A Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry Assay for the Relative Quantitation of Antennary Fucosylated N-Glycans in Human Plasma.
ABSTRACT: Changes in the abundance of antennary fucosylated glycans in human total plasma N-glycome (TPNG) have been associated with several diseases ranging from diabetes to various forms of cancer. However, it is challenging to address this important part of the human glycome. Most commonly, time-consuming chromatographic separations are performed to differentially quantify core and antenna fucosylation. Obtaining sufficient resolution for larger, more complex glycans can be challenging. We introduce a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) assay for the relative quantitation of antennary fucosylation in TPNG. N-linked glycans are released from plasma by PNGase F and further treated with a core fucosidase before performing a linkage-informative sialic acid derivatization. The core fucosylated glycans are thus depleted while the remaining antennary fucosylated glycans are quantitated. Simultaneous quantitation of ?2,3-linked sialic acids and antennary fucosylation allows an estimation of the sialyl-Lewis x motif. The approach is feasible using either ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry or time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The assay was used to investigate changes of antennary fucosylation as clinically relevant marker in 14 colorectal cancer patients. In accordance with a previous report, we found elevated levels of antennary fucosylation pre-surgery which decreased after tumor resection. The assay has the potential for revealing antennary fucosylation signatures in various conditions including diabetes and different types of cancer.
Project description:A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based methodology has been developed to differentiate core- and antennary-fucosylated glycosylation of glycopeptides. Both the glycosylation sites (heterogeneity) and multiple possible glycan occupancy at each site (microheterogeneity) can be resolved via intact glycopeptide analysis. The serum glycoprotein alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) which contains both core- and antennary-fucosylated glycosites was used in this study. Sialidase was used to remove the sialic acids in order to simplify the glycosylation microheterogeneity and to enhance the MS signal of glycopeptides with similar glycan structures. ?1-3,4 galactosidase was used to differentiate core- and antennary-fucosylation. In-source dissociation was found to severely affect the identification and quantification of glycopeptides with low abundance glycan modification. The settings of the mass spectrometer were therefore optimized to minimize the in-source dissociation. A three-step mass spectrometry fragmentation strategy was used for glycopeptide identification, facilitated by pGlyco software annotation and manual checking. The collision energy used for initial glycopeptide fragmentation was found to be crucial for improved detection of oxonium ions and better selection of Y1 ion (peptide+GlcNAc). Structural assignments revealed that all three glycosylation sites of A1AT glycopeptides contain complex N-glycan structures: site Asn70 contains biantennary glycans without fucosylation; site Asn107 contains bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with both core- and antennary-fucosylation; site Asn271 contains bi- and tri-antennary glycans with both core- and antennary-fucosylation. The relative intensity of core- and antennary-fucosylation on Asn107 was similar to that of the A1AT protein indicating that the glycosylation level of Asn107 is much larger than the other two sites.
Project description:Carbohydrates form one of the major groups of biological macromolecules in living organisms. Many biological processes including protein folding, stability, immune response, and receptor activation are regulated by glycosylation. Fucosylation of proteins regulates such processes and is associated with various diseases including autoimmunity and cancer. Mass spectrometry efficiently identifies structures of fucosylated glycans or sites of core fucosylated N-glycopeptides but quantification of the glycopeptides remains less explored. We performed experiments that facilitate quantitative analysis of the core fucosylation of proteins with partial structural resolution of the glycans and we present results of the mass spectrometric SWATH-type DIA analysis of relative abundances of the core fucosylated glycoforms of 45 glycopeptides to their nonfucosylated glycoforms derived from 18 serum proteins in liver disease of different etiologies. Our results show that a combination of soft fragmentation with exoglycosidases is efficient at the assignment and quantification of the core fucosylated N-glycoforms at specific sites of protein attachment. In addition, our results show that disease-associated changes in core fucosylation are peptide-dependent and further differ by branching of the core fucosylated glycans. Further studies are needed to verify whether tri- and tetra-antennary core fucosylated glycopeptides could be used as markers of liver disease progression.
Project description:A MS-based methodology has been developed for analysis of core-fucosylated versus antennary-fucosylated glycosites in glycoproteins. This procedure is applied to the glycoprotein alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT), which contains both core- and antennary-fucosylated glycosites. The workflow involves digestion of intact glycoproteins into glycopeptides, followed by double digestion with sialidase and galactosidase. The resulting glycopeptides with truncated glycans were separated using an off-line HILIC (hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography) separation where multiple fractions were collected at various time intervals. The glycopeptides in each fraction were treated with PNGase F and then divided into halves. One half of the sample was applied for peptide identification while the other half was processed for glycan analysis by derivatizing with a meladrazine reagent followed by MS analysis. This procedure provided site-specific identification of glycosylation sites and the ability to distinguish core fucosylation and antennary fucosylation via a double digestion and a mass profile scan. Both core and antennary fucosylation are shown to be present on various glycosites in A1AT.
