Plant growth promoting and antifungal activity in endophytic Bacillus strains from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum).
ABSTRACT: Bacterial endophytes are well known inhabitants of living plant system and perform important assignments in maintaining plant growth and health. Currently, limited reports are available on the endophytes of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) reflecting antagonistic and plant growth promoting (PGP) attributes. Therefore, the major objectives of current investigation were to identify antagonistic strains of endophytic Bacillus from pearl millet and further illustrate their PGP capabilities. In this study, 19 endophytic Bacillus strains (EPP5, EPP21, EPP30, EPP32, EPP35, EPP42, EPP49, EPP55, EPP62, EPP65, EPP70, EPP71, EPP74, EPP78, EPP83, EPP86, EPP93, EPP100, and EPP102) displaying antagonistic activity towards Rhizoctonia solani (RS), Sclerotium rolfsii (SR), and Fusarium solani (FS) were isolated from different sections (root, leaf, stem, and root) of pearl millet. Phenotypic (shape, colony, gram staining reaction, endospore formation, and motility) and biochemical features (catalase, oxidase, citrate, gelatinase, urease, Voges Proskauer's, methyl red, indole, and nitrate reduction), along with the similarly comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequence with type strains identified eight antagonistic endophyhtes as B. amyloliquefaciens (EPP35, EPP 42, EPP62, and EPP 102), Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (EPP65), and Bacillus cereus (EPP5, EPP71, and EPP74). The production of indole acetic acid and siderophores was varied among the isolated endophytes. Besides displaying enzymatic activities, these isolates varied in solubilizing capabilities of phosphate, potassium, and zinc. The presence of three antimicrobial peptide genes (ituD, bmyC, and srfA) also confirmed their antifungal nature. Further, single treatment of three promising strains (EPP5, EPP62, and EPP65) offered protection ranging from 35.68 to 45.74% under greenhouse conditions. However, microbial consortium (EPP5+ EPP62 + EPP65) provided the highest protection (71.96%) against root rot and wilt infection with significant increase in plant biomass. Overall, the current study indicated that pearl millet plant harbors various species of endophytic Bacillus that possess excellent biocontrol and growth promotion activities.
Project description:Botanical and fungal biopesticides, including endophytes, are in high demand given the current restrictive legislations on the use of chemical pesticides. As part of an ongoing search for new biopesticides, a series of fungal endophytes have been isolated from selected medicinal plants including Lauraceae species. In the current study, an extract from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. EFI 671, isolated from the stem parts of the medicinal plant Laurus sp., was screened for bioactivity against plant pathogens (Fusarium graminearum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea), insect pests (Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, Rhopalosiphum padi) and plant parasites (Meloidogyne javanica), with positive results against M. persicae. The chemical study of the neutral fraction of the active hexane extract resulted in the isolation of a triglyceride mixture (m1), eburicol (2), ?-sitostenone (3), ergosterol (4) and ergosterol peroxide (5). The free fatty acids present in the acid fraction of the extract and in m1 (oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic) showed strong dose-dependent antifeedant effects against M. persicae. Liquid (potato dextrose broth, PDB and Sabouraud Broth, SDB) and solid (corn, sorghum, pearl millet and rice) growth media were tested in order to optimize the yield and bioactivity of the fungal extracts. Pearl millet and corn gave the highest extract yields. All the extracts from these solid media had strong effects against M. persicae, with sorghum being the most active. Corn media increased the methyl linoleate content of the extract, pearl millet media increased the oleic acid and sorghum media increased the oleic and linoleic acids compared to rice. The antifeedant effects of these extracts correlated with their content in methyl linoleate and linoleic acid. The phytotoxic effects of these extracts against ryegrass, Lolium perenne, and lettuce, Lactuca sativa, varied with culture media, with sorghum being non- toxic.
Project description:The role of the interactions between endophytes and alien plants has been unclear yet in plant invasion. We used a completely germ-free culture system to quantify the plant growth-promoting (PGP) effects of endophytic bacteria Bacillus sp. on aseptic seedlings of Wedelia trilobata and of its native clonal congener W. chinensis. The endophytic bacteria did not affect the growth of W. chinensis, but they significantly promoted the growth of W. trilobata. With the PGP effects of endophytic bacteria, relative change ratios of the clonal traits and the ramets' growth traits of W. trilobata were significantly greater than those of W. chinensis. Our results indicate that the growth-promoting effects of endophytes may differ between invasive and native clonal plants, and the endophytes of invasive plant may be host-specific to facilitate plant invasion.
