Hinge length contributes to the phagocytic activity of HIV-specific IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies.
ABSTRACT: Antibody functions such as neutralization require recognition of antigen by the Fab region, while effector functions are additionally mediated by interactions of the Fc region with soluble factors and cellular receptors. The efficacy of individual antibodies varies based on Fab domain characteristics, such as affinity for antigen and epitope-specificity, and on Fc domain characteristics that include isotype, subclass, and glycosylation profile. Here, a series of HIV-specific antibody subclass and hinge variants were constructed and tested to define those properties associated with differential effector function. In the context of the broadly neutralizing CD4 binding site-specific antibody VRC01 and the variable loop (V3) binding antibody 447-52D, hinge truncation and extension had a considerable impact on the magnitude of phagocytic activity of both IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses. The improvement in phagocytic potency of antibodies with extended hinges could not be attributed to changes in either intrinsic antigen or antibody receptor affinity. This effect was specific to phagocytosis and was generalizable to different phagocytes, at different effector cell to target ratios, for target particles of different size and composition, and occurred across a range of antibody concentrations. Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity and neutralization were generally independent of hinge length, and complement deposition displayed variable local optima. In vivo stability testing showed that IgG molecules with altered hinges can exhibit similar biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profiles as IgG1. Overall, these results suggest that when high phagocytic activity is desirable, therapeutic antibodies may benefit from being formatted as human IgG3 or engineered IgG1 forms with elongated hinges.
Project description:Human IgG comprises four subclasses with different biological functions. The IgG3 subclass has a unique character, exhibiting high effector function and Fab arm flexibility. However, it is not used as a therapeutic drug owing to an enhanced susceptibility to proteolysis. Antibody aggregation control is also important for therapeutic antibody development. To date, there have been few reports of IgG3 aggregation during protein expression and the low pH conditions needed for purification and virus inactivation. This study explored the potential of IgG3 antibody for therapeutics using anti-CD20 IgG3 as a model to investigate aggregate formation. Initially, anti-CD20 IgG3 antibody showed substantial aggregate formation during expression and low pH treatment. To circumvent this phenomenon, we systematically exchanged IgG3 constant domains with those of IgG1, a stable IgG. IgG3 antibody with the IgG1 CH3 domain exhibited reduced aggregate formation during expression. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis of individual amino acid substitutions revealed that two amino acid mutations in the CH3 domain, N392K and M397V, reduced aggregation and increased CH3 transition temperature. The engineered human IgG3 antibody was further improved by additional mutations of R435H to obtain IgG3KVH to achieve protein A binding and showed similar antigen binding as wild-type IgG3. IgG3KVH also exhibited high binding activity for Fc?RIIIa and C1q. In summary, we have successfully established an engineered human IgG3 antibody with reduced aggregation during bioprocessing, which will contribute to the better design of therapeutic antibodies with high effector function and Fab arm flexibility.
Project description:Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) protect against HIV infection in non-human primates and their efficacy may be enhanced through interaction with Fc receptors on immune cells. Antibody isotype is a modulator of this binding with the IgG3 subclass mediating potent Fc effector function and is associated with HIV vaccine efficacy and HIV control. BNAb functions are typically assessed independently of the constant region with which they are naturally expressed. To examine the role of natural isotype in the context of a bNAb lineage we studied CAP256, an HIV-infected individual that mounted a potent V2-specific bNAb response. CAP256 expressed persistently high levels of plasma IgG3 which we found mediated both broad neutralizing activity and potent Fc function. Sequencing of germline DNA and the constant regions of V2-directed bNAbs from this donor revealed the expression of a novel IGHG3 allele as well as IGHG3*17, an allele that produces IgG3 antibodies with increased plasma half-life. Both allelic variants were used to generate CAP256-VRC26.25 and CAP256-VRC26.29 IgG3 bNAbs and these were compared to IgG1 versions. IgG3 variants were shown to have significantly higher phagocytosis and trogocytosis compared to IgG1 versions, which corresponded to increased affinity for Fc?RIIa. Neutralization potency was also significantly higher for IgG3 bNAbs, particularly against viruses lacking the N160 glycan. By exchanging hinge regions between subclass variants, we showed that hinge length modulated both neutralization potency and Fc function. This study showed that co-operation between the variable and natural IgG3 constant regions enhanced the polyfunctionality of antibodies, indicating the value of leveraging genetic variation which could be exploited for passive immunity.
