Icariside II, a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, attenuates cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3?-mediated activation of autophagy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion causes exacerbated neuronal damage involving excessive autophagy and neuronal loss. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of icariside II, one of main active ingredients of Herba Epimedii on this loss and whether this is related to its PDE 5 inhibitory action. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Focal cerebral ischaemia was induced in the rat by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion over 2 hr, followed by reperfusion with icariside II, 3-methylamphetamine or rapamycin. The effect of icariside II was determined measuring behaviour changes and the size of the infarction. The expressions of PDE 5, autophagy-related proteins and the level of phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) were determined. Cultured primary cortical neurons were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation in the presence and absence of icariside II. A surface plasmon resonance assay and molecular docking were used to explore the interactions of icariside II with PDE 5 or GSK-3?. KEY RESULTS:Icariside II not only protected against induced ischaemic reperfusion injury in rats but also attenuated such injury in primary cortical neurons. The neuroprotective effects of icariside II on such injury were attributed to interfering with the PKG/GSK-3?/autophagy axis by directly bounding to PDE 5 and GSK-3?. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:These findings indicate that icariside II attenuates cerebral I/R-induced injury via interfering with PKG/GSK-3?/autophagy axis. This study raises the possibility that icariside II and other PDE 5 inhibitors maybe effective in the treatment ischaemia stroke.
Project description:Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) results in harmful consequences during ischemic stroke, especially the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which leads to severe hemorrhagic transformation through aggravation of edema and brain hemorrhage. Our previous study demonstrated that icariside II (ICS II), which is derived from Herba Epimedii, attenuates cerebral I/R injury by inhibiting the GSK-3β-mediated activation of autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. However, the effect of ICS II on the BBB remains unclear. Thus, in this study, we investigated the regulation of BBB integrity by ICS II after cerebral I/R injury and further explored the underlying mechanism in rats. Cerebral I/R injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and the treatment groups were administered ICS II at a dose of 16 mg/kg by gavage twice a day for 3 days. The results showed that ICS II effectively prevented BBB disruption, as evidenced by Evans Blue staining. Moreover, ICS II not only significantly reduced the expression of MMP2/9 but also increased TIMP1 and tight junction protein (occludin, claudin 5, and ZO 1) expression. Intriguingly, ICS II may directly bind to both MMP2 and MMP9, as evidenced by molecular docking. In addition, ICS II also inhibited cerebral I/R-induced apoptosis and ameliorated the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved-caspase 3 level. Collectively, our findings reveal that ICS II significantly ameliorates I/R-induced BBB disruption and neuronal apoptosis in MCAO rats by regulating the MMP9/TIMP1 balance and inhibiting the caspase 3-dependent apoptosis pathway.
Project description:Background:Ischemic stroke remains the leading cause of death and adult disability. Cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury is caused by ischemic stroke thereafter aggravates overwhelming neuronal apoptosis and even the death of neurons. Of note, hippocampus is more susceptive to cerebral I/R injury than the other brain region. This study was designed to explore the effects and mechanism of icariside II (ICS II), a pharmacologically active compound exists in herbal Epimedii with previous study-proved as a phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, on the oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced primary hippocampal neurons injury. Methods:Effects of ICS II on primary hippocampal neuronal impairment and apoptosis induced by OGD/R were examined by MTT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, TUNEL staining, and flow cytometry, respectively. Activation of memory-related signaling pathways was measured using Western blot analysis. The direct interaction between ICS II and PDE5 was further evaluated by molecular docking. Results:ICS II (12.5, 25, 50 ?M) markedly abrogated OGD/R-induced hippocampal neuronal death as suggested by the increase in neurons viability and the decrease in cellular LDH release. Furthermore, ICS II not only effectively decreased the protein expression and activity of PDE5, restored the 3'5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) level and its downstream target protein kinase G (PKG) activity but also increased the phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) level, expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosine protein kinase B (TrkB). Mechanistically, the inhibitory effects of ICS II were abrogated by Rp-8-Br-cGMP (a PKG inhibitor) or ANA-12 (a TrkB inhibitor), which further confirmed that the favorable effects of ICS II were attributed to its activation of the PKG/CREB/BDNF signaling pathways. Intriguingly, ICS II might effectively bind and inhibited PDE5 activity as demonstrated by relatively high binding scores (-6.52 kcal/mol). Conclusions:ICS II significantly rescues OGD/R-induced hippocampal neuronal injury. The mechanism is, at least partly, due to inhibition of PDE5 and activation of PKG/CREB/BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway. Hence it is thought that ICS II might be a potential naturally PDE5 inhibitor to combat cerebral I/R injury.