Project description:Bacterial and fungal endophytes are widespread inhabitants inside plant tissues and have been shown to assist plant growth and health. However, little is known about plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) of medicinal plants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify bacterial and fungal endophytes of Teucrium polium and to characterize plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of these endophytes. Seven bacterial endophytes were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis, where five endophytic fungi were obtained and assigned to Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium crustosum. The isolated endophytes differentially produced indole acetic acid (IAA) and ammonia, and in addition to their enzymatic and antimicrobial activities, they exhibited variable capacity for phosphate solubilization. In order to investigate the effect of endophytes on plant growth, four representative endophytes and their consortiums were selected concerning to their potential ability to promote plant growth. The results indicated that microbial endophytes isolated from medicinal plants possessing a vital role to improve plant growth and could be used as inoculants to establish a sustainable crop production system.
Project description:Bacillus spp. are well known rhizosphere residents of many crops and usually show plant growth promoting (PGP) activities that include biocontrol capacity against some phytopatogenic fungi. Potato crops in the Andean Highlands of Peru face many nutritional and phytophatogenic problems that have a significant impact on production. In this context is important to investigate the natural presence of these microorganisms in the potato rhizosphere and propose a selective screening to find promising PGP strains. In this study, sixty three Bacillus strains isolated from the rhizosphere of native potato varieties growing in the Andean highlands of Peru were screened for in vitro antagonism against Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. A high prevalence (68%) of antagonists against R. solani was found. Ninety one percent of those strains also inhibited the growth of F. solani. The antagonistic strains were also tested for other plant growth promotion activities. Eighty one percent produced some level of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, and 58% solubilized tricalcium phosphate. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the strains belonged to the B. amyloliquefaciens species, while strains Bac17M11, Bac20M1 and Bac20M2 may correspond to a putative new Bacillus species. The results suggested that the rhizosphere of native potatoes growing in their natural habitat in the Andes is a rich source of Bacillus fungal antagonists, which have a potential to be used in the future as PGP inoculants to improve potato crop.
Project description:We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%), release ammonium (39%), secrete siderophores (38%) and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%). Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP) of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards.
Project description:Endophytes are rich in plant tissues and play important roles in plant-microbial interactions and plant-growth regulation. Here, endophytic bacteria from two closely related tea cultivars of Zijuan and Yunkang-10 were isolated, and the diversities were compared. Plant-growth promoting (PGP) activities were determined on the dominant groups or nitrogen-fixing genera from the two cultivars. Endophytic bacteria were isolated by using of different selective media and methods, and the PGP activities were investigated by analytical and molecular technologies. A total of 110 isolates of 18 genera belonging to three phylums (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes) were obtained from Zijuan, while 164 isolates of 22 genera belonging to two phylums (Proteobacteria and Firmicutes) were obtained from Yunkang-10. PGP screening indicated that Herbaspirillum spp., Methylobacterium spp., and Brevundimonas spp. showed different PGP abilities. The PGP ability decreased in order of Herbaspirillum spp., Brevundimonas spp. and Methylobacterium spp., and the majority of Methylobacterium spp. did not showed PGP activity of nitrogen-fixation, P-solubilization, siderophore, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. The study of bacterial community and PGP activities confirmed that endophytes in tea plants are constantly changing in different seasons and tea cultivars, and the PGP bacteria in Zijuan are much abundant than those of Yunkang-10.
Project description:The phosphogypsum (PG) endogenous bacterial community and endophytic bacterial communities of four plants growing in phosphogypsum-contaminated sites, Suaeda fruticosa (SF), Suaeda mollis (SM), Mesembryanthmum nodiflorum (MN) and Arthrocnemum indicum (AI) were investigated by amplicon sequencing. Results highlight a more diverse community of phosphogypsum than plants associated endophytic communities. Additionally, the bacterial culturable communities of phosphogypsum and associated plant endophytes were isolated and their plant-growth promotion capabilities, bioremediation potential and stress tolerance studied. Most of plant endophytes were endowed with plant growth-promoting (PGP) activities and phosphogypsum communities and associated plants endophytes proved highly resistant to salt, metal and antibiotic stress. They also proved very active in bioremediation of phosphogypsum and other organic and inorganic environmental pollutants. Genome sequencing of five members of the phosphogypsum endogenous community showed that they belong to the recently described species Bacillus albus (BA). Genome mining of BA allowed the description of pollutant degradation and stress tolerance mechanisms. Prevalence of this tool box in the core, accessory and unique genome allowed to conclude that accessory and unique genomes are critical for the dynamics of strain acquisition of bioremediation abilities. Additionally, secondary metabolites (SM) active in bioremediation such as petrobactin have been characterized. Taken together, our results reveal hidden untapped valuable bacterial actors for waste remediation.
