Methylation of SRD5A2 promoter predicts a better outcome for castration-resistant prostate cancer patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To determine whether SRD5A2 promoter methylation is associated with cancer progression during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in CRPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In a Local CRPC cohort, 42 prostatic specimens were collected from patients who were diagnosed as CRPC and underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). In a metastatic CRPC (Met CRPC) cohort, 12 metastatic biopsies were collected from CRPC patients who would be treated with abiraterone plus dutasteride (Clinical Trial NCT01393730). As controls, 36 benign prostatic specimens were collected from patients undergoing prostate reduction surgery for symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The methylation status of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) site(s) at SRD5A2 promoter regions was tested. RESULTS:Compared with benign prostatic tissue, CRPC samples demonstrated higher SRD5A2 methylation in the whole promoter region (Local CRPC cohort: P < 0.001; Met CRPC cohort: P <0.05). In Local CRPC cohort, a higher ratio of methylation was correlated with better OS (R2 = 0.33, P = 0.013). Hypermethylation of specific regions (nucleotides -434 to -4 [CpG# -39 to CpG# -2]) was associated with a better OS (11.3±5.8 vs 6.4±4.4 years, P = 0.001) and PFS (8.4±5.4 vs 4.5±3.9 years, P = 0.003) with cutoff value of 37.9%. Multivariate analysis showed that SRD5A2 methylation was associated with OS independently (whole promoter region: P = 0.035; specific region: P = 0.02). CONCLUSION:Our study demonstrate that SRD5A2 methylation in promoter regions, specifically at CpG# -39 to -2, is significantly associated with better survival for CRPC patients treated with ADT. Recognition of epigenetic modifications of SRD5A2 may affect the choices and sequence of available therapies for management of CRPC.
Project description:<h4>Background and objective</h4>Our patient cohort revealed that obesity is strongly associated with steroid-5? reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) promoter methylation and reduced protein expression. The underlying mechanism of prostatic growth in this population is poorly understood. Here we addressed the question of how obesity, inflammation, and steroid hormones affect the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).<h4>Material and methods</h4>We used preadipocytes, macrophages, primary human prostatic stromal cells, prostate tissues from high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and 35 prostate specimens that were collected from patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). RNA was isolated and quantified with RT-PCR. Genome DNA was extracted and SRD5A2 promoter methylation was determined. Sex hormones were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Protein was extracted and determined by ELISA test.<h4>Results</h4>In prostatic tissues with obesity, the levels of inflammatory mediators were elevated. SRD5A2 promoter methylation was promoted, but SRD5A2 expression was inhibited. Inflammatory mediators and saturated fatty acid synergistically regulated aromatase activity. Obesity promoted an androgenic to estrogenic switch in the prostate.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings suggest that obesity-associated inflammation induces androgenic to estrogenic switch in the prostate gland, which may serve as an effective strategy for alternative therapies for management of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH in select individuals.
Project description:Analysis of gene expression in prostatic tissue from BPH patients with and without SRD5A2 gene methylation. The hypothesis is that BPH patients with DNA methylation of the SRD5A2 gene promoter have impaired conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, and therefore may use an alternative signaling pathway for prostatic tissue growth. Here, we compare gene expression profiles of SRD5A2-methylated vs. unmethylated prostatic tissue to nominate alternative biological pathways relevant in each molecular subtype of BPH. Overall design: 22 unique patient samples were analyzed (12 SRD5A2-methylated, 10 SRD5A2-unmethylated). All samples were transitional zone prostatic tissue obtained during transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) surgery.
Project description:We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic potential of serum N-glycan profiling for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We retrospectively investigated serum N-glycan structural analysis by glycoblotting for 287 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 289 patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PC), 57 patients with PC treated with androgen-deprivation therapy without disease progression (PC-ADT), and 60 patients with CRPC. N-Glycan profiling was compared between the non-CRPC (BPH, newly diagnosed PC and PC-ADT) and CRPC patients. We obtained the quantitative score for CRPC (CRPC N-glycan score) by discriminant analysis based on the combination of 9 N-glycans that were significantly associated with CRPC. The median CRPC N-glycan score was found to be significantly greater in CRPC patients than in non-CRPC patients. The CRPC N-glycan score could classify CRPC patients with sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of 87%, 69%, and 0.88, respectively. The CRPC N-glycan score >1.7 points was significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with CRPC. The glycoprotein analysis showed that not immunoglobulins but ?-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were a potential candidate for the carrier protein of N-glycans. The overexpression of specific N-glycans may be associated with their castration-resistant status and be a potential biomarker for CRPC.