Project description:Interleukin-4 (IL-4) has a protective effect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Animal experiments have shown that IL-4 improves the short- and long-term prognosis of neurological function. The Akt (also called protein kinase B, PKB)/glycogen synthase kinase-3? (Akt/GSK-3?) signaling pathway is involved in oxidative stress, the inflammatory response, apoptosis, and autophagy. However, it is not yet clear whether the Akt/GSK-3? pathway participates in the neuroprotective effect of IL-4 against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the present study, we established a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion mouse model by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 60 minutes followed by a 24-hour reperfusion. An IL-4/anti-IL-4 complex (10 ?g) was intraperitoneally administered 30 minutes before surgery. We found that administration of IL-4 significantly alleviated the neurological deficits, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, and autophagy and reduced infarct volume of the mice with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury 24 hours after reperfusion. Simultaneously, IL-4 activated Akt/GSK-3? signaling pathway. However, an Akt inhibitor LY294002, which was injected at 15 nmol/kg via the tail vein, attenuated the protective effects of IL-4. These findings indicate that IL-4 has a protective effect on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by mitigating oxidative stress, reducing apoptosis, and inhibiting excessive autophagy, and that this mechanism may be related to activation of the Akt/GSK-3? pathway. This animal study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, China (approval No. WDRY2017-K037) on March 9, 2017.
Project description:It is clear that multiple signalling pathways regulate the critical balance between cell death and survival in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion. Recent attention has focused on the activation of survival or salvage kinases, particularly during reperfusion, as a common mechanism of many cardioprotective interventions. The phosphatidyl inositol 3'-hydroxy kinase/Akt complex (PI3K/Akt) and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades have been widely promoted in this respect but the cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGMP/PKG) signal transduction cassette has been less systematically investigated as a survival cascade. We propose that activation of the cGMP/PKG signalling pathway, following activation of soluble or particulate guanylate cyclases, may play a pivotal role in survival signalling in ischaemia-reperfusion, especially in the classical preconditioning, delayed preconditioning and postconditioning paradigms. The resurgence of interest in reperfusion injury, largely as a result of postconditioning-related research, has confirmed that the cGMP/PKG pathway is a pivotal salvage mechanism in reperfusion. Numerous studies suggest that the infarct-limiting effects of preconditioning and postconditioning, exogenously donated nitric oxide (NO), natriuretic peptides, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and other diverse drugs and mediators such as HMG co-A reductase inhibitors (statins), Rho-kinase inhibitors and adrenomedullin, whether given before and during ischaemia, or specifically at the onset of reperfusion, may be mediated by activation or enhancement of the cGMP pathway, either directly or indirectly via endogenous NO generation downstream of PI3K/Akt. Putative mechanisms of protection include PKG regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis through the modification of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) uptake mechanisms, and PKG-induced opening of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels during ischaemia and/or reperfusion. At present, significant technical obstacles in defining the precise roles played by cGMP/PKG signalling include the heavy reliance on pharmacological PKG inhibitors of uncertain selectivity, difficulties in determining PKG activity in intact tissue, and the growing recognition that intracellular compartmentalisation of the cGMP pool may contribute markedly to the nucleotide's biological actions and biochemical determination. Overall, the body of experimental evidence suggests that cGMP/PKG survival signalling ameliorates irreversible injury associated with ischaemia-reperfusion and may be a tractable therapeutic target.