Genome-wide screening reveals a role for subcellular localization of CRBN in the anti-myeloma activity of pomalidomide.
ABSTRACT: Pomalidomide, a derivative of thalidomide, is an effective treatment for multiple myeloma. The drug exerts its effects through CRBN, a component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CRL4CRBN. To search for novel factors involved in the anti-cancer activity of pomalidomide, we performed a genome-wide shRNA library screen and identified 445 genes as those affecting pomalidomide sensitivity. Genes encoding components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, such as subunits of the CRL4CRBN complex, the COP9 signalosome, and the 26S proteasome, were among the pomalidomide-affecting genes. Karyopherin beta 1 (KPNB1) was identified as a novel pomalidomide-affecting gene. KPNB1 was required for the nuclear import of CRBN and for the CRBN-directed, pomalidomide-dependent degradation of a clinically relevant substrate, the transcription factor Aiolos. By contrast, the cytoplasmic translation factor GSPT1 was degraded following treatment with the thalidomide derivative CC-885 only when CRBN was present in the cytoplasm, indicating that subcellular distribution of CRBN is critical for the efficacy of thalidomide-based medications.
Project description:Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays an essential role in metabolism by catalyzing the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. Our recent study showed that CRBN, a direct protein target for the teratogenic and antitumor activities of immunomodulatory drugs such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide, recognizes an acetyl degron of GS, resulting in ubiquitylation and degradation of GS in response to glutamine. Here, we report that valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 promotes the degradation of ubiquitylated GS, resulting in its accumulation in cells with compromised p97 function. Notably, p97 is also required for the degradation of all four known CRBN neo-substrates [Ikaros family zinc finger proteins 1 (IKZF1) and 3 (IKZF3), casein kinase 1? (CK1?), and the translation termination factor GSPT1] whose ubiquitylation is induced by immunomodulatory drugs. Together, these data point to an unexpectedly intimate relationship between the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4CRBN and p97 pathways.
Project description:Thalidomide and its derivatives, lenalidomide and pomalidomide, are clinically effective treatments for multiple myeloma and myelodysplastic syndrome with del(5q). These molecules lack activity in murine models, limiting investigation of their therapeutic activity or toxicity in vivo. Here, we report the development of a mouse model that is sensitive to thalidomide derivatives because of a single amino acid change in the direct target of thalidomide derivatives, cereblon (Crbn). In human cells, thalidomide and its analogs bind CRBN and recruit protein targets to the CRL4CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase, resulting in their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. We show that mice with a single I391V amino acid change in Crbn exhibit thalidomide-induced degradation of drug targets previously identified in human cells, including Ikaros (Ikzf1), Aiolos (Ikzf3), Zfp91, and casein kinase 1a1 (Ck1?), both in vitro and in vivo. We use the Crbn I391V model to demonstrate that the in vivo therapeutic activity of lenalidomide in del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome can be explained by heterozygous expression of Ck1? in del(5q) cells. We found that lenalidomide acts on hematopoietic stem cells with heterozygous expression of Ck1? and inactivation of Trp53 causes lenalidomide resistance. We further demonstrate that Crbn I391V is sufficient to confer thalidomide-induced fetal loss in mice, capturing a major toxicity of this class of drugs. Further study of the Crbn I391V model will provide valuable insights into the in vivo efficacy and toxicity of this class of drugs.
Project description:The small molecules thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide induce the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the transcription factors Ikaros (IKZF1) and Aiolos (IKZF3) by recruiting a Cys2-His2 (C2H2) zinc finger domain to Cereblon (CRBN), the substrate receptor of the CRL4CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase. We screened the human C2H2 zinc finger proteome for degradation in the presence of thalidomide analogs, identifying 11 zinc finger degrons. Structural and functional characterization of the C2H2 zinc finger degrons demonstrates how diverse zinc finger domains bind the permissive drug-CRBN interface. Computational zinc finger docking and biochemical analysis predict that more than 150 zinc fingers bind the drug-CRBN complex in vitro, and we show that selective zinc finger degradation can be achieved through compound modifications. Our results provide a rationale for therapeutically targeting transcription factors that were previously considered undruggable.
