Novel CB1 receptor antagonist BAR-1 modifies pancreatic islet function and clinical parameters in prediabetic and diabetic mice.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUDS:Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have been suggested as a novel treatment for obesity and diabetes. We have developed a synthetic cannabinoid receptor antagonist denominated BAR-1. As the function and integrity of a ?-cell cellular structure are important keys for diabetes onset, we evaluated the effects of pharmacological administration of BAR-1 on prediabetic and diabetic rodents. METHODS:CD-1 mice fed a hypercaloric diet or treated with streptozotocin were treated with 10?mg/kg BAR-1 for 2, 4 or 8 weeks. Body weight, oral glucose tolerance test, HbA1c, triglycerides and insulin in serum were measured. In isolated islets, we evaluated stimulated secretion and mRNA expression, and relative area of islets in fixed pancreases. Docking analysis of BAR-1 was complemented. RESULTS:BAR-1 treatment slowed down weight gain in prediabetic mice. Fasting glucose-insulin relation also decreased in BAR-1-treated mice and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in isolated islets, without effects in oral test. Diabetic mice treated with BAR-1 showed a reduced glucose and a partial recovery of islet integrity. Gene expression of insulin and glucagon showed biphasic behaviour, increasing after 4 weeks of BAR-1 administration; however, after 8 weeks, mRNA abundance decreased significantly. Administration of BAR-1 also prevents changes in endocannabinoid element expression observed in prediabetic mice. No changes were detected in other parameters studied, including the histological structure. A preliminary in-silico study suggests a close interaction with CB1 receptor. CONCLUSIONS:BAR-1 induces improvement of islet function, isolated from both prediabetic and diabetic mice. Effects of BAR-1 suggest a possible interaction with other cannabinoid receptors.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 induces glucose-dependent insulin secretion and, in rodents, increases proliferation and survival of pancreatic beta cells. To investigate the effects on human beta cells, we used immunodeficient mice transplanted with human islets. The goal was to determine whether lixisenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, improves human islet function and survival in vivo. METHODS: Five independent transplant studies were conducted with human islets from five individual donors. Diabetic human islet-engrafted immunodeficient mice were treated with lixisenatide (50, 150, and 500 µg/kg) or vehicle. Islet function was determined by blood glucose, plasma human insulin/C-peptide, and glucose tolerance tests. Grafts were analyzed for total beta- and alpha-cell number, percent proliferation, and levels of apoptosis. RESULTS: Diabetic mice transplanted with marginal human islet mass and treated with lixisenatide were restored to euglycemia more rapidly than vehicle-treated mice. Glucose tolerance tests, human plasma insulin, and glucose-stimulation indices of lixisenatide-treated mice were significantly improved compared to vehicle-treated mice. The percentages of proliferating or apoptotic beta cells at graft recovery were not different between lixisenatide-treated and vehicle-treated mice. Nevertheless, in one experiment we found a significant twofold to threefold increase in human beta-cell numbers in lixisenatide-treated compared to vehicle-treated mice. CONCLUSION: Diabetic human islet-engrafted immunodeficient mice treated with lixisenatide show improved restoration of normoglycemia, human plasma insulin, and glucose tolerance compared to vehicle-treated mice engrafted with the same donor islets. Because the proliferative capacity of human beta cells is limited, improved beta-cell survival coupled with enhanced beta-cell function following lixisenatide treatment may provide the greatest benefit for diabetic patients with reduced functional islet mass.
