Ilizarov external fixation for a periprosthetic tibial fracture in severe osteoporosis: a case report.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The incidence of periprosthetic fractures after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is rising due to the increasing number of TKAs performed annually and the growing elderly population. A periprosthetic fracture of the proximal tibia following TKA is a rare injury that may be a challenging clinical scenario. CASE PRESENTATION:The case of an 84-year-old woman who sustained a periprosthetic tibial fracture 10?years after a TKA is presented. This patient had multiple risk factors. The fracture was not deemed amenable to conventional treatment because the bone fragment was too small. This patient underwent fixation of her tibial fracture above the TKA using a five-ring Ilizarov external fixator. This allowed immediate full weight-bearing. The fixator was removed at 12?weeks, at which time the fracture was solidly healed. At the most recent follow-up, 2?years from injury, she was fully weight-bearing without walking aids and had a knee range of motion (ROM) of 0-110°. CONCLUSION:To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which Ilizarov external fixation has been used for a periprosthetic tibial fracture after TKA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Peripheral nerve block is preferable for lower extremity surgery because it sufficiently blocks pain pathways at different levels providing excellent anaesthesia at the site of surgery. We designed this study to compare the efficacy and safety of SOFT block (sciatic-obturator-femoral technique) compared with spinal anaesthesia in patients undergoing surgery for fixation of open tibial fractures using Ilizarov external fixator. METHODS:One hundred and seven patients ASA I, II scheduled for fixation of open tibial fractures using Ilizarov external fixator. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either spinal anaesthesia or SOFT block. In spinal anaesthesia group, patients received spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (7. 5-10mg). In SOFT group, patients received SOFT block with bupivacaine 0.25%. Primary endpoint included the duration of analgesia. The secondary endpoints included patient satisfaction scores, visual analogue scores, incidence of adverse events as vomiting, systemic toxicity from local anaesthetic drug and time to first effect of the techniques. RESULTS:The duration of SOFT block and time to first analgesic dose in SOFT group was significantly longer (p?<?0.001). There was no significant difference between the study groups regarding satisfaction scores, the incidence of cardiovascular collapse, seizures and paraesthesia. Pain scores were significantly lower in SOFT group at 3,6,12?h postoperative (p?<?0.001). The time to the first effect was significantly longer in SOFT group (p?<?0.001). CONCLUSION:SOFT is a feasible technique of local anaesthesia for control of postoperative pain with unremarkable adverse events compared with spinal anaesthesia, in patients undergoing fixation of tibial fractures using Ilizarov external fixator. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This trial was retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. registry number: NCT03450798 on February 20, 2018.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The management of displaced distal tibial fractures is still controversial. The different internal fixation techniques are often burdened by relatively high complication rates. Minimally invasive techniques with ring fixators have been introduced as an alternative allowing immediate reduction and stabilization, avoiding a staged protocol. The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the clinical and radiographic outcome the Ilizarov technique in patients with distal metaphyseal tibial fractures, with or without intra-articular involvement. METHODS: Thirty-nine consecutive patients with isolated fractures treated with the Ilizarov technique were followed prospectively for one year. Depending on the type of fracture, 4 or 5 rings were used, in some cases with additional foot extension. Unrestricted weight-bearing was allowed in all cases. Pre- and post-operatively conventional radiographs, post-operative pain assessment and complications were evaluated. The function was evaluated clinically and with self-appraisal protocols: EQ-5D, NHP and FAOS. RESULTS: No patient developed compartment syndrome or deep venous thrombosis. Pin infections were frequent, but they were mostly superficial and were treated with antibiotics and/or the removal of isolated pins. Two patients required debridement. One of them had a deep infection and developed a residual deformity which was corrected and healed after re-operation. Another patient had a severe residual deformity. The fixator was removed after a median period of 16 weeks (range 11-30). The radiological results were poor in 5 patients but the overall self-appraisal showed satisfactory results in 36 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The Ilizarov method allowed early definitive treatment with a low complication rate and a good clinical outcome.
Project description:We treated 21 consecutive patients between 1998 and 2002 with complex tibial pilon fractures, eight type B and 13 type C, using percutaneous reduction and fixation with the small diameter Ilizarov apparatus. The average patient age was 34+/-5.6 years (range 28-52 years). Nine of the patients had open fractures (two type I, four type II, and three type IIIA). The patients were followed up regularly at 6-month intervals for 2 years. All fractures united. The fixator was removed at an average of 26.6+/-4.2 weeks (range 20-34 weeks). The average American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot score was excellent in 11 patients, good in five, fair in four, and poor in one. Thirteen patients were able to squat and climb stairs.