Project description:Exposure to thalidomide during a critical window of development results in limb defects in humans and non-human primates while mice and rats are refractory to these effects. Thalidomide-induced teratogenicity is dependent on its binding to cereblon (CRBN), the substrate receptor of the Cul4A-DDB1-CRBN-RBX1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Thalidomide binding to CRBN elicits subsequent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of CRBN neosubstrates including SALL4, a transcription factor of which polymorphisms phenocopy thalidomide-induced limb defects in humans. Herein, thalidomide-induced degradation of SALL4 was examined in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that were differentiated either to lateral plate mesoderm (LPM)-like cells, the developmental ontology of the limb bud, or definitive endoderm. Thalidomide and its immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) analogs, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide, dose-dependently inhibited hiPSC mesendoderm differentiation. Thalidomide- and IMiD-induced SALL4 degradation can be abrogated by CRBN V388I mutation or SALL4 G416A mutation in hiPSCs. Genetically modified hiPSCs expressing CRBN E377V/V388I mutant or SALL4 G416A mutant were insensitive to the inhibitory effects of thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide on LPM differentiation while retaining sensitivity to another known limb teratogen, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA). Finally, disruption of LPM differentiation by atRA or thalidomide perturbed subsequent chondrogenic differentiation in vitro. The data here show that thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide affect stem cell mesendoderm differentiation through CRBN-mediated degradation of SALL4 and highlight the utility of the LPM differentiation model for studying the teratogenicity of new CRBN modulating agents.
Project description:In the 1950s, the drug thalidomide, administered as a sedative to pregnant women, led to the birth of thousands of children with multiple defects. Despite the teratogenicity of thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide, these immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) recently emerged as effective treatments for multiple myeloma and 5q-deletion-associated dysplasia. IMiDs target the E3 ubiquitin ligase CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (known as CRL4(CRBN)) and promote the ubiquitination of the IKAROS family transcription factors IKZF1 and IKZF3 by CRL4(CRBN). Here we present crystal structures of the DDB1-CRBN complex bound to thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide. The structure establishes that CRBN is a substrate receptor within CRL4(CRBN) and enantioselectively binds IMiDs. Using an unbiased screen, we identified the homeobox transcription factor MEIS2 as an endogenous substrate of CRL4(CRBN). Our studies suggest that IMiDs block endogenous substrates (MEIS2) from binding to CRL4(CRBN) while the ligase complex is recruiting IKZF1 or IKZF3 for degradation. This dual activity implies that small molecules can modulate an E3 ubiquitin ligase and thereby upregulate or downregulate the ubiquitination of proteins.
Project description:Thalidomide and the immunomodulatory drug, lenalidomide, are therapeutically active in hematological malignancies. The ubiquitously expressed E3 ligase protein cereblon (CRBN) has been identified as the primary teratogenic target of thalidomide. Our studies demonstrate that thalidomide, lenalidomide and another immunomodulatory drug, pomalidomide, bound endogenous CRBN and recombinant CRBN-DNA damage binding protein-1 (DDB1) complexes. CRBN mediated antiproliferative activities of lenalidomide and pomalidomide in myeloma cells, as well as lenalidomide- and pomalidomide-induced cytokine production in T cells. Lenalidomide and pomalidomide inhibited autoubiquitination of CRBN in HEK293T cells expressing thalidomide-binding competent wild-type CRBN, but not thalidomide-binding defective CRBN(YW/AA). Overexpression of CRBN wild-type protein, but not CRBN(YW/AA) mutant protein, in KMS12 myeloma cells, amplified pomalidomide-mediated reductions in c-myc and IRF4 expression and increases in p21(WAF-1) expression. Long-term selection for lenalidomide resistance in H929 myeloma cell lines was accompanied by a reduction in CRBN, while in DF15R myeloma cells resistant to both pomalidomide and lenalidomide, CRBN protein was undetectable. Our biophysical, biochemical and gene silencing studies show that CRBN is a proximate, therapeutically important molecular target of lenalidomide and pomalidomide.
Project description:Thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide (IMiDs) are effective treatments of haematologic malignancies. It was shown that IMiDs impart gain-of-function properties to the CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (CRL4CRBN) ubiquitin ligase that enable binding, ubiquitination and degradation of key therapeutic targets such as IKZF1, IKZF3 and CSNK1A1. While these substrates have been implicated as efficacy targets in multiple myeloma (MM) and 5q deletion associated myelodysplastic syndrome (del(5q)-MDS), other targets likely exist. Using a pulse-chase SILAC mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach, we demonstrate that lenalidomide induces the ubiquitination and degradation of ZFP91. We establish ZFP91 as a bona fide IMiD-dependent CRL4CRBN substrate and further show that ZFP91 harbours a zinc finger (ZnF) motif, related to the IKZF1/3 ZnF, critical for IMiD-dependent CRBN binding. These findings demonstrate that single time point pulse-chase SILAC mass spectrometry-based proteomics (pSILAC MS) is a sensitive approach for target identification of small molecules inducing selective protein degradation.
