Effect of apo-lactoferrin on leukotoxin and outer membrane vesicles of Mannheimia haemolytica A2.
ABSTRACT: Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2 is the principal cause of pneumonic mannheimiosis in ovine and caprine livestock; this disease is a consequence of immune suppression caused by stress and associated viruses and is responsible for significant economic losses in farm production worldwide. Gram-negative bacteria such as M. haemolytica produce outer membrane (OM)-derived spherical structures named outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain leukotoxin and other biologically active virulence factors. In the present study, the relationship between M. haemolytica A2 and bovine lactoferrin (BLf) was studied. BLf is an 80 kDa glycoprotein that possesses bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties and is part of the mammalian innate immune system. Apo-BLf (iron-free) showed a bactericidal effect against M. haemolytica A2, with an observed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 16 µM. Sublethal doses (2-8 µM) of apo-BLf increased the release of OMVs, which were quantified by flow cytometry. Apo-BLf modified the normal structure of the OM and OMVs, as observed through transmission electron microscopy. Apo-BLf also induced lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release from bacteria, disrupting OM permeability and functionality, as measured by silver staining and SDS and polymyxin B cell permeability assays. Western blot results showed that apo-BLf increased the secretion of leukotoxin in M. haemolytica A2 culture supernatants, possibly through its iron-chelating activity. In contrast, holo-BLf (with iron) did not have this effect, possibly due to differences in the tertiary structure between these proteins. In summary, apo-BLf affected the levels of several M. haemolytica virulence factors and could be evaluated for use in animals as an adjuvant in the treatment of ovine mannheimiosis.
Project description:Mannheimia haemolytica is a Gram negative bacterium that is part of the bovine respiratory disease, which causes important economic losses in the livestock industry. In the present work, the interaction between M. haemolytica A1 and bovine lactoferrin (BLf) was studied. This iron-chelating glycoprotein is part of the mammalian innate-immune system and is present in milk and mucosal secretions; Lf is also contained in neutrophils secondary granules, which release this glycoprotein at infection sites. It was evidenced that M. haemolytica was not able to use iron-charged BLf (BholoLf) as a sole iron source; nevertheless, iron-lacked BLf (BapoLf) showed a bactericidal effect against M. haemolytica with MIC of 4.88 ± 1.88 and 7.31 ± 1.62 ?M for M. haemolytica strain F (field isolate) and M. haemolytica strain R (reference strain), respectively. Through overlay assays and 2-D electrophoresis, two OMP of 32.9 and 34.2 kDa with estimated IP of 8.18 and 9.35, respectively, were observed to bind both BapoLf and BholoLf; these OMP were identified by Maldi-Tof as OmpA (heat-modifiable OMP) and a membrane protein (porin). These M. haemolytica BLf binding proteins could be interacting in vivo with both forms of BLf depending on the iron state of the bovine.
Project description:The mosaic structure and molecular evolution of the leukotoxin operon (lktCABD) was investigated by nucleotide sequence comparison of the lktC, lktB, and lktD genes in 23 Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, 6 Mannheimia glucosida, and 4 Pasteurella trehalosi strains. Sequence variation in the lktA gene has been described previously (R. L. Davies et al., J. Bacteriol. 183:1394-1404, 2001). The leukotoxin operon of M. haemolytica has a complex mosaic structure and has been derived by extensive inter- and intraspecies horizontal DNA transfer and intragenic recombination events. However, the pattern of recombination varies throughout the operon and among the different evolutionary lineages of M. haemolytica. The lktA and lktB genes have the most complex mosaic structures with segments derived from up to four different sources, including M. glucosida and P. trehalosi. In contrast, the lktD gene is highly conserved in M. haemolytica. The lktC, lktA, and lktB genes of strains representing the major ovine lineages contain recombinant segments derived from bovine or bovine-like serotype A2 strains. These findings support the previous conclusion that host switching of bovine A2 strains from cattle to sheep has played a major role in the evolution of the leukotoxin operon in ovine strains of M. haemolytica. Homologous segments of donor and recipient alleles are identical, or nearly identical, indicating that the recombinational exchanges occurred relatively recent in evolutionary terms. The 5' and 3' ends of the operon are highly conserved in M. haemolytica, which suggests that multiple horizontal exchanges of the complete operon have occurred by a common mechanism such as transduction. Although the lktA and lktB genes both have complex mosaic structures and high nucleotide substitution rates, the amino acid diversity of LktB is significantly lower than that of LktA due to a higher degree of evolutionary constraint against amino acid replacement. The recombinational exchanges within the leukotoxin operon have had greatest effect on LktA and probably provide an adaptive advantage against the host antibody response by generating novel antigenic variation at surface-exposed sites.
