Pressurized carbon dioxide as a potential tool for decellularization of pulmonary arteries for transplant purposes.
ABSTRACT: Vascular bio-scaffolds produced from decellularized tissue offer a promising material for treatment of several types of cardiovascular diseases. These materials have the potential to maintain the functional properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and allow for growth and remodeling in vivo. The most commonly used methods for decellularization are based on chemicals and enzymes combinations, which often damage the ECM and cause cytotoxic effects in vivo. Mild methods involving pressurized CO2-ethanol (EtOH)-based fluids, in a supercritical or near supercritical state, have been studied for decellularization of cardiovascular tissue, but results are controversial. Moreover, data are lacking on the amount and type of lipids remaining in the tissue. Here we show that pressurized CO2-EtOH-H2O fluids (average molar composition, ?CO2 0.91) yielded close to complete removal of lipids from porcine pulmonary arteries, including a notably decrease of pro-inflammatory fatty acids. Pressurized CO2-limonene fluids (?CO2 0.88) and neat supercritical CO2 (scCO2) achieved the removal of 90% of triacylglycerides. Moreover, treatment of tissue with pressurized CO2-limonene followed by enzyme treatment, resulted in efficient DNA removal. The structure of elastic fibers was preserved after pressurized treatment, regardless solvent composition. In conclusion, pressurized CO2-ethanol fluids offer an efficient tool for delipidation in bio-scaffold production, while pressurized CO2-limonene fluids facilitate subsequent enzymatic removal of DNA.
Project description:One of the leading trends in the modern tissue engineering is the development of new effective methods of decellularization aimed at the removal of cellular components from a donor tissue, reducing its immunogenicity and the risk of rejection. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2)-assisted processing has been proposed to improve the outcome of decellularization, reduce contamination and time costs. The resulting products can serve as personalized tools for tissue-engineering therapy of various somatic pathologies. However, the decellularization of heterogeneous 3D structures, such as the aortic root, requires optimization of the parameters, including preconditioning medium composition, the type of co-solvent, values of pressure and temperature inside the scCO2 reactor, etc. In our work, using an ovine aortic root model, we performed a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of decellularization approaches based on various combinations of these parameters. The protocols were based on the combinations of treatments in alkaline, ethanol or detergent solutions with scCO2-assisted processing at different modes. Histological analysis demonstrated favorable effects of the preconditioning in a detergent solution. Following processing in scCO2 medium provided a high decellularization degree, reduced cytotoxicity, and increased ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus of the aortic valve leaflets, while the integrity of the extracellular matrix was preserved.
Project description:Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important developmental role by regulating cell behaviour through structural and biochemical stimulation. Tissue-specific ECM, attained through decellularization, has been proposed in several strategies for tissue and organ replacement. Decellularization of animal pancreata has been reported, but the same methods applied to human pancreas are less effective due to higher lipid content. Moreover, ECM-derived hydrogels can be obtained from many decellularized tissues, but methods have not been reported to obtain human pancreas-derived hydrogel. Using novel decellularization methods with human pancreas we produced an acellular, 3D biological scaffold (hP-ECM) and hydrogel (hP-HG) amenable to tissue culture, transplantation and proteomic applications. The inclusion of a homogenization step in the decellularization protocol significantly improved lipid removal and gelation capability of the resulting ECM, which was capable of gelation at 37?°C in vitro and in vivo, and is cytocompatible with a variety of cell types and islet-like tissues in vitro. Overall, this study demonstrates the characterisation of a novel protocol for the decellularization and delipidization of human pancreatic tissue for the production of acellular ECM and ECM hydrogel suitable for cell culture and transplantation applications. We also report a list of 120 proteins present within the human pancreatic matrisome.
Project description:The decellularization of long segments of tubular tissues such as blood vessels may be improved by perfusing decellularization solution into their lumen. Particularly, transmural flow that may be introduced by the perfusion, if any, is beneficial to removing immunogenic cellular components in the vessel wall. When human umbilical arteries (HUAs) were perfused at a transmural pressure, however, very little transmural flow was observed. We hypothesized that a watertight lining at the abluminal surface of HUAs hampered the transmural flow and tested the hypothesis by subjecting the abluminal surface to enzyme digestion. Specifically, a highly viscous collagenase solution was applied onto the surface, thereby restricting the digestion to the surface. The localized digestion resulted in a water-permeable vessel without damaging the vessel wall. The presence of the abluminal lining and its successful removal were also supported by evidence from SEM, TEM, and mechanical testing. The collagenase-treated HUAs were decellularized with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution under either rotary agitation, simple perfusion, or pressurized perfusion. Regardless of decellularization conditions, the decellularization of HUAs was significantly enhanced after the abluminal lining removal. Particularly, complete removal of DNA was accomplished in 24 h by pressurized perfusion of the SDS solution. We conclude that the removal of the abluminal lining can improve the perfusion-assisted decellularization.