Project description:The accompanying shear force at the point of bone opposition is an important factor inherent to tibial fracture stability during axial loading. We determined at which angle of fracture obliquity shearing becomes a dominant force after stabilization with circular external fixation, and how modifications to the external fixator can reduce this effect. We constructed tibial fracture models with a successively increasing fracture angle obliquely (from 0 degrees to 60 degrees) to determine the stability in the classic Ilizarov frame and subsequent frame modifications during axial loading (maximum, 1000 N). Stability was determined by measuring the fracture line displacement for each fracture obliquity model after an applied axial load. Fracture line displacement was recorded as coordinate component changes as measured by an ultrasonic digitizer. We defined construct stability as less than 2 mm of fracture line migration with loading. More than 3500 data points were collected for this study. The classic Ilizarov construct successfully stabilized fractures with up to 30 degrees of fracture obliquity, after which divergent instability occurs. The addition of proximal and distal perpendicular half-pins provides little benefit. Arced wires provided stability up to 40 degrees fracture obliquity. A formal steerage pin construct provided stability for all fracture models (up to 60 degrees of fracture obliquity) with all applied loads (up to 1000-N axial load).
Project description:A poor soft tissue envelope often accompanies periprosthetic tibia fracture around a well-fixed total knee arthroplasty and the tibial stem leaves little room for screw fixation. This article describes the practicability and effectiveness of a novel surgical technique using circular hexapod external fixation, in patients with this clinical scenario. It was applied for fixation of periprosthetic tibia fracture in 2 patients. Contact between the external fixation pins and the prosthesis was avoided. Using a web-based software program, a gradual reduction in all planes was achieved. Adequate fixation, stability, reduction, and quick healing were obtained in the 2 cases, with minimal complications. The patients returned to their activity level a few months after external fixation removal.
Project description:To describe our Ilizarov technique for the treatment of acquired equinus deformity in children and to determine if compliance with continuous use of an ankle foot orthosis (after removal of the fixator and until skeletal maturity) can influence the severity of recurrence. A cohort of 26 children with post-traumatic or post-burn contractures producing an equinus deformity was followed up for a minimum of 2 years after skeletal maturity. Cases with a bony deformity and/or nerve injury were excluded from this study. All patients were managed by a percutaneous tendo-Achilles lengthening followed by application of an Ilizarov external fixator. Post-operative treatment was in the form of gradual correction at a rate of 0.5 mm per day. Correction started from the second postoperative day until an over-correction of 15 degrees dorsiflexion was achieved. Ankle range of movement was encouraged 4 weeks prior to removal of the external fixator. On removal of the fixator, a posterior splint was applied until substituted by an ankle foot orthoses (AFO). The AFO was used continuously during the first 2-3 months and at nighttime thereafter until skeletal maturity. Fifteen children were compliant with the use of the AFO until skeletal maturity and 11 non-compliant. We compared the recurrence and the size of deformity between the two groups. The rate of recurrence, degree of equinus at recurrence and number of episodes of external fixation surgery showed statistical significant differences (P < 0.01) between the groups. The Ilizarov technique for treatment of acquired equinus deformity secondary to soft tissue scarring is a safe and effective technique. The use of an AFO until skeletal maturity can decrease the risk and degree of recurrence.
Project description:Periprosthetic fracture following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is usually associated with a traumatic event and typically treated with fracture fixation techniques. However, we report on a series of patients with early atraumatic condyle fractures that occurred as a result of insufficiency of the unloaded preoperative femoral condyle treated with delayed reconstruction.We retrospectively reviewed a series of 7 patients who sustained femoral condyle fractures following TKA and evaluated risk factors for insufficiency.There were 6 females and 1 male with an average age of 65.5 (range, 63-75) years and an average body mass index of 29.4 (range, 27-32). Fracture occurred on average 24.9 days from the index surgery and secondary to a low energy mechanism. Five patients had valgus alignment (mean, 15.2°) preoperatively and sustained fracture of the unloaded medial femoral condyle. Two patients had varus alignment (mean, 7.0°) preoperatively and both fractured the unloaded lateral condyle. One patient underwent early intervention requiring distal femoral replacement secondary to femoral bone loss. The remaining 6 patients underwent delayed surgery for an average of 6 weeks to allow for fracture healing followed by femoral component revision. At last follow-up (average, 48.5 months), 1 patient required a tibial component revision; however, no revision of the femoral component was required.Early femoral condyle insufficiency fractures following TKA may be a risk in females with poor bone quality and preoperative valgus alignment. Delayed surgery and femoral component revision is a treatment strategy that prevented the need for other tertiary reconstruction.
