Rational selection of co-catalysts for the deaminative hydrogenation of amides.
ABSTRACT: The catalytic hydrogenation of amides is an atom economical method to synthesize amines. Previously, it was serendipitously discovered that the combination of a secondary amide co-catalyst with (iPrPNP)Fe(H)(CO) (iPrPNP = N[CH2CH2(PiPr2)]2 -), results in a highly active base metal system for deaminative amide hydrogenation. Here, we use DFT to develop an improved co-catalyst for amide hydrogenation. Initially, we computationally evaluated the ability of a series of co-catalysts to accelerate the turnover-limiting proton transfer during C-N bond cleavage and poison the (iPrPNP)Fe(H)(CO) catalyst through a side reaction. TBD (triazabicyclodecene) was identified as the leading co-catalyst. It was experimentally confirmed that when TBD is combined with (iPrPNP)Fe(H)(CO) a remarkably active system for amide hydrogenation is generated. TBD also enhances the activity of other catalysts for amide hydrogenation and our results provide guidelines for the rational design of future co-catalysts.
Project description:Two series of bulky alkaline earth (Ae) metal amide complexes have been prepared: Ae[N(TRIP)2 ]2 (1-Ae) and Ae[N(TRIP)(DIPP)]2 (2-Ae) (Ae=Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba; TRIP=SiiPr3 , DIPP=2,6-diisopropylphenyl). While monomeric 1-Ca was already known, the new complexes have been structurally characterized. Monomers 1-Ae are highly linear while the monomers 2-Ae are slightly bent. The bulkier amide complexes 1-Ae are by far the most active catalysts in alkene hydrogenation with activities increasing from Mg to Ba. Catalyst 1-Ba can reduce internal alkenes like cyclohexene or 3-hexene and highly challenging substrates like 1-Me-cyclohexene or tetraphenylethylene. It is also active in arene hydrogenation reducing anthracene and naphthalene (even when substituted with an alkyl) as well as biphenyl. Benzene could be reduced to cyclohexane but full conversion was not reached. The first step in catalytic hydrogenation is formation of an (amide)AeH species, which can form larger aggregates. Increasing the bulk of the amide ligand decreases aggregate size but it is unclear what the true catalyst(s) is (are). DFT calculations suggest that amide bulk also has a noticeable influence on the thermodynamics for formation of the (amide)AeH species. Complex 1-Ba is currently the most powerful Ae metal hydrogenation catalyst. Due to tremendously increased activities in comparison to those of previously reported catalysts, the substrate scope in hydrogenation catalysis could be extended to challenging multi-substituted unactivated alkenes and even to arenes among which benzene.
Project description:A study was done on the effect of temperature and catalyst pre-treatment on CO hydrogenation over plasma-synthesized catalysts during the Fischer?Tropsch synthesis (FTS). Nanometric Co/C, Fe/C, and 50%Co-50%Fe/C catalysts with BET specific surface area of ~80 m² g?1 were tested at a 2 MPa pressure and a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 2000 cm³ h-1 g-1 of a catalyst (at STP) in hydrogen-rich FTS feed gas (H?:CO = 2.2). After pre-treatment in both H? and CO, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the used catalysts shifted from a mono-modal particle-size distribution (mean ~11 nm) to a multi-modal distribution with a substantial increase in the smaller nanoparticles (~5 nm), which was statistically significant. Further characterization was conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM with EDX elemental mapping), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The average CO conversion at 500 K was 18% (Co/C), 17% (Fe/C), and 16% (Co-Fe/C); 46%, 37%, and 57% at 520 K; and 85%, 86% and 71% at 540 K respectively. The selectivity of Co/C for C5+ was ~98% with 8% gasoline, 61%, diesel and 28% wax (fractions) at 500 K; 22% gasoline, 50% diesel, and 19% wax at 520 K; and 24% gasoline, 34% diesel, and 11% wax at 540 K, besides CO? and CH? as by-products. Fe-containing catalysts manifested similar trends, with a poor conformity to the Anderson?Schulz?Flory (ASF) product distribution.
