Neuroticism polygenic risk score predicts 20-year burden of depressive symptoms for Whites but not Blacks.
ABSTRACT: Background:Black-White differences are reported in social, psychological, behavioral, medical, and biological correlates of depression. This study was conducted to compare Black and White older adults for the association between neuroticism polygenic risk score (N-PRS) and chronicity of depressive symptoms over 20 years. Methods:Data came from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 1990 - 2012, a nationally representative sample of Americans above age 50. Current analysis followed 9,249 individuals (7,924 Whites and 1,325 Blacks) for up to 22 years. Depressive symptoms were measured every two years between 1992 and 2012 using the 8-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D-8). The independent variable was N-PRS. The dependent variable was average depressive symptoms between 1992 and 2012. Linear regression was used for data analysis. Results:In the pooled sample, higher N-PRS was associated with higher average depressive symptoms over the 20-year follow up period [b=0.01, 95%CI=0.00 to 0.04], net of all covariates. We also found an interaction between race and N-PRS [b=-0.02, 95%CI=-0.03 to 0.00], suggesting a stronger effect of N-PRS on 20-year average depressive symptoms for Whites than Blacks. Based on our race-specific linear regression models, higher N-PRS was associated with higher depressive symptoms from 1992 to 2012 for Whites [b=0.01, 95%CI=0.01 to 0.02] but not Blacks [b=0.00, 95%CI=-0.02 to 0.02]. Conclusion:Black and White older adults may differ in the salience of the existing N-PRS for depressive symptoms, which better reflects the burden of depression for Whites than Blacks. This may be because the existing PRSs are derived from mostly or exclusively White samples, limiting their applicability in other race groups. Racial variation in psychosocial, clinical, and biological correlates of depression needs further research.
Project description:To assess racial variation in depression risk factors and symptom trajectories among older women.Using Nurses' Health Study data, participants (29,483 non-Hispanic white and 288 black women) aged 60 years or older, free of depression in 2000, were followed until 2012. Data on race and risk factors, selected a priori, were obtained from biennial questionnaires. Incident depression was defined as depression diagnosis, antidepressant use, or presence of severe depressive symptoms. Group-based trajectories of depressive symptoms were determined using latent variable modeling approaches.Black participants had lower risk (hazard ratio: 0.76; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.99) of incident late-life depression compared with whites. Although blacks had higher prevalence than whites of some risk factors at study baseline, distributions of major contributors to late-life depression risk (low exercise, sleep difficulty, physical/functional limitation, pain) were comparable. There was evidence of effect modification by race for relations of region of birth (Southern birthplace), smoking, and medical comorbidity to depression risk; however, wide confidence intervals occurred among blacks because of smaller sample size. Four trajectories were identified: minimal symptoms-stable (58.3%), mild symptoms-worsening (31.4%), subthreshold symptoms-worsening (4.8%), and subthreshold symptoms-improving (5.5%). Probabilities of trajectory types were similar for blacks and whites.Although overall trajectories of late-life depressive symptoms were comparable by race, there was racial variation in depression risk estimates associated with less-studied factors, such as U.S. region of birth. Future work may address unmeasured health and resilience determinants that may underlie observed findings and that could inform clinical assessment of late-life depression risk factors.
Project description:The study objective was to assess the efficacy of problem-solving therapy for primary care (PST-PC) for preventing episodes of major depression and mitigating depressive symptoms of older black and white adults. The comparison group received dietary coaching.A total of 247 participants (90 blacks, 154 whites, and three Asians) with subsyndromal depressive symptoms were recruited into a randomized depression prevention trial that compared effects of individually delivered PST-PC and dietary coaching on time to major depressive episode and level of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) over two years. Cumulative intervention time averaged 5.5-6.0 hours in each study arm.The two groups did not differ significantly in time to major depressive episodes, and incidence of such episodes was low (blacks, N=8, 9%; whites, N=13, 8%), compared with published rates of 20%-25% over one year among persons with subsyndromal symptoms and receiving care as usual. Participants also showed a mean decrease of 4 points in depressive symptoms, sustained over two years. Despite greater burden of depression risk factors among blacks, no significant differences from whites were found in the primary outcome.Both PST-PC and dietary coaching are potentially effective in protecting older black and white adults with subsyndromal depressive symptoms from developing episodes of major depression over two years. Absent a control for concurrent usual care, this conclusion is preliminary. If confirmed, both interventions hold promise as scalable, safe, nonstigmatizing interventions for delaying or preventing episodes of major depression in the nation's increasingly diverse older population.