Project description:Aim. To refine the decellularization protocol of whole porcine liver, which holds great promise for liver tissue engineering. Methods. Three decellularization methods for porcine livers (1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 1% Triton X-100 + 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, and 1% sodium deoxycholate + 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate) were studied. The obtained liver scaffolds were processed for histology, residual cellular content analysis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) components evaluation to investigate decellularization efficiency and ECM preservation. Rat primary hepatocytes were seeded into three kinds of scaffold to detect the biocompatibility. Results. The whole liver decellularization was successfully achieved following all three kinds of treatment. SDS combined with Triton had a high efficacy of cellular removal and caused minimal disruption of essential ECM components; it was also the most biocompatible procedure for primary hepatocytes. Conclusion. We have refined a novel, standardized, time-efficient, and reproducible protocol for the decellularization of whole liver which can be further adapted to liver tissue engineering.
Project description:Extracellular matrix (ECM) based bioscaffolds prepared by decellularization has increasingly emerged in tissue engineering application because it has structural, biochemical, and biomechanical cues that have dramatic effects upon cell behaviors. Therefore, we developed a closed sonication decellularization system to prepare ideal bioscaffolds with minimal adverse effects on the ECM. The decellularization was achieved at 170 kHz of ultrasound frequency in 0.1% and 2% Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) solution for 10 hours. The immersion treatment as control was performed to compare the decellularization efficiency with our system. Cell removal and ECM structure were determined by histological staining and biochemical assay. Biomechanical properties were investigated by the indentation testing to test the stiffness, a residual force and compression of bioscaffolds. Additionally, in vivo implantation was performed in rat to investigate host tissue response. Compared to native tissues, histological staining and biochemical assay confirm the absence of cellularity with preservation of ECM structure. Moreover, sonication treatment has not affected the stiffness [N/mm] and a residual force [N] of the aortic scaffolds except for compression [%] which 2% SDS significantly decreased compared to native tissues showing higher SDS has a detrimental effect on ECM structure. Finally, minimal inflammatory response was observed after 1 and 5 weeks of implantation. This study reported that the novelty of our developed closed sonication system to prepare ideal bioscaffolds for tissue engineering applications.
Project description:The creation of decellularized organs for use in regenerative medicine requires the preservation of the organ extracellular matrix (ECM) as a means to provide critical cues for differentiation and migration of cells that are seeded onto the organ scaffold. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of varying pH levels on the preservation of key ECM components during the decellularization of rat lungs. Herein, we show that the pH of the 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS)-based decellularization solution influences ECM retention, cell removal, and also the potential for host response upon implantation of acellular lung tissue. The preservation of ECM components, including elastin, fibronectin, and laminin, were better retained in the lower pH conditions that were tested (pH ranges tested: 8, 10, 12); glycosaminoglycans were preserved to a higher extent in the lower pH groups as well. The DNA content following decellularization of the rat lung was inversely correlated with the pH of the decellularization solution. Despite detectible levels of cyotoskeletal proteins and significant residual DNA, tissues decellularized at pH 8 demonstrated the greatest tissue architecture maintenance and the least induction of host response of all acellular conditions. These results highlight the effect of pH on the results obtained by organ decellularization and suggest that altering the pH of the solutions used for decellularization may influence the ability of cells to properly differentiate and home to appropriate locations within the scaffold, based on the preservation of key ECM components and implantation results.
Project description:A key challenge to the clinical implementation of decellularized scaffold-based tissue engineering lies in understanding the process of removing cells and immunogenic material from a donor tissue/organ while maintaining the biochemical and biophysical properties of the scaffold that will promote growth of newly seeded cells. Current criteria for evaluating whole organ decellularization are primarily based on nucleic acids, as they are easy to quantify and have been directly correlated to adverse host responses. However, numerous proteins cause immunogenic responses and thus should be measured directly to further understand and quantify the efficacy of decellularization. In addition, there has been increasing appreciation for the role of the various protein components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in directing cell growth and regulating organ function. We performed in-depth proteomic analysis on four types of biological scaffolds and identified a large number of both remnant cellular and ECM proteins. Measurements of individual protein abundances during the decellularization process revealed significant removal of numerous cellular proteins, but preservation of most structural matrix proteins. The observation that decellularized scaffolds still contain many cellular proteins, although at decreased abundance, indicates that elimination of DNA does not assure adequate removal of all cellular material. Thus, proteomic analysis provides crucial characterization of the decellularization process to create biological scaffolds for future tissue/organ replacement therapies.