Project description:Glutathione S-transferase 1 (GSTP1) inactivation is associated with CpG island promoter hypermethylation in the majority of prostate cancers (PCs). This study assessed whether the level of circulating methylated GSTP1 (mGSTP1) in plasma DNA is associated with chemotherapy response and overall survival (OS).Plasma samples were collected prospectively from a Phase I exploratory cohort of 75 men with castrate-resistant PC (CRPC) and a Phase II independent validation cohort (n=51). mGSTP1 levels in free DNA were measured using a sensitive methylation-specific PCR assay.The Phase I cohort identified that detectable baseline mGSTP1 DNA was associated with poorer OS (HR, 4.2 95% CI 2.1-8.2; P<0.0001). A decrease in mGSTP1 DNA levels after cycle 1 was associated with a PSA response (P=0.008). In the Phase II cohort, baseline mGSTP1 DNA was a stronger predictor of OS than PSA change after 3 months (P=0.02). Undetectable plasma mGSTP1 after one cycle of chemotherapy was associated with PSA response (P=0.007).We identified plasma mGSTP1 DNA as a potential prognostic marker in men with CRPC as well as a potential surrogate therapeutic efficacy marker for chemotherapy and corroborated these findings in an independent Phase II cohort. Prospective Phase III assessment of mGSTP1 levels in plasma DNA is now warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity and aggressive prostate cancer (PC) may be linked, but how local peri-prostatic fat relates to tumour response following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To test if peri-prostatic fat volume (PPFV) predicts tumour response to ADT. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:We performed a retrospective study on consecutive patients receiving primary ADT. From staging pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scans, the PPFV was quantified with OsirixX 6.5 imaging software. Statistical (univariate and multivariate) analysis were performed using R Version 3.2.1. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:Of 224 consecutive patients, 61 with advanced (?T3 or N1 or M1) disease had (3-mm high resolution axial sections) pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan before ADT. Median age=75 yr; median PPFV=24.8cm3 (range, 7.4-139.4cm3). PPFV was significantly higher in patients who developed castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC; n=31), with a median of 37.9cm3 compared with 16.1cm3 (p <0.0001, Wilcoxon rank sum test) in patients who showed sustained response to ADT (n=30). Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards models were performed controlling for known predictors of CRPC. PPFV was shown to be independent of all included factors, and the most significant predictor of time to CRPC. Using our multivariate model consisting of all known factors prior to ADT, PPFV significantly improved the area under the curve of the multivariate models receiver operating characteristic analysis. The main study limitation is a relatively small cohort to account for multiple variables, necessitating a future large-scale prospective analysis of PPFV in advanced PC. CONCLUSIONS:PPFV quantification in patients with advanced PC predicts tumour response to ADT. PATIENT SUMMARY:The amount of fat around the prostate predicts prostate cancer response to hormone treatment.
Project description:Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a stage of relapse that arises after various forms of androgen ablation therapy (ADT) and causes significant morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanism underlying progression to CRPC remains poorly understood. Here, we report that YAP1, which is negatively regulated by AR, influences prostate cancer (PCa) cell self-renewal and CRPC development. Specifically, we found that AR directly regulates the methylation of YAP1 gene promoter via the formation of a complex with Polycomb group protein EZH2 and DNMT3a. In normal conditions, AR recruits EZH2 and DNMT3a to YAP1 promoter, thereby promoting DNA methylation and the repression of YAP1 gene transcription. Following ADT treatment or when AR activity is antagonized by Bicalutamide or Enzalutamide, YAP1 gene expression is switched on. In turn, YAP1 promotes SOX2 and Nanog expression and the de-differentiation of PCa cells to stem/progenitor-like cells (PCSC), which potentially contribute to disease recurrence. Finally, the knock down of YAP1 expression or the inhibition of YAP1 function by Verteporfin in TRAMP prostate cancer mice significantly suppresses tumor recurrence following castration. In conclusion, our data reveals that AR suppresses YAP1 gene expression through a novel epigenetic mechanism, which is critical for PCa cells self-renewal and the development of CRPC.