Project description:Although studies have shown that depression is associated with worse outcomes in patients with heart failure, most studies have been in white patients. The impact of depression on outcomes in blacks with heart failure has not been studied.We analyzed 747 blacks and 1420 whites enrolled in Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training, which randomized 2331 patients with ejection fraction ?35% to usual care with or without exercise training. We examined the association between depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at baseline and after 3 months with all-cause mortality/hospitalization. A race by baseline BDI-II interaction was observed (P=0.003) in which elevated baseline scores were associated with worse outcomes in blacks versus whites. In blacks, the association was nonlinear with a hazard ratio of 1.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.68) when comparing the 75th and 25th percentile of BDI-II (score of 15 and 5, respectively). No race interaction was observed for mortality (P=0.34). There was no differential association between BDI-II change and outcomes in blacks versus whites. In blacks, an increase in BDI-II score from baseline to 3 months was associated with increased mortality/hospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.57 per 10 point increase), whereas a decrease was not related to outcomes.In blacks with heart failure, baseline symptoms of depression and worsening of symptoms over time are associated with increased all-cause mortality/hospitalization. Routine assessment of depressive symptoms in blacks with heart failure may help guide management.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00047437.
Project description:Abstract <h4>Background and Objectives</h4> Loneliness is consistently linked to worse depression/depressive symptoms; however, there are few studies that have examined whether the relationship between loneliness and depressive symptoms varies by race. The purpose of this study was to determine whether race moderated the relationship between loneliness and depressive symptoms. <h4>Research Design and Methods</h4> Data come from the 2014 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Core survey and Psychosocial Leave-Behind Questionnaire; only black and white older adults were included in the analysis (N = 6,469). Depressive symptoms were operationalized by the eight-item Center for Epidemiological Studies—Depression scale; however, the “felt lonely” item was removed given concerns with collinearity. Loneliness was operationalized using the Hughes 3-Item Loneliness Scale. Sociodemographic variables included gender, age, education, household income, employment status, marital status, and living alone or with others. Furthermore, social support and negative interactions from family members and friends, and religious service attendance were included in the analysis. Lastly, we created an interaction term between race and loneliness. All analyses used survey weights to account for the complex multistage sampling design of the HRS. Missing data were multiply imputed. <h4>Results</h4> In multivariable analysis, we found race significantly moderated the relationship between loneliness and depressive symptoms while controlling for sociodemographic covariates, social support and negative interaction variables, and religious service attendance. <h4>Discussion and Implications</h4> Our findings demonstrate a differential racial effect for loneliness and depressive symptoms. For both blacks and whites, greater loneliness affected depressive symptoms; however, the effect was stronger among whites than it was for blacks. Given this is one of the first studies to examine the differential effects of race on loneliness and depressive symptoms, more research is necessary to determine the consistency of these results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Telomeres cap and protect DNA but shorten with each somatic cell division. Aging and environmental and lifestyle factors contribute to the speed of telomere attrition. Current evidence suggests a link between relative telomere length (RTL) and depression but the directionality of the relationship remains unclear. We prospectively examined associations between RTL and subsequent depressive symptom trajectories. METHODS:Among 8,801 women of the Nurses' Health Study, depressive symptoms were measured every 4 years from 1992 to 2012; group-based trajectories of symptoms were identified using latent class growth-curve analysis. Multinomial logistic models were used to relate midlife RTLs to the probabilities of assignment to subsequent depressive symptom trajectory groups. RESULTS:We identified four depressive symptom trajectory groups: minimal depressive symptoms (62%), worsening depressive symptoms (14%), improving depressive symptoms (19%), and persistent-severe depressive symptoms (5%). Longer midlife RTLs were related to significantly lower odds of being in the worsening symptoms trajectory versus minimal trajectory but not to other trajectories. In comparison with being in the minimal symptoms group, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of being in the worsening depressive symptoms group was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.97; p?=?0.02), for every standard deviation increase in baseline RTL. CONCLUSIONS:In this large prospective study of generally healthy women, longer telomeres at midlife were associated with significantly lower risk of a subsequent trajectory of worsening mood symptoms over 20 years. The results raise the possibility of telomere shortening as a novel contributing factor to late-life depression.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Prior research and theory suggest that exposure to objectively stressful events contributes to mental health disparities. Yet, blacks report higher cumulative stress exposure than whites but lower levels of common psychiatric disorders. In order to understand why blacks bear disproportionate stress exposure but similar or better mental health relative to whites, we need to consider race differences in not only stress exposure, but also stress appraisal-how upsetting stress exposures are perceived to be.<h4>Research design and methods</h4>We examine whether race differences in the number of reported chronic stressors across 5 domains (health, financial, residential, relationship, and caregiving) and their appraised stressfulness explain black-white differences in anxiety and depressive symptoms. Data come from 6019 adults aged older than 52 from the 2006 Health and Retirement Study.<h4>Results</h4>Older blacks in this sample experience greater exposure to chronic stressors but appraise stressors as less upsetting relative to whites. In fully adjusted models, stress exposure is related to higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and perceiving stress as upsetting is associated with higher symptomology for whites and blacks. We also find that blacks report greater anxiety symptoms but fewer depressive symptoms with more stress exposure relative to whites. Stress appraisal partially explains race differences in the association between stress exposure and anxiety symptoms and fully explains race differences in the association between exposure and depressive symptoms.