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study aimed to investigate whether astragaloside IV modulates the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening through glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?) in H9c2 cells.<h4>Methods</h4>H9c2 cells were exposed to astragaloside IV for 20 min. GSK-3? (Ser(9)), Akt (Ser(473)), and VASP (Ser(239)) activities were determined with western blot. The mPTP opening was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential (??(m)). Nitric oxide (NO) generation was measured by 4-amino-5-methylamino-2', 7'-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM) diacetate. Fluorescence images were obtained with confocal microscopy.<h4>Results</h4>Astragaloside IV significantly enhanced GSK-3? phosphorylation and prevented H(2)O(2)-induced loss of ??(m). These effects of astragaloside IV were reversed by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, the NO sensitive guanylyl cyclase selective inhibitor ODQ, and the PKG inhibitor KT5823. Astragaloside IV activated Akt and PKG. Astragaloside IV was also shown to increase NO production, an effect that was reversed by L-NAME and LY294002. Astragaloside IV applied at reperfusion reduced cell death caused by simulated ischemia/reperfusion, indicating that astragaloside IV can prevent reperfusion injury.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data suggest that astragaloside IV prevents the mPTP opening and reperfusion injury by inactivating GSK-3? through the NO/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway. NOS is responsible for NO generation and is activated by the PI3K/Akt pathway.
Project description:The role of the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) in cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. Here we show that H3R expression is upregulated after I/R in two mouse models. H3R antagonists and H3R knockout attenuate I/R injury, which is reversed by an H3R-selective agonist. Interestingly, H1R and H2R antagonists, a histidine decarboxylase (HDC) inhibitor and HDC knockout all fail to compromise the protection by H3R blockade. H3R blockade inhibits mTOR phosphorylation and reinforces autophagy. The neuroprotection by H3R antagonism is reversed by 3-methyladenine and siRNA for Atg7, and is diminished in Atg5?/? mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Furthermore, the peptide Tat-H3R(CT414-436), which blocks CLIC4 binding with H3Rs, or siRNA for CLIC4, further increases I/R-induced autophagy and protects against I/R injury. Therefore, H3R promotes I/R injury while its antagonism protects against ischaemic injury via histamine-independent mechanisms that involve suppressing H3R/CLIC4 binding-activated autophagy, suggesting that H3R inhibition is a therapeutic target for cerebral ischaemia.
Project description:Aims:Ischemic postconditioning (IPO) has a strong protective effect against intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IIR) injury that is partly related to autophagy. However, the precise mechanisms involved are unknown. Methods:C57BL/6J mice were subjected to unilateral IIR with or without IPO. After 45?min ischemia and 120?min reperfusion, intestinal tissues and blood were collected for examination. HE staining and Chiu's score were used to evaluate pathologic injury. We test markers of intestinal barrier function and oxidative stress. Finally, we used WB to detect the expression of key proteins of autophagy and the Akt/GSK-3?/Nrf2 pathway. Results:IPO significantly attenuated IIR injury. Expression levels of LC3 II/I, Beclin-1, and p62 were altered during IIR, indicating that IPO enhanced autophagy. IPO also activated Akt, inhibited GSK-3?/Nrf2 pathway. Conclusion:Our study indicates that IPO can ameliorate IIR injury by evoking autophagy, activating Akt, inactivating GSK-3?, and activating Nrf2. These findings may provide novel insights for the alleviation of IIR injury.?/Nrf2 pathway.