Project description:In men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia 5?-reductase inhibitors are a main modality of treatment. More than 30% of men do not respond to the therapeutic effects of 5?-reductase inhibitors. We have found that a third of adult prostate samples do not express 5?-reductase type 2 secondary to epigenetic modifications. We evaluated whether 5?-reductase type 2 expression in benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens from symptomatic men was linked to methylation of the 5?-reductase type 2 gene promoter. We also identified associations with age, obesity, cardiac risk factors and prostate specific antigen.Prostate samples from men undergoing transurethral prostate resection were used. We determined 5?-reductase type 2 protein expression and gene promoter methylation status by common assays. Clinical variables included age, body mass index, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, prostate specific antigen and prostate volume. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed followed by stepwise logistic regression modeling.Body mass index and age significantly correlated with methylation of the 5?-reductase type 2 gene promoter (p <0.05) whereas prostate volume, prostate specific antigen or benign prostatic hyperplasia medication did not correlate. Methylation highly correlated with 5?-reductase protein expression (p <0.0001). In a predictive model increasing age and body mass index significantly predicted methylation status and protein expression (p <0.01).Increasing age and body mass index correlate with increased 5?-reductase type 2 gene promoter methylation and decreased protein expression in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. These results highlight the interplay among age, obesity and gene regulation. Our findings suggest an individualized epigenetic signature for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, which may be important to choose appropriate personalized treatment options.
Project description:Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp-27) encoded by gene HSPB1 is a critical regulator of the behavioral phenotype of human prostate cancer (PCa) cells, enhanced expression being associated with highly aggressive disease and poor clinical outcome. In contrast, the protein is not expressed in PCas of low malignant potential. To gain insight into the mechanism regulating its expression, we tested the hypothesis that differential methylation of CpG islands within HSPB1 controls transcription and subsequent translation of the gene.We studied prostate epithelial cell lines and tissue biopsies, including 59 BPH and 415 PCas, of which 367 were a cohort of men with up to 20 years of follow-up. Methylation across the gene (DNA methylation (DNAme)) was assayed by pyrosequencing. Hsp-27 expression was assessed by western blot and immunohistochemistry.In cancer tissues, methylation increased in a 3' direction (P < 0.0001) whereas in benign hyperplasia methylation was constantly below 5%, a cutoff giving a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 50%. Although methylation of the promoter region was significantly discriminating between benign and malignant prostatic epithelia, it compared poorly with methylation of the first intron. The prognostic value of HSPB1 DNAme was confirmed by both univariate (hazard ratio 1.77 per 50% increment, P = 0.02) and multivariate models. Interaction between HSPB1 methylation and Gleason score revealed high DNAme to be a reliable prognostic marker of poor outcome in men with low Gleason score (P = 0.014).Our data indicate CpG methylation of the first HSPB1 intron to be an important biomarker that identifies aggressive PCas otherwise regarded as low risk by current clinical criteria but that, biologically, require immediate active management.
Project description:Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is standard treatment for locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Many patients develop castration resistance (castration-resistant PCa [CRPC]) after approximately 2-3 yr, with a poor prognosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying CRPC progression are unclear.To undertake quantitative tumour transcriptome profiling prior to and following ADT to identify functionally important androgen-regulated pathways or genes that may be reactivated in CRPC.RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on tumour-rich, targeted prostatic biopsies from seven patients with locally advanced or metastatic PCa before and approximately 22 wk after ADT initiation. Differentially regulated genes were identified in treatment pairs and further investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on cell lines and immunohistochemistry on a separate CRPC patient cohort. Functional assays were used to determine the effect of pathway modulation on cell phenotypes.We searched for gene expression changes affecting key cell signalling pathways that may be targeted as proof of principle in a CRPC in vitro cell line model.We identified ADT-regulated signalling pathways, including the Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway, and observed overexpression of ?-catenin in a subset of CRPC by immunohistochemistry. We validated 6 of 12 (50%) pathway members by qRT-PCR on LNCaP/LNCaP-AI cell RNAs, of which 4 (67%) demonstrated expression changes consistent with RNA-seq data. We show that the tankyrase inhibitor XAV939 (which promotes ?-catenin degradation) reduced androgen-independent LNCaP-AI cell line growth compared with androgen-responsive LNCaP cells via an accumulation of cell proportions in the G0/G1 phase and reduction in the S and G2/M phases. Our biopsy protocol did not account for tumour heterogeneity, and pathway inhibition was limited to pharmacologic approaches.RNA-seq of paired PCa samples revealed ADT-regulated signalling pathways. Proof-of-principle inhibition of the Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway specifically delays androgen-independent PCa cell cycle progression and proliferation and warrants further investigation as a potential target for therapy for CRPC.