Microsecond Simulation of the Proteoglycan-like Region of Carbonic Anhydrase IX and Design of Chemical Inhibitors Targeting pH Homeostasis in Cancer Cells.
ABSTRACT: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a membrane-bound enzyme associated with tumor hypoxia and found to be over expressed in various tumor conditions. Targeting CAIX catalytic activity is proven to be efficient modality in modulating pH homeostasis in cancer cells. Proteoglycan-like (PG) region is unique to CAIX and is proposed to serve as an antenna enhancing the export of protons in conjunction with facilitated efflux of lactate ions via monocarboxylate transporters. Moreover, the PG region is also reported to contribute to the assembly and maturation of focal adhesion links during cellular attachment and dispersion on solid supports. Thus, drug targeting of this region shall efficiently modulate pH homeostasis and cell adhesion in cancer cells. As the PG region is intrinsically disordered, the complete crystal structure is not elucidated. Hence, in this study, we intend to sample the conformational landscape of the PG region at microsecond scale simulation in order to sample the most probable conformations that shall be utilized for structure-based drug design. In addition, the sampled conformations were subjected to high-throughput virtual screening against NCI and Maybridge datasets to identify potential hits based on consensus scoring and validation by molecular dynamics simulation. Further, the identified hits were experimentally validated for efficacy by in vitro and direct enzymatic assays. The results reveal 5-(2-aminoethyl)-1,2,3-benzenetriol to be the most promising hit as it showed significant CAIX inhibition at all levels of in silico and experimental validation.
Project description:N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) is a cytosolic monomeric enzyme involved in the allocation of the myristoyl group to the aminoterminal of glycine in several viral and eukaryotic cellular proteins. NMT has been validated as a potential drug target against kinetoplastid for parasitic protozoa. A multistep virtual screening protocol based on the pharmacophore modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation was carried out. Initially, Maybridge database was virtually screened via a validated pharmacophore model. The effective pharmacophore models were accompanied with exclusion volumes to improve their receiver operating characteristic curve to identify potential NMT inhibitors. The hits identified as actives based on the 3D-pharmacophore model were evaluated by molecular docking studies. In stepwise screening, six compounds were shortlisted for the dynamic simulation to get insights into their binding mode. In conclusion, this study provides fundamental information about the architecture of the binding site and some crucial residues that may provide insights into the development of new antiparasitic agents.
Project description:Histone deacetylases 2 (HDAC2), Class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) family, emerged as an important therapeutic target for the treatment of various cancers. A total of 48 inhibitors of two different chemotypes were used to generate pharmacophore model using 3D QSAR pharmacophore generation (HypoGen algorithm) module in Discovery Studio. The best HypoGen model consists of four pharmacophore features namely, one hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), and one hydrogen donor (HBD), one hydrophobic (HYP) and one aromatic centres, (RA). This model was validated against 20 test set compounds and this model was utilized as a 3D query for virtual screening to validate against NCI and Maybridge database and the hits further screened by Lipinski's rule of 5, and a total of 382 hit compounds from NCI and 243 hit compounds from Maybridge were found and were subjected to molecular docking in the active site of HDAC2 (PDB: 3MAX). Finally eight hit compounds, NSC108392, NSC127064, NSC110782, and NSC748337 from NCI database and MFCD01935795, MFCD00830779, MFCD00661790, and MFCD00124221 from Maybridge database, were considered as novel potential HDAC2 inhibitors.
Project description:G-protein coupled receptors play an essential role in many biological processes. Despite an increase in the number of solved X-ray crystal structures of G-protein coupled receptors, capturing a G-protein coupled receptor in its activated state for structural analysis has proven to be difficult. An unexplored paradigm is stabilization of one or more conformational states of a G-protein coupled receptor via binding a small molecule to the intracellular loops. A short tetrazole peptidomimetic based on the photoactivated state of rhodopsin-bound structure of Gt(alpha)(340-350) was previously designed and shown to stabilize the photoactivated state of rhodopsin, the G-protein coupled receptor involved in vision. A pharmacophore model derived from the designed tetrazole tetrapeptide was used for ligand-based virtual screening to enhance the possible discovery of novel scaffolds. Maybridge Hitfinder and National Cancer Institute diversity libraries were screened for compounds containing the pharmacophore. Forty-seven compounds resulted from virtually screening the Maybridge library, whereas no hits resulted with the National Cancer Institute library. Three of the 47 Maybridge compounds were found to stabilize the MII state. As these compounds did not inhibit binding of transducin to photoactivated state of rhodopsin, they were assumed to be allosteric ligands. These compounds are potentially useful for crystallographic studies where complexes with these compounds might capture rhodopsin in its activated conformational state.
