Quality of life and its social determinants for patients with schizophrenia and family caregivers in Cambodia.
ABSTRACT: Due to inadequate human and financial resource support, the development of mental health services in Cambodia has been undertaken by various non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Schizophrenia is the most common functional psychotic disorder, causing severe and chronic symptoms, and the programs provided by the NGOs should have enhanced the quality of life (QoL) of patients and their caregivers; however, epidemiological research, which is a driving force behind the recognition of mental health as a global public health concern, is lacking for schizophrenia in Cambodia. This study therefore aimed to create QoL evaluation questionnaires available in Khmer (the Cambodian language) for patients with schizophrenia and family caregivers, and to identify the social determinants and predictors of their QoL. This cross-sectional study recruited 59 patients and 59 caregivers attending three clinics operated by two NGOs: the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization (TPO) Cambodia and the Supporters for Mental Health (SUMH) Cambodia. We conducted linguistic validation of the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Questionnaire 18-item version (S-QoL 18) and the Schizophrenia Caregiver Questionnaire (SCQ), then analyzed correlations between the QoL dimensions and socio-demographic factors. The main findings of this study were as follows: 1) the newly created Khmer versions of S-QoL 18 and SCQ are relatively good psychometric tools that are suitable for research to identify patients' and caregivers' needs to improve their QoL; and 2) engaging in paid work or being of the post-Khmer Rouge generation results in higher QoL for patients, but having low household economic status or being affected by chronic disease leads to lower QoL for family caregivers. These findings are useful for enabling community mental health professionals and aid organizations to create programs to lessen the patient and caregiver burden in Cambodia. Further research is necessary to develop practical projects that will improve patients' and caregivers' QoL in various clinical settings in Cambodia.
Project description:The Schizophrenia Caregiver Questionnaire (SCQ) was developed to assess the impact on caregivers of caring for patients with schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to develop a scoring algorithm for the SCQ, and evaluate its measurement properties.The SCQ was administered to 358 caregivers of patients with schizophrenia included in the observational PATTERN study of stabilized patients with persistent symptoms of schizophrenia receiving outpatient care. SCQ item selection and creation of scores were based on exploration of item response distribution, factor analyses, and Rasch model. Construct validity, reliability, and ability to detect change of the SCQ scores were investigated.The final questionnaire comprised a 'Humanistic impact' supra-domain composed of a global score and four subdomain scores ('Physical'; 'Emotional'; 'Social'; 'Daily life'), and eight other domain scores related to the caregiving role ('Exhaustion with caregiving'; 'Feeling alone'; 'Patient Dependence'; 'Worries for the patient'; 'Perception of caregiving'; 'Financial dependence of the patient'; 'Financial impact of caregiving'; 'Overall difficulty of caregiving'). Two items from the SCQ were deleted. SCQ scores showed very good construct validity: Item convergent/discriminant validity were satisfactory; SCQ scores of caregivers of patients with more severe symptoms were higher indicating more impact (p?<?0.05 for all scores); SCQ scores were meaningfully associated with measures of schizophrenia severity (PANSS and PSP) and caregivers' Health-Related Quality of Life (Medical Outcome Survey Short Form 36 items). The SCQ Humanistic impact supra-domain scores demonstrated very good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alphas between 0.80 and 0.96) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Coefficient correlations ranging from 0.75 and 0.87); Other SCQ domain scores showed lower but still acceptable reliability coefficients. SCQ scores clearly increased for caregivers of patients whose schizophrenia worsened.Overall, the 30-item SCQ demonstrated very good measurement properties supporting its relevance to comprehensively measure the experience of caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.
Project description:BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, no study has examined quality of life (QoL) among caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia between a developing and a developed country. The aim of this study was to assess QoL of the caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia in two countries characterized by different social, economic and cultural conditions, namely Chile and France. METHODS: Data were collected from public mental health outpatient services in Arica (Chile), and in Marseille (France). QoL was measured with the short-form health survey scale - 36 items (SF36). QoL of 41 Chilean caregivers was firstly compared with 245 French caregivers. Univariate and multivariate analyses using linear regression were then performed to determine variables potentially related to QoL scores. RESULTS: The caregivers were primarily mothers in the two groups, but Chilean caregivers were younger, and lived more frequently with the individual with schizophrenia than French caregivers. The SF36 scores were globally low in the two groups, especially on the mental QoL scores. Chilean caregivers reported lower physical SF36 scores than French caregivers. In the multivariate analysis, being mother and Chilean caregivers were the most regular features associating to a lower QoL. CONCLUSION: Despite differences between Chile and France, especially in terms of quality and quantity of mental health services and economic supports, caregivers' QoL levels remain particularly low for both countries. Future support programmes should address the specific needs of caregivers.
Project description:Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia.A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia) collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18-60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression.No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure.
