Adjuvant Therapy With Mushroom Polysaccharides for Diabetic Complications.
ABSTRACT: Background:Diabetic complications seriously endanger the health of most diabetic patients around the world. Most chemical hypoglycemic agents have adverse effects and are unable to improve the progression of diabetic complications. In recent years, a number of medicinal herbs have become increasingly popular for the treatment of diabetic complications due to their relative safety. Polysaccharides extracted from medicinal herbs with multiple pharmacological activities and low toxicity have been reported to be useful in the treatment of diabetic complications. Methods:Primary studies with keywords including polysaccharide and diabetic complications were retrieved from the Web of Science and NCBI databases and were read and analyzed. Results:Mushroom polysaccharides were proven to have positive effects on diabetic complications. Conclusions:We studied the effects of mushroom polysaccharides on hyperglycemia and as adjuvant therapies for diabetic complications and summarized the applications and limitations of mushroom polysaccharides to better understand their application for the treatment of diabetic complications.
Project description:Mushrooms are widely distributed around the world and are heavily consumed because of their nutritional value and medicinal properties. Polysaccharides (PSs) are an important component of mushrooms, a major factor in their bioactive properties, and have been intensively studied during the past two decades. Monosaccharide composition/combinations are important determinants of PS bioactivities. This review summarizes: (i) monosaccharide composition/combinations in various mushroom PSs, and their relationships with PS bioactivities; (ii) possible biosynthetic pathways of mushroom PSs and effects of key enzymes on monosaccharide composition; (iii) regulation strategies in PS biosynthesis, and prospects for controllable biosynthesis of PSs with enhanced bioactivities.
Project description:The present work investigated the protective effects on liver, kidneys and pancreas of spent mushroom compost polysaccharide (SCP) and its hydrolysates (enzymatic- (ESCP) and acid-hydrolyzed SCP (ASCP)) from Hypsizigus marmoreus, in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results showed that enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT)) and non-enzymatic activities (total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) were significantly increased, the lipid peroxide contents (lipid peroxide (LPO) and malonaldehyde (MDA)) were remarkably reduced, and the clinical parameters were observably mitigated in diabetic mice treated with these three polysaccharides. Furthermore, histological observations also indicated recovery. These conclusions demonstrated that both SCP and its hydrolysates ESCP and ASCP possessed potent antioxidant activities and can be used as a potentially functional food for the prevention of diabetes and its complications induced by STZ.
Project description:Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) mushroom is considered as one of the most powerful antioxidants across the world. Though the therapeutic effects of Chaga components are well characterized in vitro, the in vivo developmental effects are not elucidated in detail. In this study, we assessed the in vivo developmental effects of Chaga polysaccharides in zebrafish, along with revealing the effects on cell cycle and apoptosis. Chaga mushroom polysaccharides comprised xylulose, rhamnose, mannose, glucose, inositol, and galactose, in addition to phenolic compounds; zebrafish embryos exhibited normal embryonic development upon transient exposure to Chaga extract (24?hours). Most embryos (>90%) were found to be healthy even at high concentrations (5?mg/mL). In addition, staining with the DNA binding dye, acridine orange showed that Chaga polysaccharides alleviated oxidative stress. Flow cytometric analysis using H2DCFDA that specifically binds to cells with fragmented DNA showed significantly reduced levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p?<?0.05), which in turn reduced apoptosis in the developing embryos. Cell cycle analysis by measuring the DNA content using flow cytometry revealed that Chaga polysaccharides moderately arrested the cells at G1 stage, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation that can be further explored in cancer studies. Overall, transient exposure of Chaga polysaccharide extract reduced intracellular ROS and assisted in the normal development of zebrafish.
Project description:Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Krast, commonly known as "Lingzhi" in Chinese, is a medicinal mushroom that is rich in biologically active substances. Polysaccharides and triterpenoids are the two major components responsible for the bioactivity of this fungus. In the present study, the ultrasonic-assisted co-extraction (UACE) of polysaccharides and triterpenoids from G. lucidum was optimized using response surface methodology with a desirability function, with the equal importance for the two components. Following single factor experiments, the optimal conditions were determine as ultrasonic power of 210 W, extraction temperature of 80C, ratio of liquid to solid of 50 mL/g, and 100 min extraction time, using aqueous ethanol (50%, v/v) as the extracting solvent. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction yields of polysaccharides and triterpenoids reached 0.63% and 0.38%, respectively. On the basis of the scavenging capacity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and evaluation of reducing power, the antioxidant capacities of the polysaccharides obtained by optimal UACE process were higher than those of polysaccharides extracted using traditional hot water extraction, whereas the triterpenoid-rich extracts showed antioxidant activities similar to those obtained using the ethanol maceration method. The present study is the first report on the simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides and triterpenoids from G. lucidum. The developed UACE process could be useful in preparation of a polysaccharide- and triterpenoid-rich ingredient that holds great promise for application in the Ganoderma industry.