Project description:Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) including lenalidomide and pomalidomide bind cereblon (CRBN) and activate the CRL4CRBN ubiquitin ligase to trigger proteasomal degradation of the essential transcription factors IKZF1 and IKZF3 and multiple myeloma (MM) cytotoxicity. We have shown that CRBN is also targeted for degradation by SCFFbxo7 ubiquitin ligase. In the current study, we explored the mechanisms underlying sensitivity of MM cells to IMiDs using genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening. We validate that CSN9 signalosome complex, a deactivator of Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase, inhibits SCFFbxo7 E3 ligase-mediated CRBN degradation, thereby conferring sensitivity to IMiDs; conversely, loss of function of CSN9 signalosome activates SCFFbxo7 complex, thereby enhancing degradation of CRBN and conferring IMiD resistance. Finally, we show that pretreatment with either proteasome inhibitors or NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitors can abrogate degradation and maintain levels of CRBN, thereby enhancing sensitivity to IMiDs. These studies therefore demonstrate that CSN9 signalosome complex regulates sensitivity to IMiDs by modulating CRBN expression.
Project description:In the 1950s the drug thalidomide administered as a sedative to pregnant women led ot the birth of thousands of children with multiple defects. Despite its teratogenicity, thalidomide and ist IMiD derivatives recently emerged as effective treatments for multiple myeloma and 5q-dysplasia. IMiDs target the CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (CRL4(CRBN)) ubiquitin ligase. Through an unbiased screen we identify the homeobox trranscription factor MEIS2 as an endogenous substrate of CRL4(CRBN). By definition, a specific target of CRL4(CRBN) is expected to have a very low intensity on negative control arrays (E1_E2), (E1_CRBN), (E1_E2_Cdt2), (E1_E2_Cdt2_revlimid), (E1_E2_Cdt2_CSN) or with CRL4(CRBN) in presence of inhibitor (E1_E2_CRBN_revlimid) and high intensity on arrays with CRL4(CRBN) (E1_E2_CRBN) or CRL4(CRBN) in presence of CSN (E1_E2_CRBN_CSN) Accordingly 16 protein microarrays were subjected to in vitro ubiquitylation using the following enzyme combinations: 3x Uba1+UbcH5a; 2x Uba1+UbcH5a+CRL4(DDB2); 3x Uba1+UbcH5a+CRL4(CRBN); 2x Uba1+UbcH5a+CRL4(CRBN)+lenalidomide; 2x Uba1+UbcH5a+CRL4(CRBN)+CSN; 2x Uba1+UbcH5a+CRL4(Cdt2); 1x Uba1+UbcH5a+CRL4(Cdt2)+CSN; 1x Uba1+UbcH5a+CRL4(Cdt2)+lenalidomide
2014-05-13 | E-GEOD-57554 | BioStudies
Project description:Thalidomide causes teratogenic effects by inducing protein degradation via cereblon (CRBN)-containing ubiquitin ligase and modification of its substrate specificity. Human P450 cytochromes convert thalidomide into two monohydroxylated metabolites that are considered to contribute to thalidomide effects, through mechanisms that remain unclear. Here, we report that promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (PLZF)/ZBTB16 is a CRBN target protein whose degradation is involved in thalidomide- and 5-hydroxythalidomide-induced teratogenicity. Using a human transcription-factor protein array produced in a wheat cell-free protein synthesis system, PLZF was identified as a thalidomide-dependent CRBN substrate. PLZF is degraded by the ubiquitin ligase CRL4CRBN in complex with thalidomide, its derivatives, or 5-hydroxythalidomide in a manner dependent on the conserved first and third zinc finger domains of PLZF. Surprisingly, thalidomide and 5-hydroxythalidomide confer distinctly different substrate specificities to mouse and chicken CRBN, and both compounds cause teratogenic phenotypes in chicken embryos. Consistently, knockdown of Plzf induces short bone formation in chicken limbs. Most importantly, degradation of PLZF protein, but not of the known thalidomide-dependent CRBN substrate SALL4, was induced by thalidomide or 5-hydroxythalidomide treatment in chicken embryos. Furthermore, PLZF overexpression partially rescued the thalidomide-induced phenotypes. Our findings implicate PLZF as an important thalidomide-induced CRBN neo-substrate involved in thalidomide teratogenicity.