Project description:The human IgG1 antibody subclass shows distinct properties compared with the IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 subclasses and is the most exploited subclass in therapeutic antibodies. It is the most abundant subclass, has a half-life as long as that of IgG2 and IgG4, binds the Fc?R receptor, and activates complement. There is limited structural information on full-length human IgG1 because of the challenges of crystallization. To rectify this, we have studied the solution structures of two human IgG1 6a and 19a monoclonal antibodies in different buffers at different temperatures. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that both antibodies were predominantly monomeric, with sedimentation coefficients s20,w (0) of 6.3-6.4 S. Only a minor dimer peak was observed, and the amount was not dependent on buffer conditions. Solution scattering showed that the x-ray radius of gyration Rg increased with salt concentration, whereas the neutron Rg values remained unchanged with temperature. The x-ray and neutron distance distribution curves P(r) revealed two peaks, M1 and M2, whose positions were unchanged in different buffers to indicate conformational stability. Constrained atomistic scattering modeling revealed predominantly asymmetric solution structures for both antibodies with extended hinge structures. Both structures were similar to the only known crystal structure of full-length human IgG1. The Fab conformations in both structures were suitably positioned to permit the Fc region to bind readily to its Fc?R and C1q ligands without steric clashes, unlike human IgG4. Our molecular models for human IgG1 explain its immune activities, and we discuss its stability and function for therapeutic applications.
Project description:Small angle x-ray and neutron scattering are techniques that give solution structures for large macromolecules. The creation of physically realistic atomistic models from known high-resolution structures to determine joint x-ray and neutron scattering best-fit structures offers a, to our knowledge, new method that significantly enhances the utility of scattering. To validate this approach, we determined scattering curves for two human antibody subclasses, immunoglobulin G (IgG) 1 and IgG4, on five different x-ray and neutron instruments to show that these were reproducible, then we modeled these by Monte Carlo simulations. The two antibodies have different hinge lengths that connect their antigen-binding Fab and effector-binding Fc regions. Starting from 231,492 and 190,437 acceptable conformations for IgG1 and IgG4, respectively, joint x-ray and neutron scattering curve fits gave low goodness-of-fit R factors for 28 IgG1 and 2748 IgG4 structures that satisfied the disulphide connectivity in their hinges. These joint best-fit structures showed that the best-fit IgG1 models had a greater separation between the centers of their Fab regions than those for IgG4, in agreement with their hinge lengths of 15 and 12 residues, respectively. The resulting asymmetric IgG1 solution structures resembled its crystal structure. Both symmetric and asymmetric solution structures were determined for IgG4. Docking simulations with our best-fit IgG4 structures showed greater steric clashes with its receptor to explain its weaker Fc?RI receptor binding compared to our best-fit IgG1 structures with fewer clashes and stronger receptor binding. Compared to earlier approaches for fitting molecular antibody structures by solution scattering, we conclude that this joint fit approach based on x-ray and neutron scattering data, combined with Monte Carlo simulations, significantly improved our understanding of antibody solution structures. The atomistic nature of the output extended our understanding of known functional differences in Fc receptor binding between IgG1 and IgG4.