Project description:Halophyte Limoniastrum monopetalum, an evergreen shrub inhabiting the Mediterranean region, has well-documented phytoremediation potential for metal removal from polluted sites. It is also considered to be a medicinal halophyte with potent activity against plant pathogens. Therefore, L. monopetalum may be a suitable candidate for isolating endophytic microbiota members that provide plant growth promotion (PGP) and resistance to abiotic stresses. Selected for biocontrol abilities, these endophytes may represent multifaceted and versatile biocontrol agents, combining pathogen biocontrol in addition to PGP and plant protection against abiotic stresses. In this study 117 root culturable bacterial endophytes, including Gram-positive (Bacillus and Brevibacillus), Gram-negative (Proteus, Providencia, Serratia, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Pectobacterium) and actinomycete Nocardiopsis genera have been recovered from L. monopetalum. The collection exhibited high levels of biocontrol abilities against bacterial (Agrobacterium tumefaciens MAT2 and Pectobacterium carotovorum MAT3) and fungal (Alternaria alternata XSZJY-1, Rhizoctonia bataticola MAT1 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici FORL) pathogens. Several bacteria also showed PGP capacity and resistance to antibiotics and metals. A highly promising candidate Bacillus licheniformis LMRE 36 with high PGP, biocontrol, metal and antibiotic, resistance was subsequently tested in planta (potato and olive trees) for biocontrol of a collection of 14 highly damaging Fusarium species. LMRE 36 proved very effective against the collection in both species and against an emerging Fusarium sp. threatening olive trees culture in nurseries. These findings provide a demonstration of our pyramiding strategy. Our strategy was effective in combining desirable traits in biocontrol agents towards broad-spectrum resistance against pathogens and protection of crops from abiotic stresses. Stacking multiple desirable traits into a single biocontrol agent is achieved by first, careful selection of a host for endophytic microbiota recovery; second, stringent in vitro selection of candidates from the collection; and third, application of the selected biocontrol agents in planta experiments. That pyramiding strategy could be successfully used to mitigate effects of diverse biotic and abiotic stresses on plant growth and productivity. It is anticipated that the strategy will provide a new generation of biocontrol agents by targeting the microbiota of plants in hostile environments.
Project description:Salinity causes disturbance in symbiotic performance of plants, and increases susceptibility of plants to soil-borne pathogens. Endophytic bacteria are an essential determinant of cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study was to isolate non-rhizobial endophytic bacteria from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and to assess their ability to improve plant growth and symbiotic performance, and to control root rot in chickpea under saline soil conditions. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from internal root tissues of chickpea grown in salinated soil were isolated. Four bacterial isolates, namely Bacillus cereus NUU1, Achromobacter xylosoxidans NUU2, Bacillus thuringiensis NUU3, and Bacillus subtilis NUU4 colonizing root tissue demonstrated plant beneficial traits and/or antagonistic activity against F. solani and thus were characterized in more detail. The strain B. subtilis NUU4 proved significant plant growth promotion capabilities, improved symbiotic performance of host plant with rhizobia, and promoted yield under saline soil as compared to untreated control plants under field conditions. A combined inoculation of chickpea with M. ciceri IC53 and B. subtilis NUU4 decreased H2O2 concentrations and increased proline contents compared to the un-inoculated plants indicating an alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress. Furthermore, the bacterial isolate was capable to reduce the infection rate of root rot in chickpea caused by F. solani. This is the first report of F. solani causing root rot of chickpea in a salinated soil of Uzbekistan. Our findings demonstrated that the endophytic B. subtilis strain NUU4 provides high potentials as a stimulator for plant growth and as biological control agent of chickpea root rot under saline soil conditions. These multiple relationships could provide promising practical approaches to increase the productivity of legumes under salt stress.
Project description:A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant.