Development of a core outcome set for lower limb orthopaedic surgical interventions in ambulant children and young people with cerebral palsy: a study protocol.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Musculoskeletal deformities and gait deviations are common features in ambulatory cerebral palsy (CP). Deformity correction through lower limb orthopaedic surgery is the standard form of care aimed at improving or preserving motor function. Current research on CP care does not always take into account individual patients' expectations and needs. There is a wide range of outcome domains and outcome measures used to assess outcome from treatment. This can lead to reporting bias and make it difficult to compare and contrast studies. A core outcome set (COS) would enhance the efficiency, relevance and overall quality of CP orthopaedic surgery research. The aim of this study is to establish a standardised COS for use in evaluating lower limb orthopaedic surgery for ambulatory children and young people with CP. METHODS/ANALYSIS:A set of outcomes domains and outcome measures will be developed as follows: (1) a qualitative evidence synthesis to identify relevant outcomes from children and young people and family perspective; (2) a scoping review to identify relevant outcomes and outcome measures; (3) qualitative research to explore the experience of key stakeholders; (4) prioritisation of outcome domains will be achieved through a two-round Delphi process with key stakeholders; (5) a final COS will be developed at a consensus meeting with representation from key stakeholder groups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval for this study was granted in the UK by the Oxfordshire Research Ethics Committee B (REC reference 19/SC/0357). Informed consent will be obtained from participants taking part in the qualitative research and Delphi process. Study findings will be published in an open access journal and presented at relevant national and international conferences. Charities and associations will be engaged to promote awareness of the project COS results. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:COMET registration: 1236. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42018089538.
Project description:Purpose:Equinus is the most common deformity in cerebral palsy (CP) and gastrocsoleus lengthening (GSL) is the most commonly performed surgery to improve gait and function in ambulatory children with CP. Substantial variation exists in the indications for GSL and surgical technique. The purpose of this study was to review surgical anatomy and biomechanics of the gastrocsoleus and to utilize expert orthopaedic opinion through a Delphi technique to establish consensus for surgical indications for GSL in ambulatory children with CP. Methods:A 17-member panel, of Fellowship-trained paediatric orthopaedic surgeons, each with at least 9 years of clinical post-training experience in the surgical management of children with CP, was established. Consensus for the surgical indications for GSL was achieved through a standardized, iterative Delphi process. Results:Consensus was reached to support conservative Zone 1 surgery in diplegia and Zone 3 surgery (lengthening of the Achilles tendon) was contraindicated. Zone 2 or Zone 3 surgery reached general agreement as a choice in hemiplegia and under-correction was preferred to any degree of overcorrection. Agreement was reached that the optimum age for GSL surgery was 6 years to 10 years and should be avoided in children aged under 4 years. Physical examination measures with the child awake and under anaesthesia were important in decision making. Gait analysis was supported both for decision making and for assessing outcomes, in combination with patient reported outcomes (PROMS). Conclusions:The results from this study may encourage informed practice evaluation, reduce practice variability, improve clinical outcomes and point to questions for further research. Level of Evidence:V.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Estimates of multimorbidity, defined as the presence of at least two chronic conditions, some of which attributable to modifiable behaviours, are high in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). An assessment protocol evaluating multimorbidity risk is needed in order to develop and evaluate effective interventions to optimize lifelong health in individuals with CP. The aim of this protocol paper is to describe the development of a core outcome set (COS) for assessing multimorbidity risk in adolescents and adults with CP, to be used in clinic and research. METHODS:The expert consortium will first define the target population and outcomes to be measured. Through a process of literature review and an international Delphi survey with expert clinicians and researchers, we will then determine which outcome measurement instruments (OMIs) can best measure those outcomes. The resulting OMIs will be used in a feasibility study with adolescents and adults with CP from an international clinical research network. Finally, a face-to-face stakeholder meeting with adolescents and adults with CP, their families/caregivers and researchers and clinicians who are experts in CP, will be organized to reach final agreement on the COS. DISCUSSION:This COS will guide clinicians and researchers in assessing multimorbidity risk in adolescents and adults with CP. The inclusion of experts and individuals with CP from international locations for establishing the COS lends strong support to its generalizability. Evidence of its feasibility and approval from all stakeholders will enable implementation in clinical practice, and guide future research using the COS in individuals with CP.