Project description:Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), the serological hallmark of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies raised against circulating blood proteins. Of these proteins, the phospholipid-binding b2-glycoprotein I (?2GPI) is considered to be the main autoantigen in APS. Indeed, IgG antibodies targeting b2GPI (ab2GPI) directly cause both thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in several mouse models. While antibodies raised against all five domains of b2GPI have been reported, a subgroup of IgG ab2GPI raised against the first domain (DI) of b2GPI (aDI), strongly correlate with thrombotic APS, and drive thrombosis and pregnancy loss in vivo. Few studies have focused on determining the type of IgG subclass(es) for aPL. The subclass of an antibody is important as this dictates the potential activity of an antibody; for example, IgG1 and IgG3 can fix complement better and are able to cross the placenta compared to IgG2 and IgG4. It is unknown what subclass IgG aDI are, and whether they are the same as ab2GPI. To determine IgG subclass distribution for ab2GPI and aDI, we purified total IgG from the serum of 19 APS patients with known ab2GPI and aDI activity. Using subclass-specific conjugated antibodies, we modified our established in-house ab2GPI and aDI ELISAs to individually measure IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4. We found that while IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 ab2GPI levels were similar, a marked difference was seen in IgG subclass aDI levels. Specifically, significantly higher levels of IgG3 aDI were detected compared to IgG1, IgG2, or IgG4 (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Correlation analysis of subclass-specific ab2GPI vs. aDI demonstrated that IgG3 showed the weakest correlation (r = 0.45, p = 0.0023) compared to IgG1 (r = 0.61, p = 0.0001) and IgG2 (r = 0.81, p = 0.0001). Importantly, total subclass levels in IgG purified from APS and healthy serum (n = 10 HC n = 12 APS) did not differ, suggesting that the increased IgG3 aDI signal seen in APS-derived IgG is antigen-specific. To conclude, our data suggests that aDI show a different IgG subclass distribution to ab2GPI. Our results highlight the importance of aDI testing for patient stratification and may point toward differential underlying aPL-driven pathogenic processes that may be subclass restricted.
Project description:Different HIV-1 antigen specificities appear in sequence after HIV-1 transmission and the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass responses to HIV antigens are distinct from each other. The initial predominant IgG subclass response to HIV-1 infection consists of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies with a noted decline in some IgG3 antibodies during acute HIV-1 infection. Thus, we postulate that multiple antigen-specific IgG3 responses may serve as surrogates for the relative time since HIV-1 acquisition.We determined the magnitude, peak, and half-life of HIV-1 antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies in 41 HIV-1-infected individuals followed longitudinally from acute infection during the first appearance of HIV-1-specific antibodies through approximately 6 months after infection.We used quantitative HIV-1-binding antibody multiplex assays and exponential decay models to estimate concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to eight different HIV-1 proteins including gp140 Env, gp120 Env, gp41 Env, p66 reverse transcriptase, p31 Integrase, Tat, Nef, and p55 Gag proteins during acute/recent HIV-1 infection.Among HIV-1-specific IgG3 responses, anti-gp41 IgG3 antibodies were the first to appear. We found that anti-gp41 Env IgG3 and anti-p66 reverse transcriptase IgG3 antibodies, in addition to anti-Gag IgG3 antibodies, each consistently and measurably declined after acute infection, in contrast to the persistent antigen-specific IgG1 responses.The detailed measurements of the decline in multiple HIV-specific IgG3 responses simultaneous with persistent IgG1 responses during acute and recent HIV-1 infection could serve as markers for detection of incident HIV infection.
Project description:Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is an Fc-dependent effector function of IgG important for anti-viral immunity and anti-tumor therapies. NK-cell mediated ADCC is mainly triggered by IgG-subclasses IgG1 and IgG3 through the IgG-Fc-receptor (Fc?R) IIIa. Polymorphisms in the immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain gene likely form a layer of variation in the strength of the ADCC-response, but this has never been studied in detail. We produced all 27 known IgG allotypes and assessed Fc?RIIIa binding and ADCC activity. While all IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 allotypes behaved similarly within subclass, large allotype-specific variation was found for IgG3. ADCC capacity was affected by residues 291, 292, and 296 in the CH2 domain through altered affinity or avidity for Fc?RIIIa. Furthermore, allotypic variation in hinge length affected ADCC, likely through altered proximity at the immunological synapse. Thus, these functional differences between IgG allotypes have important implications for therapeutic applications and susceptibility to infectious-, allo- or auto-immune diseases.