Project description:We previously developed a biobetter version of rhIFN-? (R27T) that possesses an additional glycosylation site compared with rhIFN-? 1a. Herein, we characterized N-glycosylation heterogeneity of R27T, which includes both N-glycan site occupancy heterogeneity (macro-heterogeneity) and complexity of carbohydrate moieties (micro-heterogeneity). N-glycan site occupancy manifested as distinct differences in size and isoelectric point. The analysis of complex carbohydrate moieties of R27T involved the common biopharmaceutical glycosylation critical quality attributes such as core fucosylation, antennary composition, sialylation, N-acetyllactosamine extensions, linkages, and overall glycan profiles using weak anion-exchange and hydrophilic interaction high-performance liquid chromatography with 2-aminobenzoic acid-labeled N-glycans. The double-glycosylated form accounted for approx. 94% R27T, while the single-glycosylated form accounted for 6% R27T. N-glycans consisted of a mixture of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary glycans, some with N-acetyllactosamine extensions, but neither outer arm fucose nor ?-galactose was detected. Sialic acid major variants, N-acetyl- and N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid, were more abundant in R27T than in Rebif. The major N-glycan, accounting for ?42% of total N-glycans, had a di-sialylated, core-fucosylated bi-antennary structure.
Project description:Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a rather rare but lethal disease that is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage; this is due to a lack of early diagnostic markers. At the time being, less than a quarter of patients are diagnosed when the tumor has not metastasized yet. In previous work, we demonstrated that antennarity, fucosylation, and sialylation increased in EOC patients and built a glycan-based score that was able to diagnose EOC better than CA125, the routine diagnostic marker, does. To date, little attention had been paid to the sialic acid linkages of N-glycans in the context of blood biomarker research. In this work, the sialic acid linkages of the serum glycome of ovarian cancer patients were investigated for the first time by MALDI-TOF-MS. To this end, we released N-glycans, derivatized sialic acids solely in a linkage-specific way and measured glycome profiles by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A statistically significant decrease was observed between late stage patients and controls or early stage patients for high-mannose, hybrid-type, complex-type asialylated, bi, tri- and tetraantennary sialylated structures. A significant decrease of monosialylated monoantennary N-glycan structures was observed in early and late stage EOC when compared to healthy controls. Statistically significant increases were observed in early and late stage patients compared to controls for tri, tetraantennary fucosylated structures, afucosylated, and fucosylated triantennary structures taken as ?-2,3-linked/?-2,6-linked sialic acid ratio. Moreover, all afucosylated and fucosylated structures taken as ?-2,3-linked/?-2,6-linked sialic acid ratio and the ?-2,3-linked/?-2,6-linked sialic acid ratio of all sialylated structures were increased significantly for early and late stage EOC patients when compared to healthy controls. Finally, ROC curves were built for the most significant glycan combinations and we were able to show that the serum glycome sialic acid ratio could enhance ovarian cancer diagnosis as sialic acid linkage modulations arise even in early stage ovarian cancer.
Project description:Alterations in glycosylation have long been associated with the development of cancer. In the case of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one alteration that has often been associated is increased amounts of fucose attached to the N-glycans of serum proteins secreted by the liver.In an effort to determine the origin of this increased fucosylation, we have conducted N-linked glycan analysis of HCC tissue, the surrounding nontumor tissue, and compared this to tissue from a nondiseased adult liver.Surprisingly, no difference in the level of fucosylation was observed from the three donor groups, suggesting that the increased levels of fucosylation observed in serum of those with HCC is not the result of increased synthesis of fucosylated proteins in the cancer tissue. On the other hand, increased levels of a tetra-antennary glycan were observed in the HCC tissue as compared with the surrounding tissue or to the nondiseased livers.This represents, to our knowledge, one of the first reports associating increased levels of branching with the development of HCC.The identification of increased levels of tetra-antennary glycan on liver tumor tissue, as opposed to adjacent or nondiseased tissue may lead to improved detection of HCC.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system (CNS), with unresolved aetiology. Previous studies have implicated N-glycosylation, a highly regulated enzymatic attachment of complex sugars to targeted proteins, in MS pathogenesis. We investigated individual variation in N-glycosylation of the total plasma proteome and of IgG in MS. Both plasma protein and IgG N-glycans were chromatographically profiled and quantified in 83 MS cases and 88 age- and sex-matched controls. Comparing levels of glycosylation features between MS cases and controls revealed that core fucosylation (p = 6.96 × 10-3) and abundance of high-mannose structures (p = 1.48 × 10-2) were the most prominently altered IgG glycosylation traits. Significant changes in plasma protein N-glycome composition were observed for antennary fucosylated, tri- and tetrasialylated, tri- and tetragalactosylated, high-branched N-glycans (p-value range 1.66 × 10-2-4.28 × 10-2). Classification performance of N-glycans was examined by ROC curve analysis, resulting in an AUC of 0.852 for the total plasma N-glycome and 0.798 for IgG N-glycome prediction models. Our results indicate that multiple aspects of protein glycosylation are altered in MS, showing increased proinflammatory potential. N-glycan alterations showed substantial value in classification of the disease status, nonetheless, additional studies are warranted to explore their exact role in MS development and utility as biomarkers.