Project description:The molecular evolution of the leukotoxin structural gene (lktA) of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica was investigated by nucleotide sequence comparison of lktA in 31 bovine and ovine strains representing the various evolutionary lineages and serotypes of the species. Eight major allelic variants (1.4 to 15.7% nucleotide divergence) were identified; these have mosaic structures of varying degrees of complexity reflecting a history of horizontal gene transfer and extensive intragenic recombination. The presence of identical alleles in strains of different genetic backgrounds suggests that assortative (entire gene) recombination has also contributed to strain diversification in M. haemolytica. Five allelic variants occur only in ovine strains and consist of recombinant segments derived from as many as four different sources. Four of these alleles consist of DNA (52.8 to 96.7%) derived from the lktA gene of the two related species Mannheimia glucosida and Pasteurella trehalosi, and four contain recombinant segments derived from an allele that is associated exclusively with bovine or bovine-like serotype A2 strains. The two major lineages of ovine serotype A2 strains possess lktA alleles that have very different evolutionary histories and encode divergent leukotoxins (5.3% amino acid divergence), but both contain segments derived from the bovine allele. Homologous segments of donor and recipient alleles are identical or nearly identical, indicating that the recombination events are relatively recent and probably postdate the domestication of cattle and sheep. Our findings suggest that host switching of bovine strains from cattle to sheep, together with inter- and intraspecies recombinational exchanges, has played an important role in generating leukotoxin diversity in ovine strains. In contrast, there is limited allelic diversity of lktA in bovine strains, suggesting that transmission of strains from sheep to cattle has been less important in leukotoxin evolution.
Project description:The tbpBA operon was sequenced in 42 representative isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica (32), Mannheimia glucosida (6) and Bibersteinia trehalosi (4). A total of 27 tbpB and 20 tbpA alleles were identified whilst the tbpBA operon was represented by 28 unique alleles that could be assigned to seven classes. There were 1566 (34.8% variation) polymorphic nucleotide sites and 482 (32.1% variation) variable inferred amino acid positions among the 42 tbpBA sequences. The tbpBA operons of serotype A2 M. haemolytica isolates are, with one exception, substantially more diverse than those of the other M. haemolytica serotypes and most likely have a different ancestral origin. The tbpBA phylogeny has been severely disrupted by numerous small- and large-scale intragenic recombination events. In addition, assortative (entire gene) recombination events, involving either the entire tbpBA operon or the individual tbpB and tbpA genes, have played a major role in shaping tbpBA structure and it's distribution in the three species. Our findings indicate that a common gene pool exists for tbpBA in M. haemolytica, M. glucosida and B. trehalosi. In particular, B. trehalosi, M. glucosida and ovine M. haemolytica isolates share a large portion of the tbpA gene, and this probably reflects selection for a conserved TbpA protein that provides effective iron uptake in sheep. Bovine and ovine serotype A2 lineages have very different tbpBA alleles. Bovine-like tbpBA alleles have been partially, or completely, replaced by ovine-like tbpBA alleles in ovine serotype A2 isolates, suggesting that different transferrin receptors are required by serotype A2 isolates for optimum iron uptake in cattle and sheep. Conversely, the tbpBA alleles of bovine-pathogenic serotype A1 and A6 isolates are very similar to those of closely related ovine isolates, suggesting a recent and common evolutionary origin.