Project description:We have prepared and structurally characterized a new class of Fe(II) PNP pincer hydride complexes [Fe(PNP-iPr)(H)(CO)(L)] n (L = Br-, CH3CN, pyridine, PMe3, SCN-, CO, BH4-; n = 0, +1) based on the 2,6-diaminopyridine scaffold where the PiPr2 moieties of the PNP ligand are connected to the pyridine ring via NH and/or NMe spacers. Complexes [Fe(PNP-iPr)(H)(CO)(L)] n with labile ligands (L = Br-, CH3CN, BH4-) and NH spacers are efficient catalysts for the hydrogenation of both ketones and aldehydes to alcohols under mild conditions, while those containing inert ligands (L = pyridine, PMe3, SCN-, CO) are catalytically inactive. Interestingly, complex [Fe(PNPMe-iPr)(H)(CO)(Br)], featuring NMe spacers, is an efficient catalyst for the chemoselective hydrogenation of aldehydes. The first type of complexes involves deprotonation of the PNP ligand as well as heterolytic dihydrogen cleavage via metal-alkoxide cooperation, but no reversible aromatization/deprotonation of the PNP ligand. In the case of the N-methylated complex the mechanism remains unclear, but obviously does not allow bifunctional activation of dihydrogen. The experimental results complemented by DFT calculations strongly support an insertion of the C=O bond of the carbonyl compound into the Fe-H bond.
Project description:The activation of readily prepared, air-stable cobalt (II) bis(carboxylate) pre-catalysts for the functionalization of C(sp2)-H bonds has been systematically studied. With the pyridine bis(phosphine) chelate, iPrPNP, treatment of 1-(O2CtBu)2 with either B2Pin2 or HBPin generated cobalt boryl products. With the former, reduction to (iPrPNP)CoIBPin was observed while with the latter, oxidation to the cobalt(III) dihydride boryl, trans-(iPrPNP)Co(H)2BPin occurred. The catalytically inactive cobalt complex, Co[PinB(O2CtBu)2]2, accompanied formation of the cobalt-boryl products in both cases. These results demonstrate that the pre-catalyst activation from cobalt(II) bis(carboxylates), although effective and utilizes an air-stable precursor, is less efficient than activation of cobalt(I) alkyl or cobalt(III) dihydride boryl complexes, which are quantitatively converted to the catalytically relevant cobalt(I) boryl. Related cobalt(III) dihydride silyl and cobalt(I) silyl complexes were also synthesized from treatment of trans-(iPrPNP)Co(H)2BPin and (iPrPNP)CoPh with HSi(OEt)3, respectively. No catalytic silylation of arenes was observed with either complex likely due to the kinetic preference for reversible C-H reductive elimination rather than product- forming C-Si bond formation from cobalt(III). Syntheses of the cobalt(II) bis(carboxylate) and cobalt(I) alkyl of iPrPONOP, a pincer where the methylene spacers have been replaced by oxygen atoms, were unsuccessful due to deleterious P-O bond cleavage of the pincer. Despite their structural similarity, the rich catalytic chemistry of iPrPNP was not translated to iPrPONOP due to the inability to access stable cobalt precursors as a result of ligand decomposition via P-O bond cleavage.
Project description:Catalytic hydrogenation of amides is of great interest for chemists working in organic synthesis, as the resulting amines are widely featured in natural products, drugs, agrochemicals, dyes, etc. Compared to traditional reduction of amides using (over)stoichiometric reductants, the direct hydrogenation of amides using molecular hydrogen represents a greener approach. Furthermore, amide hydrogenation is a highly versatile transformation, since not only higher amines (obtained by C-O cleavage), but also lower amines and alcohols, or amino alcohols (obtained by C-N cleavage) can be selectively accessed by fine tuning of reaction conditions. This review describes the most recent advances in the area of amide hydrogenation using H2 exclusively and molecularly defined homogeneous as well as nano-structured heterogeneous catalysts, with a special focus on catalyst development and synthetic applications.
Project description:The effect of Fe2O3 crystal phases on their performance in CO2 hydrogenation was studied. ?-Fe2O3 crystal was prepared by precipitation method from Fe(NO3)3·9H2O and (NH4)2CO3, and ?-Fe2O3 was prepared by grinding Fe(NO3)3·9H2O and L(+)-Tartaric acid in agate mortar completely. The crystal phases of Fe2O3 influence the distribution of promoter Zn, K and Cu on catalysts. The dispersity of K on ?-Fe2O3 surface is higher than ?-Fe2O3. On the contrary, Cu and Zn are more dispersive on ?-Fe2O3 surface than ?-Fe2O3. The catalyst in ?-Fe2O3 phase is easily reduced relative to the catalyst in ?-Fe2O3 phase. The former presents higher CO2 conversion and C2+ hydrocarbon selectivity than the latter in CO2 hydrogenation.