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Existing data on physical rehabilitation interventions in critical illness are challenged by outcome heterogeneity that limits data synthesis and translation of research findings into clinical practice. This protocol describes the PRACTICE study to develop a core outcome set (COS) for trials of physical rehabilitation interventions delivered across the continuum of a patient's recovery from the intensive care unit until reintegration in the community following hospital discharge.<h4>Methods</h4>Mixed methods will be used including: systematic reviews of quantitative and qualitative literature; qualitative interviews with patients and caregivers; a modified Delphi consensus process with researcher, clinician and patient/caregiver stakeholder groups; and consensus meetings for ratification of findings, resolving uncertainty, or developing an action plan for COS implementation.<h4>Discussion</h4>The PRACTICE COS will inform relevant stakeholders about important outcomes regarding physical rehabilitation in critical illness, and may enhance the future design and conduct of trials in this area.<h4>Trial registration</h4>COMET database ( www.comet-initiative.org/ , Record ID 288, 01/03/13). PROSPERO database ( CRD42014008908 , CRD42017078549 ).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pelvic Girdle Pain (PGP) is an important cause of disability and economic cost worldwide. There is a need for effective preventative and management strategies. Emerging studies measure a variety of outcomes rendering synthesis and translation to clinical practice difficult. A Core Outcome Set (COS) can address this problem by ensuring that data are relevant, useful and usable for making well-informed healthcare choices. The aim of this study is to develop a consensus-based PGP-COS, including agreement on methods (e.g. instruments) for measuring the construct outcomes in the COS for use in research and clinical practice. Furthermore, as there is uncertainty as to whether incorporating stakeholder interviews in addition to conducting a systematic review to determine an initial list of outcomes for the Delphi survey, or, whether using different rating scales in a Delphi survey impacts on the final COS, we propose to embed two methodological studies within the PGP-COS development process to address these questions.<h4>Methods</h4>The PGP-COS study will include five phases: (1) A systematic review of the literature and semi-structured interviews with 15 patients (three countries) to form the initial list of outcomes for the Delphi survey; (2) A 3-round Delphi including patients, clinicians, researchers and service providers; (3) A systematic review of methods for measuring the outcomes in the preliminary PGP-COS identified in the Delphi survey; (4) A face-to-face consensus meeting to agree on the final PGP-COS and methods for measuring the COS; (5) Global dissemination. To address the methodological questions, we will assess the number and type of outcomes, in the final PGP-COS, that were exclusively derived from the interviews. Secondly, we will randomise Delphi survey participants to either a 5-point or 9-point importance rating scale, and examine potential differences in 'important' ratings between the groups.<h4>Discussion</h4>There is currently no COS for measuring/monitoring PGP in trials and clinical practice. A PGP-COS will ensure that relevant outcomes are measured using appropriate measurement instruments for patients with PGP globally.<h4>Core outcome set registration</h4>This PGP-COS was registered with COMET (Core Outcome Measures for Effectiveness Trials) in January 2017 ( http://www.comet-initiative.org/studies/details/958 ).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Maternal obesity is a risk factor for adverse maternal, fetal, and neonatal events. Numerous clinical trials are currently exploring the effectiveness of antenatal and peripartum interventions in improving pregnancy outcomes that can in future inform clinical practice. However, the heterogeneity in outcome reporting limits our ability to compare outcomes across studies, and there is a lack of stakeholder representation in outcome choice. A pragmatic solution to this problem is the development of a core outcome set (COS) that defines the minimum criteria for outcome reporting in clinical trials undertaken in this population, arrived at by the involvement of relevant stakeholders. METHODS:The development of a COS for studies on obesity in pregnant patients (COSSOPP) will comprise five steps. First, a systematic review of published literature will identify the long list of outcomes, their definitions and measurements if applicable, and outcome reporting quality. This will be followed by a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies with patients, and qualitative interviews in Toronto with patients, clinicians, researchers, hospital