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Mannheimia subclades belong to the same bacterial genus, but have taken divergent paths toward their distinct lifestyles. For example, M. haemolytica + M. glucosida are potential pathogens of the respiratory tract in the mammalian suborder Ruminantia, whereas M. ruminalis, the supposed sister group, lives as a commensal in the ovine rumen. We have tested the hypothesis that vertical inheritance of the leukotoxin (lktCABD) operon has occurred from the last common ancestor of genus Mannheimia to any ancestor of the diverging subclades by exploring gene order data. RESULTS: We examined the gene order in the 5' flanking region of the leukotoxin operon and found that the 5' flanking gene strings, hslVU-lapB-artJ-lktC and xylAB-lktC, are peculiar to M. haemolytica + M. glucosida and M. granulomatis, respectively, whereas the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC is present in M. ruminalis, the supposed sister group of M. haemolytica + M. glucosida, and in the most ancient subclade M. varigena. In M. granulomatis, we found remnants of the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC in the xylB-lktC intergenic region. CONCLUSION: These observations indicate that the gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC is more ancient than the hslVU-lapB-artJ-lktC and xylAB-lktC gene strings. The presence of (remnants of) the ancient gene string hslVU-lapB-lktC among any subclades within genus Mannheimia supports that it has been vertically inherited from the last common ancestor of genus Mannheimia to any ancestor of the diverging subclades, thus reaffirming the hypothesis of vertical inheritance of the leukotoxin operon. The presence of individual 5' flanking regions in M. haemolytica + M. glucosida and M. granulomatis reflects later genome rearrangements within each subclade. The evolution of the novel 5' flanking region in M. haemolytica + M. glucosida resulted in transcriptional coupling between the divergently arranged artJ and lkt promoters. We propose that the chimeric promoter have led to high level expression of the leukotoxin operon which could explain the increased potential of certain M. haemolytica + M. glucosida strains to cause a particular type of infection.
Project description:Mannheimia haemolytica, a major causative agent in bovine respiratory disease, inflicts extensive losses each year on cattle producers. Commercially available vaccines are only partially efficacious. Immunity to M. haemolytica requires antibodies to secreted toxins and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of the bacterium. Gram-negative bacteria produce membrane blebs or vesicles, the membrane components of which are primarily derived from OMPs. Accordingly, vesicles have been used as immunogens with various degrees of success. This study characterized components of M. haemolytica vesicles and determined their immunogenicity in mice and cattle. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of vesicles from this bacterium identified 226 proteins, of which 58 (25.6%) were OMPs and periplasmic and one (0.44%) was extracellular. Vesicles were used to vaccinate dairy calves and BALB/c mice. Analyses of sera from calves and mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that circulating antibodies against M. haemolytica whole cells and leukotoxin were significantly higher on days 21 and 28 (P < 0.05) than on day 0. For control calves and mice, there were no significant differences in serum anti-whole-cell and leukotoxin antibody levels from days 0 and 21 or 28, respectively. Lesion scores of lungs from vaccinated calves (15.95%) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those from nonvaccinated calves (42.65%). Sera from mice on day 28 and calves on day 21 showed 100% serum bactericidal activity. Sera from vesicle-vaccinated mice neutralized leukotoxin.