Project description:Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are implicated in diabetic complications. However, their role in beta-cell dysfunction is less clear. In this study we examined the effects of AGEs on islet function in mice and in isolated islets. AGE-BSA or BSA was administered ip to normal mice twice a day for 2 wk. We showed that AGE-BSA-treated mice exhibited significantly higher glucose levels and lower insulin levels in response to glucose challenge than did BSA-treated mice, although there were no significant differences in insulin sensitivity and islet morphology between two groups. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by islets of the AGE-BSA-treated mice or AGE-BSA-treated normal islets was significantly lower than that by islets isolated from the BSA-treated mice or BSA-treated normal islets. Furthermore, AGE treatment of islet beta-cells inhibited ATP production, and glimepiride, a sulfonylurea derivative, restored glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Further investigation indicated that AGEs inhibited cytochrome c oxidase activity by inducing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Blocking the formation of nitric oxide with an iNOS selective inhibitor aminoguanidine reversed the inhibitory effects of AGEs on ATP production and insulin secretion. We conclude that AGEs inhibit cytochrome c oxidase and ATP production, leading to the impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through iNOS-dependent nitric oxide production.
Project description:Islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes is limited by a shortage of donor islets and requirement for immunosuppression. We approached this problem by inducing in vivo islet neogenesis in non-obese diabetic (NOD) diabetic mice, a model of autoimmune diabetes. We demonstrate that gene therapy with helper-dependent adenovirus carrying neurogenin3 (Ngn3), an islet lineage-defining transcription factor, and betacellulin (Btc), an islet growth factor, leads to the induction of periportal insulin-positive cell clusters in the liver, which are rapidly destroyed. To specifically accord protection to these 'neo-islets' from cytokine-mediated destruction, we overexpressed suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) gene, using a rat insulin promoter in combination with Ngn3 and Btc. With this approach, about half of diabetic mice attained euglycemia sustained for over 4 months, regain glucose tolerance and appropriate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Histological analysis revealed periportal islet hormone-expressing 'neo-islets' in treated mouse livers. Despite evidence of persistent 'insulitis' with activated T cells, these 'neo-islets' persist to maintain euglycemia. This therapy does not affect diabetogenicity of splenocytes, as they retain the ability to transfer diabetes. This study thus provides a proof-of-concept for engineering in vivo islet neogenesis with targeted resistance to cytokine-mediated destruction to provide a long-term reversal of diabetes in NOD mice.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine whether low dose doxycycline as an anti-inflammatory agent could improve glucose metabolism in diabetic animals. Therefore, doxycycline was supplemented in drinking water to 6-week-old male db/db mice for 10 weeks. Doxycycline reduced perirenal/epididymal fat, Lee's index, and liver cholesterol. Blood HDL-cholesterol increased, but total cholesterol and aspartate transaminase decreased. Glucose and insulin tolerances were improved, accompanying with reduced fasting blood glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and advanced glycation end products. Islet number, ?-cell percentage and mass increased, while islet size decreased. Consistently, less apoptosis but more ?-cell proliferation were found in islets of treated mice. Freshly isolated islets from treated mice showed higher insulin content and enhanced glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). In addition, purified islets of Balb/c mice showed increased GSIS after cultivation in vitro with doxycycline, but not with chloramphenicol and levofloxacin. Inflammation markers, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum as well as CD68-positive cells in treated islets, decreased significantly. Finally, LPS stimulated the production of inflammatory factors but inhibited GSIS of MIN6 cells; however, the effects were completely reversed by doxycycline. The results support further study of possible long-term usage of sub-antimicrobial doxycycline in diabetic patients.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes is preceded by islet ?-cell dysfunction, but the mechanisms leading to ?-cell dysfunction have not been rigorously studied. Because immune cell infiltration occurs prior to overt diabetes, we hypothesized that activation of inflammatory cascades and appearance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in ?-cells contributes to insulin secretory defects. Prediabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and control diabetes-resistant NOD-SCID and CD1 strains were studied for metabolic control and islet function and gene regulation. Prediabetic NOD mice were relatively glucose intolerant and had defective insulin secretion with elevated proinsulin:insulin ratios compared with control strains. Isolated islets from NOD mice displayed age-dependent increases in parameters of ER stress, morphologic alterations in ER structure by electron microscopy, and activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) target genes. Upon exposure to a mixture of proinflammatory cytokines that mimics the microenvironment of type 1 diabetes, MIN6 ?-cells displayed evidence for polyribosomal runoff, a finding consistent with the translational initiation blockade characteristic of ER stress. We conclude that ?-cells of prediabetic NOD mice display dysfunction and overt ER stress that may be driven by NF-?B signaling, and strategies that attenuate pathways leading to ER stress may preserve ?-cell function in type 1 diabetes.