Project description:Antigen-binding fragments (Fab) and F(ab')2 antibodies serve as alternative formats to full-length anti-bodies in therapeutic and immune assays. They provide the advantage of small size, short serum half-life, and lack of effector function. Several proteases associated with invasive diseases are known to cleave antibodies in the hinge-region, and this results in anti-hinge antibodies (AHA) toward the neoepitopes. The AHA can act as surrogate Fc and reintroduce the properties of the Fc that are otherwise lacking in antibody fragments. While this response is desired during the natural process of fighting disease, it is commonly unwanted for therapeutic antibody fragments. In our study, we identify a truncation in the lower hinge region of the antibody that maintains efficient proteolytic cleavage by IdeS protease. The resulting neoepitope at the F(ab')2 C-terminus does not have detectable binding of pre-existing AHA, providing a practical route to produce F(ab')2 in vitro by proteolytic digestion when the binding of pre-existing AHA is undesired. We extend our studies to the upper hinge region of the antibody and provide a detailed analysis of the contribution of C-terminal residues of the upper hinge of human IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 to pre-existing AHA reactivity in human serum. While no pre-existing antibodies are observed toward the Fab of IgG2 and IgG4 isotype, a significant response is observed toward most residues of the upper hinge of human IgG1. We identify a T225L variant and the natural C-terminal D221 as solutions with minimal serum reactivity. Our work now enables the production of Fab and F(ab')2 for therapeutic and diagnostic immune assays that have minimal reactivity toward pre-existing AHA.
Project description:Emerging data support a role for antibody Fc-mediated antiviral activity in vaccine efficacy and in the control of HIV-1 replication by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Antibody-mediated virus internalization is an Fc-mediated function that may act at the portal of entry whereby effector cells may be triggered by pre-existing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Understanding the capacity of HIV-1 antibodies in mediating internalization of HIV-1 virions by primary monocytes is critical to understanding their full antiviral potency. Antibody isotypes/subclasses differ in functional profile, with consequences for their antiviral activity. For instance, in the RV144 vaccine trial that achieved partial efficacy, Env IgA correlated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. decreased vaccine efficacy), whereas V1-V2 IgG3 correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. increased vaccine efficacy). Thus, understanding the different functional attributes of HIV-1 specific IgG1, IgG3 and IgA antibodies will help define the mechanisms of immune protection. Here, we utilized an in vitro flow cytometric method utilizing primary monocytes as phagocytes and infectious HIV-1 virions as targets to determine the capacity of Env IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to mediate HIV-1 infectious virion internalization. Importantly, both broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. PG9, 2G12, CH31, VRC01 IgG) and non-broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. 7B2 mAb, mucosal HIV-1+ IgG) mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, we found that Env IgG3 of multiple specificities (i.e. CD4bs, V1-V2 and gp41) mediated increased infectious virion internalization over Env IgG1 of the same specificity, while Env IgA mediated decreased infectious virion internalization compared to IgG1. These data demonstrate that antibody-mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions depends on antibody specificity and isotype. Evaluation of the phagocytic potency of vaccine-induced antibodies and therapeutic antibodies will enable a better understanding of their capacity to prevent and/or control HIV-1 infection in vivo.
Project description:Immunoglobulins from individuals with immunity to malaria have a strong antiparasitic effect when transferred to Plasmodium falciparum malaria infected patients. One prominent target of antiparasitic antibodies is the merozoite surface antigen 3 (MSP-3). We have investigated the antibody response against MSP-3 residues 194 to 257 (MSP-3(194-257)) on the molecular level. mRNA from peripheral blood leukocytes from clinically immune individuals was used as a source of Fab (fragment antibody) genes. A Fab-phage display library was made, and three distinct antibodies designated RAM1, RAM2, and RAM3 were isolated by panning. Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG3 full-length antibodies have been produced in CHO cells. Reactivity with the native parasite protein was demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting. Furthermore, the antiparasitic effect of RAM1 has been tested in vitro in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) assay. Both the IgG1 and the IgG3 versions of the antibody show an inhibitory effect on parasite growth.