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a major driver of head and neck cancer, a devastating malignancy with a major sub-site in the oral cavity manifesting as oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). EGFR is a glycoprotein receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) whose activity is upregulated in >80% OSCC. Current anti-EGFR therapy relies on the use of cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against EGFR, although it has had only a limited response in patients. Here, we uncover a novel mechanism regulating EGFR activity, identifying a role of the nuclear branch of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, the β-catenin/CBP axis, in control of post-translational modification of N-glycans on the EGFR. Genomic and structural analyses reveal that β-catenin/CBP signaling represses fucosylation on the antennae of N-linked glycans on EGFR. By employing nUPLC-MS/MS, we determined that malignant human OSCC cells harbor EGFR with a paucity of N-glycan antennary fucosylation, while indolent cells display higher levels of fucosylation at sites N420 and N579. Additionally, treatment with either ICG-001 or E7386, which are both small molecule inhibitors of β-catenin/CBP signaling, leads to increased transcriptional expression of fucosyltransferases FUT2 and FUT3, with a concomitant increase in EGFR N-glycan antennary fucosylation. In order to discover which fucosylated glycan epitopes are involved in the observed effect, we performed in-depth characterization of multiply-fucosylated N-glycans via tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the EGFR tryptic glycopeptides. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD017060. We propose that β-catenin/CBP signaling promotes EGFR oncogenic activity in OSCC by inhibiting its N-glycan antennary fucosylation through transcriptional repression of FUT2 and FUT3.
Project description:Protein glycosylation is known to be involved in biological progresses such as cell recognition, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Fucosylation of glycoproteins plays an important role for structural stability and function of N-linked glycoproteins. Although many of biological and clinical studies of protein fucosylation by fucosyltransferases has been reported, structural classification of fucosylated N-glycoproteins such as core or outer isoforms remains a challenge. Here, we report for the first time the classification of N-glycopeptides as core- and outer-fucosylated types using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and machine learning algorithms such as the deep neural network (DNN) and support vector machine (SVM). Training and test sets of more than 800 MS/MS spectra of N-glycopeptides from the immunoglobulin gamma and alpha 1-acid-glycoprotein standards were selected for classification of the fucosylation types using supervised learning models. The best-performing model had an accuracy of more than 99% against manual characterization and area under the curve values greater than 0.99, which were calculated by probability scores from target and decoy datasets. Finally, this model was applied to classify fucosylated N-glycoproteins from human plasma. A total of 82N-glycopeptides, with 54 core-, 24 outer-, and 4 dual-fucosylation types derived from 54 glycoproteins, were commonly classified as the same type in both the DNN and SVM. Specifically, outer fucosylation was dominant in tri- and tetra-antennary N-glycopeptides, while core fucosylation was dominant in the mono-, bi-antennary and hybrid types of N-glycoproteins in human plasma. Thus, the machine learning methods can be combined with MS/MS to distinguish between different isoforms of fucosylated N-glycopeptides.
Project description:In this study, we present the application of a novel capillary electrophoresis (CE) method in combination with label-free quantitation and support vector machine-based feature selection (support vector machine-estimated recursive feature elimination or SVM-RFE) to identify potential glycan alterations in Parkinson's disease. Specific focus was placed on the use of neutral coated capillaries, by a dynamic capillary coating strategy, to ensure stable and repeatable separations without the need of non-mass spectrometry (MS) friendly additives within the separation electrolyte. The developed online dynamic coating strategy was applied to identify serum N-glycosylation by CE-MS/MS in combination with exoglycosidase sequencing. The annotated structures were quantified in 15 controls and 15 Parkinson's disease patients by label-free quantitation. Lower sialylation and increased fucosylation were found in Parkinson's disease patients on tri-antennary glycans with 2 and 3 terminal sialic acids. The set of potential glycan alterations was narrowed by a recursive feature elimination algorithm resulting in the efficient classification of male patients.