that at pH 6.5 and pH 7.4. Moreover, DOX-loaded micelles could effectively inhibit the growth of cancer cells HepG2 with IC50 of 2.0 ?g/mL. Intracellular uptake demonstrated that DOX was delivered into the cells effectively after the cells were incubated with DOX-loaded micelles. Therefore, the pH-sensitive (PCL)2(PDEA-b-PPEGMA)2 micelles could be a prospective candidate as anticancer drug carrier for hydrophobic drugs with sustained release behavior.
Project description:Owing to their unique topology and physical properties, micelles based on miktoarm amphiphilic star block copolymers play an important role in the biomedical field for drug delivery. Herein, we developed a series of AB2-type poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(N-acryloyl morpholine) (PLGA-b-PNAM2) miktoarm star block copolymers by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization and ring-opening copolymerization. The resulting miktoarm star polymers were investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. The critical micellar concentration value of the micelles increases with an increase in PNAM block length. As revealed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, the amphiphilic miktoarm star block copolymers can self-assemble to form spherical micellar aggregates in water. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was encapsulated by polymeric micelles; the drug-loading efficiency and drug-loading content of the DOX-loaded micelles were 81.7% and 9.1%, respectively. Acidic environments triggered the dissociation of the polymeric micelles, which led to the more release of DOX in pH 6.4 than pH 7.4. The amphiphilic PLGA-b-PNAM2 miktoarm star block copolymers may have broad application as nanocarriers for controlled drug delivery.
Project description:Polymeric prodrug micelles for delivery of acyclovir (ACV) were synthesized. First, ACV was used directly to initiate ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone to form ACV-polycaprolactone (ACV-PCL). Through conjugation of hydrophobic ACV-PCL with hydrophilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) or chitosan, polymeric micelles for drug delivery were formed. (1)H NMR, FTIR, and gel permeation chromatography were employed to show successful conjugation of MPEG or chitosan to hydrophobic ACV-PCL. Through dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and critical micelle concentration (CMC), the synthesized ACV-tagged polymeric micelles were characterized. It was found that the average size of the polymeric micelles was under 200nm and the CMCs of ACV-PCL-MPEG and ACV-PCL-chitosan were 2.0mgL(-1) and 6.6mgL(-1), respectively. The drug release kinetics of ACV was investigated and cytotoxicity assay demonstrates that ACV-tagged polymeric micelles were non-toxic.