Project description:Background:Studies on the applications of bone transport using the Ilizarov method for osteosarcoma (OS) patients with surgical resection and neoadjuvant chemotherapy are rare. Methods:A retrospective analysis was conducted in 10 patients with limb OS receiving limb-salvage treatment by Ilizarov method from 2007 to 2012 in our hospital. The general information, treatment outcomes and follow-up data of the patients were collected. Results:The mean length of the transported fragment and the mean transport distance of the affected limb were both 14 cm. The mean time in the external fixator was 34.2 ± 11.2 months (16-47 months) and the mean external fixation index (EFI) was 75 days/cm. The mean follow-up time was 68.6 ± 26.6 months (37-103 months). Seven patients underwent additional operations to treat the postoperative complications, and the mean number of operation was 1.7 times. Only one patient underwent amputation due to tumor relapse and all patients survived without tumor. The limb-salvage rate was 90%. At the time of external fixator removal, the ASAMI-bone score was good in 66.7% of patients and the ASAMI-function score was fair in 66.7% of cases. The mean MSTS score was 18.6 ± 3.2 (n = 9). At 10 months after fixator removal, both the ASAMI-bone score and ASAMI-function score were both excellent in 80% and good in 20% cases, and the mean MSTS score was further improved to 27.2 ± 1.11 (n = 5). Conclusion:Bone transport using the Ilizarov method can achieve good therapeutic effectiveness in the limb-salvage treatment for OS patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy as long as the complications can be timely recognized and well managed.
Project description:Introduction:Open comminuted distal femur fractures are notorious for septic or aseptic non-union. The recommended fixed angle distal femur locking plate in such situations can lead to a septic non-union due to its extensive approach and further periosteal stripping. Supracondylar nails, though have a minimally invasive approach, are not suitable for type C2 and C3 (AO/ASIF) fractures. A monolateral fixator as damage control followed by plating may be recommended. But if wound healing is delayed it results in difficult articular reduction, poor alignment and a stiff knee. We therefore used ilizarov circular external fixators (ICEF) for such open fractures (type C1, C2 and C3) and analysed its radiological and functional outcomes. Materials and methods:25 male patients, with a mean age of 31.04?±?6.62 years (range, 22-44 years), with open grade III type C distal femoral fractures were treated with ICEF. There were 7 fractures of type C1and C3 each, 11 were of type C2. Articular reduction and compression was achieved with inter-fragmentary screws through minimal open technique by extending the open wound and then stabilising the fracture with ICEF. The main outcomes evaluated were union, range of motion, final shortening, Knee Society scoring and ASAMI scoring system for radiological and functional outcomes. Results:The mean follow-up period was 19.12?±?1.14 months. All fractures except two united at a mean period of 30?±?3.02 weeks, without the need of bone grafts. The bony assessment (according to ASAMI score) was excellent in 8 cases (33.33%), good in 9 cases (37.5%) and fair in 5 cases (20.83%), while there were 2 poor clinical end results. The functional results were excellent in 6 cases (25%), good in 9 cases (37.5%) fair in 6 cases (25%) poor in 3 cases (12.5%). The complications included shortening, extension lag and pin tract infections. Conclusion:With the encouraging results, the use of ICEF with minimal internal fixation in grade III open comminuted distal femur fractures as a primary definitive treatment is a valuable alternative.
Project description:Background:Most implants for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are comprised of alloys that contain nickel. Controversy exists whether metal allergies produce negative effects and affect clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review a minimum 2-year follow-up with an ion-bombarded titanium TKA implant in patients with reported metal sensitivity. Methods:A retrospective review of patients who underwent primary TKA with the ion-bombarded titanium Vanguard (Zimmer Biomet, Warsaw, IN) implant with 2-year minimum follow-up was performed from 2008 through 2017. The query revealed 346 patients (451 knees) with minimum 2-year follow-up. The mean age was 64.7 years, the mean body mass index was 35.1 kg/m2, and 95% of patients were women. Results:The mean follow-up was 4.6 years. The mean range of motion improved from 109° to 112° (P = .03), University of California Los Angeles activity scale from 4.1 to 5.1 (P < .001), Knee Society Clinical scores from 36 to 89 (P < .001), and Knee Society Functional scores from 48 to 73 (P < .001). There were 5 (1.1%) revisions: 2 infections (2-staged exchange), 1 tibial revision for aseptic loosening after a fall, and 2 bearing exchanges for instability. Other surgeries were open reduction internal fixation of periprosthetic fracture, 1 arthroscopic release of snapping popliteus, and 4 local wound incision and debridement (2 superficial infections and 2 nonhealing wounds). Manipulation under anesthesia was required in 27 (6%) patients. Conclusions:These early results are encouraging for the use of alternative metal titanium alloy implants in metal-sensitive patients undergoing primary TKA. At 4.6 years of mean follow-up, patients had substantial improvement in the range of motion and clinical outcomes with a low frequency of revision.