Project description:Background:During the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, about a quarter of the population died, resulting in many individuals losing close relatives. Still today, many individuals are suffering from the psychological consequences of these losses, which might also affect the process of reconciliation within the Cambodian society. The aim of this paper is therefore to investigate the association between symptoms of prolonged grief and attitudes toward reconciliation. Methods:A sample of 775 survivors of the Khmer Rouge regime who lost relatives during the conflict were interviewed about their losses and traumatic events, prolonged grief (PG; Complicated Grief Assessment Self-Report, CGA-SR), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version) and attitudes toward reconciliation (Readiness to Reconcile Inventory, RRI). Results:A higher symptom severity of PG was significantly associated with readiness to reconcile even when controlling for other relevant variables (? = -0.22; p <.001). Persons who met caseness criteria for PG were significantly less ready to reconcile, t(773) = 5.47, p <.001, than persons who did not meet caseness for PG. Conclusion:PG seems to be a relevant mental health correlate of attitudes toward reconciliation. The results of the current study underline the importance of also considering PG with regard to the reconciliation process in Cambodia and possibly also in other post-conflict regions.
Project description:There are significant burdens associated with providing care for loved ones with cancer. However, caregiver quality of life (QOL) is often overlooked. With the increasing number of older adults with cancer, it is important to determine whether a patient's age and QOL have any association with the caregiver's QOL. The objective of our study was to describe caregiver QOL and explore whether patient age and other psychosocial factors impact caregiver QOL.Baseline information from patients with advanced cancer undergoing radiation and their caregivers, who were enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial to test the effectiveness of a structured, multidisciplinary QOL intervention, was analyzed for this study. Caregivers completed the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC) Scale. Both patients and caregivers completed the Linear Analogue Self-Assessment (LASA) to measure QOL, and Profile of Mood States (POMS) to measure mood states.Overall, 131 patient-caregiver pairs participated in the study. At baseline, caregivers of older adults (?65years) had higher mental (P=0.01), emotional (P=0.003), spiritual (P<0.01), and social support (P=0.03) LASA QOL scores. Caregivers of older adults also had higher baseline QOL (CQOLC, P=0.003) and mood (POMS, P=0.04) than caregivers of younger adults. Caregivers of patients with higher LASA QOL scores had higher overall (P=0.02), mental (P=0.006), physical (P=0.02), emotional (P=0.002), and spiritual LASA QOL scores (P=0.047).Caregivers of older adults with advanced cancer demonstrated better QOL and fewer mood disturbances compared to caregivers of younger patients. When patients have good QOL, caregivers also had good QOL.
Project description:Three-year changes in well-being were studied among family caregivers of an epidemiologically derived sample of stroke survivors from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study and compared to matched noncaregivers.Family caregivers of REGARDS participants who experienced a stroke event completed telephone interviews assessing depressive symptoms, mental and physical health quality of life (QOL), life satisfaction, and leisure satisfaction at approximately 9, 18, 27, and 36 months after the stroke (n = 235). For each stroke caregiver, a family member of a stroke-free REGARDS participant was enrolled as a matched noncaregiving control (n = 235) and completed similar interviews.Multilevel longitudinal models found that caregivers showed poorer well-being at 9 months poststroke than controls on all measures except physical health QOL. Significant differences were sustained for 22 months after the stroke event for depressive symptoms, 31 months for mental health QOL, and 15 months for life satisfaction. For leisure satisfaction, differences were still significant at 36 months poststroke. Caregiving effects were similar across race and sex.Stroke caregiving is associated with persistent psychological distress, but life satisfaction, depression, and mental health QOL became comparable to noncaregivers by 3 years after stroke. Caregiver leisure satisfaction was chronically lower than in noncaregivers. Intervention for stroke caregivers should recognize both the strains faced by caregivers and their capacity for successful coping over time.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A couple of decades ago, hospitals or psychiatric institutions were in charge of caring for patients with schizophrenia; however, nowadays this role is performed by one or more patient's relatives. Evidence shows that informal caregivers experience negative changes in their quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study is to review the main factors associated with the QOL of caregivers of people with schizophrenia. METHODS: A search through databases from journals published last decade between 1998 and 2008 was performed. In accordance with the inclusion criteria, titles and abstracts of citations obtained from the search were examined independently by two authors and irrelevant articles discarded. The full text of those studies considered relevant by either reviewer were obtained and assessed independently. Where differences of opinion rose they were resolved by discussion. Out of the 258 references, 37 were included in the review. Studies which assessed factors associated with caregivers of people with schizophrenia's quality of life were included and the information summarized. RESULTS: Evidence suggest that physical, emotional and economic distress affect negatively caregiver's QOL as a result of a number of unfulfilled needs such as, restoration of patient functioning in family and social roles, economic burden, lack of spare time, among other factors. CONCLUSION: Decreased QOL may be associated with caregivers' burden, lack of social support, course of the disease and family relationships problems. In addition, in developing countries, QOL is affected by caregivers' economic burden. High quality research is needed in order to identify factors associated with QOL over time and testing the efficacy of interventions aiming to improve QOL in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.