Project description:According to the vast body of evidence demonstrating that the intestinal microbiota is undoubtedly linked with overall health, including cancer risk, searching for functional foods and novel prebiotic influencing on beneficial bacteria is necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of polysaccharides from 53 wild-growing mushrooms to stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and to determine the digestibility of polysaccharide fractions.Mushroom polysaccharides were precipitated with ethanol from aqueous extracts. Determination of growth promoting activity of polysaccharides was performed in U-shaped 96-plates in an ELISA reader in relation to the reference strain of L. acidophilus and two clinical strains of L. rhamnosus. The digestibility of mushroom polysaccharides was investigated in vitro by exposing them to artificial human gastric juice.Obtained results revealed that fungal polysaccharides stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus strains stronger than commercially available prebiotics like inulin or fructooligosaccharides. Moreover, selected polysaccharides were subjected to artificial human gastric juice and remain undigested in more than 90%.Obtained results indicate that mushroom polysaccharides are able to pass through the stomach unchanged, reaching the colon and stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria. Majority of 53 polysaccharide fractions were analysed for the first time in our study. Overall, our findings suggest that polysaccharide fractions from edible mushrooms might be useful in producing functional foods and nutraceuticals.
Project description:Agrocybe cylindracea, an edible mushroom, is widely cultivated for its abundance of nutrients and flavor, and many of its metabolites are reported to have beneficial roles, such as medicinal effects on tumors and chronical illnesses. However, the lack of genomic information has hindered further molecular studies on this fungus. Here, we present a genome assembly of A. cylindracea together with comparative genomics and pathway analyses of Agaricales species. The draft, generated from both next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing platforms to overcome high genetic heterozygosity, is composed of a 56.5 Mb sequence and 15,384 predicted genes. This mushroom possesses a complex reproductive system, including tetrapolar heterothallic and secondary homothallic mechanisms, and harbors several hydrolases and peptidases for gradual and effective degradation of various carbon sources. Our pathway analysis reveals complex processes involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides and other active substances, including B vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids, and N-acetylglucosamine. RNA-seq data show that A. cylindracea stipes tend to synthesize carbohydrate for carbon sequestration and energy storage, whereas pilei are more active in carbon utilization and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. These results reflect diverse functions of the two anatomical structures of the fruiting body. Our comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic data, as well as preliminary comparative analyses, provide insights into the molecular details of the medicinal effects in terms of active compounds and nutrient components.
Project description:An improved method for extracting high quality and quantity RNA from a jelly mushroom and a dimorphic fungus-Tremella fuciformis which is especially rich in polysaccharides, is described. RNA was extracted from T. fuciformis mycelium M1332 and its parental monokaryotic yeast-like cells Y13 and Y32. The A260/280 and A260/230 ratios were both approximately 2, and the RNA integrity number was larger than 8.9. The yields of RNA were between 108 and 213 µg/g fresh wt. Downstream molecular applications including reverse transcriptional PCR and quantitative real-time PCR were also performed. This protocol is reliable and may be widely applicable for total RNA extraction from other jelly mushrooms or filamentous fungi rich in polysaccharides.
Project description:Mushroom polysaccharides are edible polymers that have numerous reported biological functions; the most common effects are attributed to ?-glucans. In recent years, it became apparent that the less abundant ?-glucans also possess potent effects in various health conditions. Here we explore several Pleurotus species for their total, ? and ?-glucan content. Pleurotus eryngii was found to have the highest total glucan concentrations and the highest ?-glucans proportion. We also found that the stalks (stipe) of the fruit body contained higher glucan content then the caps (pileus). Since mushrooms respond markedly to changes in environmental and growth conditions, we developed cultivation methods aiming to increase the levels of ? and ?-glucans. Using olive mill solid waste (OMSW) from three-phase olive mills in the cultivation substrate. We were able to enrich the levels mainly of ?-glucans. Maximal total glucan concentrations were enhanced up to twice when the growth substrate contained 80% of OMSW compared to no OMSW. Taking together this study demonstrate that Pleurotus eryngii can serve as a potential rich source of glucans for nutritional and medicinal applications and that glucan content in mushroom fruiting bodies can be further enriched by applying OMSW into the cultivation substrate.
Project description:The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased IFN-? mRNA expression but significantly reduced COX-2 mRNA expression within the lung. For LLC tumor model, oral Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides treatments significantly reduced TGF-? production in serum. In addition, IL-12 and IFN-? mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF-? mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments. The study highlights the efficacious effect of mushroom polysaccharides for ameliorating the immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Increased M1 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and attenuated M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages could be achieved by ingesting mushroom polysaccharides.
Project description:Antrodia camphorata is a well-known medicinal mushroom in Taiwan and has been studied for decades, especially with focus on anti-cancer activity. Polysaccharides are the major bioactive compounds reported with anti-cancer activity, but the debates on how they target cells still remain. Research addressing the encapsulation of polysaccharides from A. camphorata extract (ACE) to enhance anti-cancer activity is rare. In this study, ACE polysaccharides were nano-encapsulated in chitosan-silica and silica (expressed as ACE/CS and ACE/S, respectively) to evaluate the apoptosis effect on a hepatoma cell line (Hep G2). The results showed that ACE polysaccharides, ACE/CS and ACE/S all could damage the Hep G2 cell membrane and cause cell death, especially in the ACE/CS group. In apoptosis assays, DNA fragmentation and sub-G1 phase populations were increased, and the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased significantly after treatments. ACE/CS and ACE/S could also increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, induce Fas/APO-1 (apoptosis antigen 1) expression and elevate the proteolytic activities of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 in Hep G2 cells. Unsurprisingly, ACE/CS induced a similar apoptosis mechanism at a lower dosage (ACE polysaccharides = 13.2 ?g/mL) than those of ACE/S (ACE polysaccharides = 21.2 ?g/mL) and ACE polysaccharides (25 ?g/mL). Therefore, the encapsulation of ACE polysaccharides by chitosan-silica nanoparticles may provide a viable approach for enhancing anti-tumor efficacy in liver cancer cells.