<h4>Discussion and implications</h4>The relationship between race, chronic stress exposure, and mental health is mediated by stress appraisal. Stress appraisal provides insight on important pathways contributing to black-white mental health disparities in older adulthood.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We examined race differences in the DSM-IV clinical significance criterion (CSC), an indicator of depressive role impairment, and its impact on assessment outcomes in older white and black women with diagnosed and subthreshold depression. DESIGN:We conducted a secondary analysis of a community-based interview study, using group comparisons and logistic regression. SETTING:Lower-income neighborhoods in a Midwestern city. PARTICIPANTS:411 community-dwelling depressed and non-depressed women ? 65 years (45.3% Black; mean age = 75.2, SD = 7.2) recruited through census tract-based telephone screening. MEASUREMENTS:SCID interview for DSM-IV to assess major depression and dysthymia; Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale to define subthreshold depression (?16 points); Mini-Mental State Examination, count of medical conditions, activities of daily living, and mental health treatment to assess health factors. RESULTS:Black participants were less likely than Whites to endorse the CSC (11.8% vs. 24.1%; p = .002). There were few race differences in depressive symptom type, severity, or count. Blacks with subthreshold depression endorsed more symptoms, though this comparison was not significant after adjustments. Health factors did not account for race differences in CSC endorsement. Disregarding the CSC-eliminated differences in diagnosis rate, race was a significant predictor of CSC endorsement in a logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS:Race differences in CSC endorsement are not due to depressive symptom presentations or health factors. The use of the CSC may lead to underdiagnosis of depression among black older adults. Subthreshold depression among Blacks may be more severe compared to Whites, thus requiring tailored assessment and treatment approaches.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Blacks and Hispanics are at increased risk for dementia, even after socioeconomic and vascular factors are taken into account. This study tests a comprehensive model of psychosocial pathways leading to differences in longitudinal cognitive outcomes among older blacks and Hispanics, compared to non-Hispanic whites.<h4>Methods</h4>Using data from 10,173 participants aged 65 and older in the Health and Retirement Study, structural equation models tested associations among race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, external locus of control, and 6-year memory trajectories, controlling for age, sex, educational attainment, income, wealth, and chronic diseases.<h4>Results</h4>Greater perceived discrimination among blacks was associated with lower initial memory level via depressive symptoms and external locus of control, and with faster memory decline directly. Greater depressive symptoms and external locus of control among Hispanics were each independently associated with lower initial memory, but there were no pathways from Hispanic ethnicity to memory decline.<h4>Discussion</h4>Depression and external locus of control partially mediate racial/ethnic differences in memory trajectories. Perceived discrimination is a major driver of these psychosocial pathways for blacks, but not Hispanics. These results can inform the development of policies and interventions to reduce cognitive morbidity among racially/ethnically diverse older adults.
Project description:The role of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic composition on depression has received considerable attention in the United States. This study examines associations between trajectory patterns of neighborhood changes and depressive symptoms using data from Waves I-IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We used latent class growth analysis to determine the number and distribution of person-centered trajectories for neighborhood characteristics, and multilevel growth curve models to examine how belonging to each class impacted depression trajectories from ages 13 to 32 among non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB), Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Others (NHO). The distribution of neighborhood SES classes across racial/ethnic groups suggests significant levels of economic inequality, but had no effect on depressive symptoms. A more complex picture emerged on the number and distribution of racial/ethnic composition latent class trajectories. Compared to NHB peers who lived in predominantly NHW neighborhoods from adolescence to adulthood, NHBs in more diverse neighborhoods had lower risk for depressive symptoms. Conversely, Hispanics living in neighborhoods with fewer NHWs had higher risk for depressive symptoms. Among NHOs, living in neighborhoods with a critical mass of other NHOs had a protective effect against depressive symptoms.
Project description:Depression is a leading cause of disability in the United States, but its impact on mortality rates among racially diverse populations of low socioeconomic status is largely unknown. Using data from the Southern Community Cohort Study, 2002-2015, we prospectively evaluated the associations of depressive symptoms with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 67,781 Black (72.3%) and White (27.7%) adults, a population predominantly with a low socioeconomic status. Baseline depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The median follow-up time was 10.0 years. Multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for death in association with depressive symptoms. Mild, moderate, and severe depressive symptoms were associated with increased all-cause (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.22; HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29; HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.28, respectively) and cardiovascular disease-associated death (HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.44; HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.42; HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.75, respectively) in Whites but not in Blacks (P for interaction < 0.001, for both). Mild, moderate, or severe depressive symptoms were associated with increased rates of external-cause mortality in both races (HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.46; HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.61; HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.81, respectively; for all study subjects, P for interaction = 0.48). No association was observed for cancer-associated deaths. Our study showed that the association between depression and death differed by race and cause of death in individuals with a low socioeconomic status.