Project description:<label>BACKGROUND</label>Early palliative care (EPC) is recommended but rarely integrated with advanced heart failure (HF) care. We engaged patients and family caregivers to study the feasibility and site differences in a two-site EPC trial, ENABLE CHF-PC (Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before Life Ends Comprehensive Heartcare for Patients and Caregivers).<label>METHODS</label>We conducted an EPC feasibility study (4/1/14-8/31/15) for patients with NYHA Class III/IV HF and their caregivers in academic medical centers in the northeast and southeast U.S. The EPC intervention comprised: 1) an in-person outpatient palliative care consultation; and 2) telephonic nurse coach sessions and monthly calls. We collected patient- and caregiver-reported outcomes of quality of life (QOL), symptom, health, anxiety, and depression at baseline, 12- and 24-weeks. We used linear mixed-models to assess baseline to week 24 longitudinal changes.<label>RESULTS</label>We enrolled 61 patients and 48 caregivers; between-site demographic differences included age, race, religion, marital, and work status. Most patients (69%) and caregivers (79%) completed all intervention sessions; however, we noted large between-site differences in measurement completion (38% southeast vs. 72% northeast). Patients experienced moderate effect size improvements in QOL, symptoms, physical, and mental health; caregivers experienced moderate effect size improvements in QOL, depression, mental health, and burden. Small-to-moderate effect size improvements were noted in patients' hospital and ICU days and emergency visits.<label>CONCLUSIONS</label>Between-site demographic, attrition, and participant-reported outcomes highlight the importance of intervention pilot-testing in culturally diverse populations. Observations from this pilot feasibility trial allowed us to refine the methodology of an in-progress, full-scale randomized clinical efficacy trial.<label>TRIAL REGISTRATION</label>Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03177447 (retrospectively registered, June 2017).
Project description:The search for a reliable, valid and cost-effective comorbidity risk adjustment method for outcomes research continues to be a challenge. The most widely used tool, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) is limited due to frequent missing data in medical records and administrative data. Patient self-report data has the potential to be more complete but has not been widely used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire (SCQ) to predict functional capacity, quality of life (QOL) health outcomes compared to CCI medical records data.An SCQ-score was generated from patient interview, and the CCI score was generated by medical record review for 525 patients hospitalized for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) at baseline, three months and eight months post-discharge. Linear regression models assessed the extent to which there were differences in the ability of comorbidity measures to predict functional capacity (Activity Status Index [ASI] scores) and quality of life (EuroQOL 5D [EQ5D] scores).The CCI (R2 = 0.245; p = 0.132) did not predict quality of life scores while the SCQ self-report method (R2 = 0.265; p < 0.0005) predicted the EQ5D scores. However, the CCI was almost as good as the SCQ for predicting the ASI scores at three and six months and performed slightly better in predicting ASI at eight-month follow up (R2 = 0.370; p < 0.0005 vs. R2 = 0.358; p < 0.0005) respectively. Only age, gender, family income and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CESD) scores showed significant association with both measures in predicting QOL and functional capacity.Although our model R-squares were fairly low, these results show that the self-report SCQ index is a good alternative method to predict QOL health outcomes when compared to a CCI medical record score. Both measures predicted physical functioning similarly. This suggests that patient self-reported comorbidity data can be used for predicting physical functional capacity and QOL and can serve as a reliable risk adjustment measure. Self-report comorbidity data may provide a cost-effective alternative method for risk adjustment in clinical research, health policy and organizational improvement analyses.Clinical Trials.gov NCT00416026.
Project description:Caregiver burden is a main outcome domain in caregiver intervention research. A recommended instrument for measuring burden is the Sense of Competence Questionnaire (SCQ). In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the German version of the SCQ with informal caregivers of stroke patients. Baseline data of a randomized controlled trial (n = 122) and survey data (n = 76) of caregivers of stroke patients were used. Data were collected at the caregiver's or the care receiver's home or over the telephone. We evaluated the homogeneity, the construct validity, and the clinical validity of the German version and the homogeneity of a new abbreviated version. The homogeneity of the SCQ indicates good reliability (Cronbach's alpha: 0.89). The three-factor structure of the SCQ was mostly confirmed through principal components analyses using oblimin rotation. Clinical validity was supported through correlations between sense of competence and burden (r = -0.51), depression (r = -0.52), and care recipient's cognitive function (r = 0.36). Sixteen items with consistent factor loadings were extracted and proposed as a new abbreviated version of the SCQ (Cronbach's alpha: 0.84). The abbreviated German rendition of the SCQ version that was validated in this study offers a consistent version that can be applied across different languages and among caregivers of stroke survivors or people with dementia.