Project description:How polypeptide chains acquire specific conformations to realize unique biological functions is a central problem of protein science. Single-molecule spectroscopy, combined with fluorescence resonance energy transfer, is utilized to study the conformational heterogeneity and the state-to-state transition dynamics of proteins on the submillisecond to second timescales. However, observation of the dynamics on the microsecond timescale is still very challenging. This timescale is important because the elementary processes of protein dynamics take place and direct comparison between experiment and simulation is possible. Here we report a new single-molecule technique to reveal the microsecond structural dynamics of proteins through correlation of the fluorescence lifetime. This method, two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy, is applied to clarify the conformational dynamics of cytochrome c. Three conformational ensembles and the microsecond transitions in each ensemble are indicated from the correlation signal, demonstrating the importance of quantifying microsecond dynamics of proteins on the folding free energy landscape.
Project description:The N terminal domain (NTD) of Nucleocapsid protein (N protein) of coronavirus (CoV) binds to the viral (+) sense RNA and results in CoV ribonucleoprotien (CoV RNP) complex, essential for the virus replication. In this study, the RNA-binding N terminal domain (NTD) of the N protein was targeted for the identification of possible inhibitors of RNA binding. Two NTD structures of N proteins were selected (2OFZ and 1SSK, 92% homology) for virtual screening of 56,079 compounds from Asinex and Maybridge library to identify top 15 hits for each of the targets based on 'docking score'. These top-hits were further screened for MM-GBSA binding free energy, pharmacokinetic properties (QikProp) and drug-likeness (SwissADME) and subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) studies. Two suitable binders (ZINC00003118440 and ZINC0000146942) against the target 2OFZ were identified. ZINC00003118440 is a theophylline derivative under the drug class 'bronchodilators' and further screening with approved bronchodilators was also studied to identify their ability to bind to the RNA binding region on the N protein. The other identified top hit is ZINC0000146942, which is a 3,4dihydropyrimidone class molecule. Hence this study suggests two important class of compounds, theophylline and pyrimidone derivaties as possible inhibitors of RNA binding to the N terminal domain of N protein of coronavirus, thus opening new avenues for in vitro validations.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Project description:Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) comprises heterogeneous tumours with predominant hypoxic components. The hypoxia-inducible metabolic shift causes microenvironmental acidification generated by carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and facilitates metastatic progression, the dominant cause of failure in LARC.Using a commercially available immunoassay, circulating CAIX was assessed in prospectively archived serial serum samples collected during combined-modality neoadjuvant treatment of LARC patients and correlated to histologic tumour response and progression-free survival (PFS).Patients who from their individual baseline level displayed serum CAIX increase above a threshold of 224 pg/ml (with 96 % specificity and 39 % sensitivity) after completion of short-course neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) prior to long-course chemoradiotherapy and definitive surgery had significantly better 5-year PFS (94 %) than patients with below-threshold post-NACT versus baseline alteration (PFS rate of 56 %; p < 0.01). This particular CAIX parameter, ?NACT, was significantly correlated with histologic ypT0-2 and ypN0 outcome (p < 0.01) and remained an independent PFS predictor in multivariate analysis wherein it was entered as continuous variable (p = 0.04).Our results indicate that low ?NACT, i.e., a weak increase in serum CAIX level following initial neoadjuvant treatment (in this case two cycles of the Nordic FLOX regimen), might be used as risk-adapted stratification to postoperative therapy or other modes of intensification of the combined-modality protocol in LARC.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00278694.