Project description:Sildenafil, a potent inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) induces powerful protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PDE-5 inhibition increases cGMP levels that activate cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). However, the cause and effect relationship of PKG in sildenafil-induced cardioprotection and the downstream targets of PKG remain unclear. Adult ventricular myocytes were treated with sildenafil and subjected to simulated ischemia and reoxygenation. Sildenafil treatment significantly decreased cardiomyocyte necrosis and apoptosis. The PKG inhibitors, KT5823, guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio) (R(p)-8-pCPT-cGMPs), or DT-2 blocked the anti-necrotic and anti-apoptotic effect of sildenafil. Selective knockdown of PKG in cardiomyocytes with adenoviral vector containing short hairpin RNA of PKG also abolished sildenafil-induced protection. Furthermore, intra-coronary infusion of sildenafil in Langendorff-isolated mouse hearts prior to ischemia-reperfusion significantly reduced myocardial infarct size after 20 min ischemia and 30 min reperfusion, which was abrogated by KT5823. Sildenafil significantly increased PKG activity in intact hearts and cardiomyocytes. Sildenafil also enhanced the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. All these changes (except Akt phosphorylation) were significantly blocked by KT5823 and short hairpin RNA of PKG. These studies provide the first evidence for an essential role of PKG in sildenafil-induced cardioprotection. Moreover, our results demonstrate that sildenafil activates a PKG-dependent novel signaling cascade that involves activation of ERK and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta leading to cytoprotection.
Project description:Cardiomyocyte cell death occurring during myocardial reperfusion (reperfusion injury) contributes to final infarct size after transient coronary occlusion. Different interrelated mechanisms of reperfusion injury have been identified, including alterations in cytosolic Ca(2+) handling, sarcoplasmic reticulum-mediated Ca(2+) oscillations and hypercontracture, proteolysis secondary to calpain activation and mitochondrial permeability transition. All these mechanisms occur during the initial minutes of reperfusion and are inhibited by intracellular acidosis. The cGMP/PKG pathway modulates the rate of recovery of intracellular pH, but has also direct effect on Ca(2+) oscillations and mitochondrial permeability transition. The cGMP/PKG pathway is depressed in cardiomyocytes by ischaemia/reperfusion and preserved by ischaemic postconditioning, which importantly contributes to postconditioning protection. The present article reviews the mechanisms and consequences of the effect of ischaemic postconditioning on the cGMP/PKG pathway, the different pharmacological strategies aimed to stimulate it during myocardial reperfusion and the evidence, limitations and promise of translation of these strategies to the clinical practice. Overall, the preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that modulation of the cGMP/PKG pathway may be a therapeutic target in the context of myocardial infarction.
Project description:This study was aimed at investigating the effects of lncRNA AK139328 on myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) in diabetic mice. Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) model was constructed in normal mice (NM) and diabetic mice (DM). Microarray analysis was utilized to identify lncRNA AK139328 overexpressed in DM after myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (MI/R). RT-qPCR assay was utilized to investigate the expressions of lncRNA AK139328 and miR-204-3p in cardiomyocyte and tissues. Left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD), left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and fractioning shortening (FS) were obtained by transthoracic echocardiography. Haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and Masson staining were utilized to detect the damage of myocardial tissues degradation of myocardial fibres and integrity of myocardial collagen fibres. Evans Blue/TTC staining was used to determine the myocardial infarct size. TUNEL staining was utilized to investigate cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The targeted relationship between lncRNA AK139328 and miR-204-3p was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. MTT assay was used for analysis of cardiomyocyte proliferation. Western blot was utilized to investigate the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), Atg7, Atg5, LC3-II/LC3-I and p62 marking autophagy. Knockdown of lncRNA AK139328 relieved myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury in DM and inhibited cardiomyocyte autophagy as well as apoptosis of DM. LncRNA AK139328 modulated miR-204-3p directly. MiR-204-3p and knockdown of lncRNA AK139328 relieved hypoxia/reoxygenation injury via inhibiting cardiomyocyte autophagy. Silencing lncRNA AK139328 significantly increased miR-204-3p expression and inhibited cardiomyocyte autophagy, thereby attenuating MIRI in DM.