Project description:S 21403 (mitiglinide) is a new drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Its action on insulin release and biosynthesis was investigated in several experimental systems utilizing pancreas from normal and T2DM animals. At high concentrations (10 microM), S 21403, like classical sulphonylurea, induced insulin release in the absence of glucose. In contrast, at therapeutic (0.1-1.0 microM) concentrations, S 21403 amplified insulin secretion glucose dose-dependently and with similar magnitude in normal and diabetic GK rat islets. In perfused GK rat pancreas, S 21403 induced normal kinetics of insulin secretion including first-phase response. The effect of S 21403 was strongly modulated by physiological factors. Thus, 0.1 microM adrenaline inhibited S 21403-induced insulin release. There was marked synergism between S 21403 and arginine in GK rat islets, combination of the two normalizing insulin secretion. In primary islet cultures from normal rats or prediabetic Psammomys obesus, prolonged exposure to S 21403 did not induce further depletion of insulin stores under normal or 'glucotoxic' conditions. Proinsulin biosynthesis was not affected by 2-h exposure of rat or prediabetic P. obesus islets to 1 microM S 21403. Yet, 24-h exposure of rat islets to S 21403 resulted in 30% increase in proinsulin biosynthesis at 8.3 mM glucose. Amplification by S 21403 of glucose-induced insulin secretion in diabetic GK beta-cells with restoration of first-phase response, a strong synergistic interaction with arginine and marked inhibition by adrenaline, make it a prime candidate for successful oral antidiabetic agent.
Project description:Therapeutic strategies for transplantation of pancreatic islet cells are urgently needed to expand beta-cell mass by stimulating islet cell proliferation and/or prolonging islet cell survival. Control of the islets by different growth factors provides a potential venue for augmenting beta-cell mass. In the present study, we show the expression of the biologically active splice variant-1 (SV-1) of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor in rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells as well as in rat and human pancreatic islets. In studies in vitro of INS-1 cells, the GHRH agonist JI-36 caused a significant increase in cell proliferation and a reduction of cell apoptosis. JI-36 increased islet size and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated rat islets after 48-72 h. At the ultrastructural level, INS-1 cells treated with agonist JI-36 revealed a metabolic active stimulation state with increased cytoplasm. Coincubation with the GHRH antagonist MIA-602 reversed the actions of the agonist JI-36, indicating the specificity of this agonist. In vivo, the function of pancreatic islets was assessed by transplantation of rat islets under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD-SCID) mice. Islets treated with GHRH agonist JI-36 were able to achieve normoglycemia earlier and more consistently than untreated islets. Furthermore, in contrast to diabetic animals transplanted with untreated islets, insulin response to an i.p. glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) in animals receiving islets treated with agonist Jl-36 was comparable to that of normal healthy mice. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that agonists of GHRH represent a promising pharmacological therapy aimed at promoting islet graft growth and proliferation in diabetic patients.
Project description:Regulatory T cells (Tregs) control organ-specific autoimmunity in a tissue antigen-specific manner, yet little is known about their specificity in a natural repertoire. In this study, we used the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of autoimmune diabetes to investigate the antigen specificity of Tregs present in the inflamed tissue, the islets of Langerhans. Compared with Tregs present in spleen and lymph node, Tregs in the islets showed evidence of antigen stimulation that correlated with higher proliferation and expression of activation markers CD103, ICOS, and TIGIT. T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire profiling demonstrated that islet Treg clonotypes are expanded in the islets, suggesting localized antigen-driven expansion in inflamed islets. To determine their specificity, we captured TCR?? pairs from islet Tregs using single-cell TCR sequencing and found direct evidence that some of these TCRs were specific for islet-derived antigens including insulin B:9-23 and proinsulin. Consistently, insulin B:9-23 tetramers readily detected insulin-specific Tregs in the islets of NOD mice. Lastly, islet Tregs from prediabetic NOD mice were effective at preventing diabetes in Treg-deficient NOD.CD28-/- recipients. These results provide a glimpse into the specificities of Tregs in a natural repertoire that are crucial for opposing the progression of autoimmune diabetes.