Project description:The catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide is of great interest for its potential as a hydrogen storage method and to use carbon dioxide as C-1 feedstock. In an effort to replace expensive noble metal-based catalysts with efficient and cheap earth-abundant counterparts, we report the first example of Mn(i)-catalysed hydrogenation of CO2 to HCOOH. The hydride Mn(i) catalyst [Mn(PNPNH-iPr)(H)(CO)2] showed higher stability and activity than its Fe(ii) analogue. TONs up to 10?000 and quantitative yields were obtained after 24 h using DBU as the base at 80 °C and 80 bar total pressure. At catalyst loadings as low as 0.002 mol%, TONs greater than 30?000 could be achieved in the presence of LiOTf as the co-catalyst, which are among the highest activities reported for base-metal catalysed CO2 hydrogenations to date.
Project description:The chemoselective hydrogenation of substituted nitroarenes to form the corresponding functionalized anilines is an important type of reaction in fine chemistry, and the chemoselectivity is critically dependent on the rational design of the catalysts. This reaction has rarely been accomplished over high-loading Pt catalysts due to the formation of Pt crystals. Here, for the first time, we report that alkali metals (Li+, Na+, K+, etc.) can transform the non-selective high loading Pt/FeO x catalyst to a highly chemoselective one. The best result was obtained over a 5% Na-2.16% Pt/FeO x catalyst, which enhanced the chemoselectivity from 66.4% to 97.4% while the activity remained almost unchanged for the probe reaction of 3-nitrostyrene hydrogenation to 3-aminostyrene. Using aberration-corrected HAADF-STEM, in situ XAS, 57 and Fe Mössbauer and DRIFT spectroscopy, the active site of a Pt-O-Na-O-Fe-like species was proposed, which ensures that the Pt centers are isolated and positively charged for the preferential adsorption of the -NO2 group.
Project description:By applying N-doped carbon modified iron-based catalysts, the controlled hydrogenation of N-heteroarenes, especially (iso)quinolones, is achieved. Crucial for activity is the catalyst preparation by pyrolysis of a carbon-impregnated composite, obtained from iron(ii) acetate and N-aryliminopyridines. As demonstrated by TEM, XRD, XPS and Raman spectroscopy, the synthesized material is composed of Fe(0), Fe3C and FeN x in a N-doped carbon matrix. The decent catalytic activity of this robust and easily recyclable Fe-material allowed for the selective hydrogenation of various (iso)quinoline derivatives, even in the presence of reducible functional groups, such as nitriles, halogens, esters and amides. For a proof-of-concept, this nanostructured catalyst was implemented in the multistep synthesis of natural products and pharmaceutical lead compounds as well as modification of photoluminescent materials. As such this methodology constitutes the first heterogeneous iron-catalyzed hydrogenation of substituted (iso)quinolones with synthetic importance.
Project description:Size effect plays a crucial role in catalytic hydrogenation. The highly dispersed ultrasmall clusters with a limited number of metal atoms are one candidate of the next generation catalysts that bridge the single-atom metal catalysts and metal nanoparticles. However, for the unfavorable electronic property and their interaction with the substrates, they usually exhibit sluggish activity. Taking advantage of the small size, their catalytic property would be mediated by surface binding species. The combination of metal cluster coordination chemistry brings new opportunity. CO poisoning is notorious for Pt group metal catalysts as the strong adsorption of CO would block the active centers. In this work, we will demonstrate that CO could serve as a promoter for the catalytic hydrogenation when ultrasmall Pd clusters are employed. By means of DFT calculations, we show that Pd n ?(n = 2-147) clusters display sluggish activity for hydrogenation due to the too strong binding of hydrogen atom and reaction intermediates thereon, whereas introducing CO would reduce the binding energies of vicinal sites, thus enhancing the hydrogenation reaction. Experimentally, supported Pd2CO catalysts are fabricated by depositing preestablished [Pd2(?-CO)2Cl4]2- clusters on oxides and demonstrated as an outstanding catalyst for the hydrogenation of styrene. The promoting effect of CO is further verified experimentally by removing and reintroducing a proper amount of CO on the Pd cluster catalysts.