Project description:Xenogeneic pericardium-based substitutes are employed for several surgical indications after chemical shielding, limiting their biocompatibility and therapeutic durability. Adverse responses to these replacements might be prevented by tissue decellularization, ideally removing cells and preserving the original extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of this study was to compare the mostly applied pericardia in clinics, i.e. bovine and porcine tissues, after their decellularization, and obtain new insights for their possible surgical use. Bovine and porcine pericardia were submitted to TRICOL decellularization, based on osmotic shock, detergents and nuclease treatment. TRICOL procedure resulted in being effective in cell removal and preservation of ECM architecture of both species' scaffolds. Collagen and elastin were retained but glycosaminoglycans were reduced, significantly for bovine scaffolds. Tissue hydration was varied by decellularization, with a rise for bovine pericardia and a decrease for porcine ones. TRICOL significantly increased porcine pericardial thickness, while a non-significant reduction was observed for the bovine counterpart. The protein secondary structure and thermal denaturation profile of both species' scaffolds were unaltered. Both pericardial tissues showed augmented biomechanical compliance after decellularization. The ECM bioactivity of bovine and porcine pericardia was unaffected by decellularization, sustaining viability and proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial cells. In conclusion, decellularized bovine and porcine pericardia demonstrate possessing the characteristics that are suitable for the creation of novel scaffolds for reconstruction or replacement: differences in water content, thickness and glycosaminoglycans might influence some of their biomechanical properties and, hence, their indication for surgical use.
Project description:The combination of bone grafting materials with guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes seems to provide promising results to restore bone defects in dental clinical practice. In the first part of this work, a novel protocol for decellularization and delipidation of bovine bone, based on multiple steps of thermal shock, washes with detergent and dehydration with alcohol, is described. This protocol is more effective in removal of cellular materials, and shows superior biocompatibility compared to other three methods tested in this study. Furthermore, histological and morphological analyses confirm the maintenance of an intact bone extracellular matrix (ECM). In vitro and in vivo experiments evidence osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties of the produced scaffold, respectively. In the second part of this study, two methods of bovine pericardium decellularization are compared. The osmotic shock-based protocol gives better results in terms of removal of cell components, biocompatibility, maintenance of native ECM structure, and host tissue reaction, in respect to the freeze/thaw method. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate the characterization of a novel protocol for the decellularization of bovine bone to be used as bone graft, and the acquisition of a method to produce a pericardium membrane suitable for GBR applications.
Project description:Currently, patients with end-stage lung disease are limited to lung transplantation as their only treatment option. Unfortunately, the lungs available for transplantation are few. Moreover, transplant recipients require life-long immune suppression to tolerate the transplanted lung. A promising alternative therapeutic strategy is decellularization of whole lungs, which permits the isolation of an intact scaffold comprised of innate extracellular matrix (ECM) that can theoretically be recellularized with autologous stem or progenitor cells to yield a functional lung. Nonhuman primates (NHP) provide a highly relevant preclinical model with which to assess the feasibility of recellularized lung scaffolds for human lung transplantation. Our laboratory has successfully accomplished lung decellularization and initial stem cell inoculation of the resulting ECM scaffold in an NHP model. Decellularization of normal adult rhesus macaque lungs as well as the biology of the resulting acellular matrix have been extensively characterized. Acellular NHP matrices retained the anatomical and ultrastructural properties of native lungs with minimal effect on the content, organization, and appearance of ECM components, including collagen types I and IV, laminin, fibronectin, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG), due to decellularization. Proteomics analysis showed enrichment of ECM proteins in total tissue extracts due to the removal of cells and cellular proteins by decellularization. Cellular DNA was effectively removed after decellularization (?92% reduction), and the remaining nuclear material was found to be highly disorganized, very-low-molecular-weight fragments. Both bone marrow- and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) attach to the decellularized lung matrix and can be maintained within this environment in vitro, suggesting that these cells may be promising candidates and useful tools for lung regeneration. Analysis of decellularized lung slice cultures to which MSC were seeded showed that the cells attached to the decellularized matrix, elongated, and proliferated in culture. Future investigations will focus on optimizing the recellularization of NHP lung scaffolds toward the goal of regenerating pulmonary tissue. Bringing this technology to eventual human clinical application will provide patients with an alternative therapeutic strategy as well as significantly reduce the demand for transplantable organs and patient wait-list time.