Project description:Five known porphyrins, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(p-tolyl)porphyrin (TTP), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(p-bromophenyl)porphyrin (TBrPP), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(p-aminophenyl)porphyrin (TAPP), 5,10,15-tris(tolyl)-20-mono(p-nitrophenyl)porphyrin (TrTMNP), 5,10,15-tris(tolyl)-20-mono(p-aminophenyl)porphyrin (TrTMAP), and three novel porphyrin derivatives, 5,15-di-[bis(3,4-ethylcarboxymethylenoxy)phenyl]-10,20-di(p-tolyl)porphyrin (DBECPDTP), 5,10-di-[bis(3,4-ethylcarboxymethylenoxy)phenyl]-15,20-di-(methylpyrazole-4-yl)porphyrin (cDBECPDPzP), 5,15-di-[bis(3,4-ethylcarboxymethylenoxy)phenyl]-10,20-di-(methylpyrazole-4-yl)porphyrin (DBECPDPzP), were used to study their interaction with protein targets (in silico study), and were synthesized. Their cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines were tested using 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The interaction of porphyrin derivatives with carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and REV-ERB? proteins were studied by molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation. In silico study results reveal that DBECPDPzP and TrTMNP showed the highest binding interaction with REV- ERB? and CAIX, respectively, and both complexes of DBECPDPzP-REV-ERB? and TrTMNP-CAIX showed good and comparable stability during molecular dynamic simulation. The studied porphyrins have selective growth inhibition activities against tested cancer cells and are categorized as marginally active compounds based on their IC50.
Project description:The sequence-dependent structural variability and conformational dynamics of DNA play pivotal roles in many biological milieus, such as in the site-specific binding of transcription factors to target regulatory elements. To better understand DNA structure, function, and dynamics in general, and protein...DNA recognition in the 'kappaB' family of genetic regulatory elements in particular, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of a 20-bp DNA encompassing a cognate kappaB site recognized by the proto-oncogenic 'c-Rel' subfamily of NF-kappaB transcription factors. Simulations of the kappaB DNA in explicit water were extended to microsecond duration, providing a broad, atomically detailed glimpse into the structural and dynamical behavior of double helical DNA over many timescales. Of particular note, novel (and structurally plausible) conformations of DNA developed only at the long times sampled in this simulation-including a peculiar state arising at approximately 0.7 micros and characterized by cross-strand intercalative stacking of nucleotides within a longitudinally sheared base pair, followed (at approximately 1 micros) by spontaneous base flipping of a neighboring thymine within the A-rich duplex. Results and predictions from the microsecond-scale simulation include implications for a dynamical NF-kappaB recognition motif, and are amenable to testing and further exploration via specific experimental approaches that are suggested herein.
Project description:In view of the role of sEH (soluble epoxide hydrolase) in hypertension, we have developed a rigorously validated pharmacophore model containing one HBA (Hydrogen Bond Acceptor), two HY (Hydrophobic) and one RA (Ring Aromatic) features. The model was used as a query to search the NCI (National Cancer Institute) and Maybridge database leading to retrieval of many compounds which were sorted on the basis of predicted activity, fit value and Lipinski's violation. The selected compounds were docked into the active site of enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase. Potential interactions were observed between the features of the identified hits and the amino acids present in the docking site. The three selected compounds were subjected to in vitro evaluation using enzyme- based assay and the isolated rat aortic model followed by cytotoxicity studies. The results demonstrate that the identified compounds are potent, safe and novel soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors.
Project description:We have carried out molecular dynamics simulations of the naturally occurring protegrin PG-1 peptide and two of its mutants, PC-9 and PC-13 in the presence of a dodecyl-phosphocholine (DPC) micelle. The effects of mutations that disrupt the β-sheet structure in the case of PC-9 and reduce the charge at the C-terminus in the case of PC-13 are analyzed. It is found that the surface-bound conformations of the peptides are severely affected by both mutations. PG-1 exhibits a conformation in which the C-terminus and the β-hairpin turn interact strongly with the micelle lipid head groups, while its N-terminal strand bends away from the micelle and resides in the aqueous region; PC-13 exhibits strong interactions with the micelle at its N-terminus as well as the β-hairpin turn region, while retaining a much more compact conformation than PG-1; PC-9 achieves a highly distorted conformation relative to the homologous PG-1 structure, which allows both its termini and the β-hairpin region to interact with the micelle. These significant differences observed as a result of seemingly minor mutations to the sequences of the three peptides are explained in terms of the interplay between residue charges, structural rigidity and amphiphilic interactions. Conservative inferences are made bridging these biophysical interactions and the pharmacological profiles of the peptides.