Project description:This study used the Eri silk nanoparticles (NPs) for delivering apo-bovine lactoferrin (Apo-bLf) (~2% iron saturated) and Fe-bLf (100% iron saturated) in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Apo-bLf and Fe-bLf-loaded Eri silk NPs with sizes between 200 and 300 nm (±10 nm) showed a significant internalization within 4 hours in MDA-MB-231 cells when compared to MCF-7 cells. The ex vivo loop assay with chitosan-coated Fe-bLf-loaded silk NPs was able to substantiate its future use in oral administration and showed the maximum absorption within 24 hours by ileum. Both Apo-bLf and Fe-bLf induced increase in expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and lactoferrin receptor in epidermal growth factor (EGFR)-positive MDA-MB-231 cells, while transferrin receptor (TfR) and TfR2 in MCF-7 cells facilitated the receptor-mediated endocytosis of NPs. Controlled and sustained release of both bLf from silk NPs was shown to induce more cancer-specific cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells compared to normal MCF-10A cells. Due to higher degree of internalization, the extent of cytotoxicity and apoptosis was significantly higher in MDA-MB-231 (EGFR+) cells when compared to MCF-7 (EGFR-) cells. The expression of a prominent anticancer target, survivin, was found to be downregulated at both gene and protein levels. Taken together, all the observations suggest the potential use of Eri silk NPs as a delivery vehicle for an anti-cancer milk protein, and indicate bLf for the treatment of breast cancer.
Project description:Mannheimia haemolytica is the primary bacterial species associated with respiratory disease of ruminants. A lack of cost-effective, reproducible models for the study of M. haemolytica pathogenesis has hampered efforts to better understand the molecular interactions governing disease progression. We employed a highly optimised ovine tracheal epithelial cell model to assess the colonisation of various pathogenic and non-pathogenic M. haemolytica isolates of bovine and ovine origin. Comparison of single representative pathogenic and non-pathogenic ovine isolates over ten time-points by enumeration of tissue-associated bacteria, histology, immunofluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed temporal differences in adhesion, proliferation, bacterial cell physiology and host cell responses. Comparison of eight isolates of bovine and ovine origin at three key time-points (2 h, 48 h and 72 h), revealed that colonisation was not strictly pathogen or serotype specific, with isolates of serotype A1, A2, A6 and A12 being capable of colonising the cell layer regardless of host species or disease status of the host. A trend towards increased proliferative capacity by pathogenic ovine isolates was observed. These results indicate that the host-specific nature of M. haemolytica infection may result at least partially from the colonisation-related processes of adhesion, invasion and proliferation at the epithelial interface.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Mannheimia species encompass a wide variety of bacterial lifestyles, including opportunistic pathogens and commensals of the ruminant respiratory tract, commensals of the ovine rumen, and pathogens of the ruminant integument. Here we present a scenario for the evolution of the leukotoxin promoter among representatives of the five species within genus Mannheimia. We also consider how the evolution of the leukotoxin operon fits with the evolution and maintenance of virulence. RESULTS: The alignment of the intergenic regions upstream of the leukotoxin genes showed significant sequence and positional conservation over a 225-bp stretch immediately proximal to the transcriptional start site of the lktC gene among all Mannheimia strains. However, in the course of the Mannheimia genome evolution, the acquisition of individual noncoding regions upstream of the conserved promoter region has occurred. The rate of evolution estimated branch by branch suggests that the conserved promoter may be affected to different extents by the types of natural selection that potentially operate in regulatory regions. Tandem repeats upstream of the core promoter were confined to M. haemolytica with a strong association between the sequence of the repeat units, the number of repeat units per promoter, and the phylogenetic history of this species. CONCLUSION: The mode of evolution of the intergenic regions upstream of the leukotoxin genes appears to be highly dependent on the lifestyle of the bacterium. Transition from avirulence to virulence has occurred at least once in M. haemolytica with some evolutionary success of bovine serotype A1/A6 strains. Our analysis suggests that changes in cis-regulatory systems have contributed to the derived virulence phenotype by allowing phase-variable expression of the leukotoxin protein. We propose models for how phase shifting and the associated virulence could facilitate transmission to the nasopharynx of new hosts.
Project description:This report describes the genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2 isolated from pneumonic lungs of two different ruminant species, one from Ovis aries, designated ovine (O), and the other from Bos taurus, designated bovine (B).