Project description:Subcutaneous pouch is a potential site for islet transplantation. However, insufficient oxygen supply remains challenging. Pretreatment of neovascularization using basic fibroblast growth factor can solve this, but it needs 2× operations. We developed a device that contains rat islets in chitosan gel packed in a bag made of highly biocompatible ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer porous membrane. This study investigated whether coencapsulation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) with islets in the device enables novel method of prevascularization-free primary subcutaneous transplantation. Methods:In vitro experiments examined slow release of HGF from the chitosan gel and islet-protection effect of HGF against hypoxia. In the latter, rat islets with/without HGF (200?ng/mL) was cultured in 1% oxygen. In in vivo experiment, fabricated device with/without HGF (10 ?g/device) containing rat islets was primarily transplanted to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice subcutaneously. Results:In vitro experiments showed sustained release of HGF for 28 d and alleviating effect of HGF on cell death and glucose-responsive insulin release after hypoxic culture. Islet + HGF mice, but not islet-alone mice, showed decreased nonfasting blood glucose and regained body weight after transplantation. In intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, islet + HGF mice exhibited decreased fasting blood glucose (200 ± 55?mg/dL) and good blood glucose disappearance rate (K value) (0.817 ± 0.101) comparing to normal mice (123 ± 28?mg/dL and 1.074 ± 0.374, respectively). However, in islet-alone mice, fasting blood glucose was high (365 ± 172?mg/dL) and K value was indeterminable. Serum insulin in islet + HGF mice (1.58 ± 0.94 ?g/L) was close to normal mice (1.66 ± 0.55 ?g/L), whereas those in islet-alone mice (0.279 ± 0.076 ?g/L) and diabetic mice (0.165 ± 0.079 ?g/L) were low. Immunohistochemical examination showed intact insulin- and glucagon-positive islets in retrieved devices with HGF, but no intact islet was found in the device without HGF. Conclusions:HGF could enhance islet survival in hypoxia and enhance in vivo function of encapsulated islets after primary subcutaneous transplantation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The capacity for insulin synthesis in islets is important for islet transplantation to succeed. We developed a microassay that evaluates the potency of human islets by measuring changes in glucose-induced human insulin gene (INS) expression using a single islet in octuplicate samples. METHODS:Poly (A) messenger RNA (mRNA) was purified from a set of single handpicked human islets. Glucose-induced mature (postspliced) and premature (prespliced) insulin mRNA were quantified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using several insulin mRNA primers designed at different locations including, intron, exon, and an exon-intron junction. RESULTS:The synthesis of premature INS mRNA was significantly increased in islets exposed to high glucose for 16 vs. 4 hr (P<0.01), whereas mature INS mRNA showed no difference. Glucose-induced premature INS mRNA synthesis was attenuated in heat-damaged islets. Stimulation index (SI) calculated by normalizing premature by mature INS mRNA (SI_INS mRNA) positively correlated with SI of insulin release (SI_16h insulin) from the same set of islets during 16-hr incubation in high or low glucose media, and SI of glucose-mediated insulin release obtained from the same islet lot in a perifusion system (n=12). Furthermore, linear multiple regression analysis using SI_INS mRNA and SI_16h insulin predicted islet transplantation outcome in nonobese diabetic (NOD) scid mice (n=8). CONCLUSION:The measurement of glucose-induced premature INS mRNA normalized by mature INS mRNA can be used to assess the functional quality of human islets and may predict islet function after transplantation in type 1 diabetic patients.