administrators, and policy-makers, to identify novel outcomes that were not obtained through systematic review. Third, the long list of outcomes will be narrowed down through online Delphi surveys involving an international group of patients and relevant stakeholders. This will be followed by a face-to-face consensus meeting with representatives of all stakeholder groups to arrive at a consensus on the final COS. Finally, in order to determine how the identified core outcomes should be measured, we will conduct another literature review and Delphi process. DISCUSSION:COSSOPP will engage patients, clinicians, researchers, and other relevant stakeholders in determining the core set of outcomes that should be reported and measured in order to harmonize outcome reporting in studies evaluating the effectiveness of antepartum and peripartum interventions in obese pregnant women. This protocol provides a detailed overview of the steps involved in the development of a COS, to guide researchers in developing COS within their areas of specialization. COMET CORE OUTCOME SET REGISTRATION: http://www.comet-initiative.org/studies/details/939 .
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Approximately 75% of children with cleft palate (CP) have Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) histories. Evidence for the effective management of OME in these children is lacking. The inconsistency in outcome measurement in previous studies has led to a call for the development of a Core Outcome Set (COS). Despite the increase in the number of published COS, involvement of patients in the COS development process, and methods to integrate the views of patients and health professionals, to date have been limited.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>A list of outcomes measured in previous research was identified through reviewing the literature. Opinion on the importance of each of these outcomes was then sought from key stakeholders: Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) surgeons, audiologists, cleft surgeons, speech and language therapists, specialist cleft nurses, psychologists, parents and children. The opinion of health professionals was sought in a three round Delphi survey where participants were asked to score each outcome using a bespoke online system. Parents and children were also asked to score outcomes in a survey and provided an in-depth insight into having OME through semi-structured interviews. The results of the Delphi survey, interviews and parent/patient survey were brought together in a final consensus meeting with representation from all stakeholders. A final set of eleven outcomes reached the definition of "consensus in" to form the recommended COS: hearing; chronic otitis media (COM); OME; receptive language skills; speech development; psycho social development; acute otitis media (AOM); cholesteatoma; side effects of treatment; listening skills; otalgia.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We have produced a recommendation about the outcomes that should be measured, as a minimum, in studies of the management of OME in children with CP. The development process included input from key stakeholders and used novel methodology to integrate the opinion of healthcare professionals, parents and children.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The reporting of outcomes in surgical trials for gastric cancer is inconsistent. The GASTROS study (GAstric Cancer Surgery TRials Reported Outcome Standardisation) aims to address this by developing a core outcome set (COS) for use in all future trials within this field. A COS should reflect the views of all stakeholders, including patients. We undertook a series of interviews to identify outcomes important to patients which would be considered for inclusion in a COS. SETTING:All interviews took place within the UK. Interviews were carried out face-to-face at hospitals and cancer support centres or via the telephone. PARTICIPANTS:Twenty participants at varying stages of recovery following surgery for gastric cancer with curative intent. DESIGN:Qualitative design using semistructured interviews, supported by an interview guide which was iteratively modified; thematic analysis was used to explore patient priorities. RESULTS:Six themes enveloping 38 outcomes were identified; surviving and controlling cancer, technical aspects of surgery, adverse events from surgery, recovering from surgery, long-term problems following surgery and long-term life impact of surgery. The 'most important' patient priority was to be 'cured of cancer'. CONCLUSION:Surgical trials for gastric cancer should consider broader priorities of patients when choosing which outcomes to report. This study highlighted the importance of longer-term outcomes such as cancer survival. Outcomes identified in this study will be used to inform an international Delphi survey to develop a COS in this field.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To explore participants' views of Delphi surveys in core outcome set (COS) development. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING:Patients and health professionals (n=24) from seven recently concluded COS studies that had involved a Delphi survey took part in semistructured qualitative interviews (telephone and email exchange). Interviews explored participants' understanding of COS and their experiences of the Delphi survey. Analysis was thematic. RESULTS:Several interviewees had previously participated in two or more COS or Delphi surveys. Those with multiple experiences of participation generally understood the purpose of COS and were satisfied with the Delphi survey. However, some interviewees who were first-time participants struggled to understand the purpose of COS and aspects of the Delphi survey, which limited their contribution and satisfaction with the study. Interviewees also differed in how they interpreted and subsequently used the written documentation provided to COS participants. Some interviewees wanted guidance regarding whose perspective to take into account when scoring outcomes and on how to use the scoring system. Interviewees reported being motivated to take part by the international and expert consensus aspects of the Delphi survey. A few interviewees reported experiencing either positive or negative emotional impacts arising from when they reviewed outcomes and stakeholder feedback. CONCLUSION:This study identifies important information that should be communicated to COS Delphi study participants. It also indicates the importance of communicating about COS Delphi studies in ways that are accessible and salient to participants, to enhance their experience of participation and make the process more meaningful for all.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cleft palate (CP) has an incidence of approximately 1 in 700. Children with CP are also susceptible to otitis media with effusion (OME), with approximately 90% experiencing nontrivial OME. There are several approaches to the management of OME in children with CP. The Management of Otitis Media with Effusion in Children with Cleft Palate (MOMENT) study is a feasibility study that includes the development of a core outcome set for use in future trials of the management of OME in children with CP. METHODS/DESIGN: The MOMENT study will include a systematic review of the literature to identify a list of outcomes that have previously been reported. This list of outcomes will be used in a Delphi study with cleft clinicians. The Delphi study is anticipated to include three rounds. The first round will ask clinicians to score the outcome list and to add any outcomes they think are relevant. The second round involves presentation of scores according to stakeholder group and the opportunity for participants to rescore outcomes. To ensure that the opinion of parents and children are sought, qualitative interviews will be completed with a purposive sample in parallel. In the final round of the Delphi process, participants will be shown the distribution of scores, for each outcome, for all stakeholder groups separately as well as a summary of the results concerning outcomes from the qualitative interviews with parents. A final consensus meeting will be held with all stakeholders, including parents and children, to review outcomes. DISCUSSION: A core outcome set represents the minimum that should be measured in a clinical trial for a particular condition. The MOMENT study will aim to identify a core outcome set that can be used in future trials of the management of OME, improving the consistency of research in this clinical area.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Rigorous evaluation of innovative invasive procedures and medical devices is uncommon and lacks reporting standardisation. Devices may therefore enter routine practice without thorough evaluation, resulting in patient harm. Detailed guidance on how to select and report outcomes at each stage of evaluation is lacking. Development of reporting guidance and core outcome sets (COS) is one strategy to promote safe and transparent evaluation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A COS, comprising outcome domains applicable to all phases of evaluation of procedure/device introduction and modification and, if necessary, supplementary domains relevant to specific phases or types of innovation (procedure or device), will be developed according to principles outlined by Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) and Core Outcome Set-Standards for Development (COS-STAD) guidelines. Reporting guidance will be developed concurrently. The study will have the following three phases:1. Generation of a list of relevant outcome domains and reporting items identified from (a) published studies, (b) hospital policy documentation, (c) regulatory body documentation and (d) stakeholder qualitative interviews. Identified items/domains will be categorised using a conceptual framework and formatted into Delphi consensus survey questionnaire items.2. Key stakeholders, including 50 patients and 150 professionals (surgeons, researchers, device manufacturers, regulatory representatives, journal editors) sampled from multinational sources, will complete a Delphi survey to score the importance of each reporting item and outcome.3. A consensus meeting with key stakeholders will discuss and agree the final content of the reporting guidance and COS(s). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval has been granted by North East-Newcastle and North Tyneside 1 Health Research Authority Research Ethics Committee (18/NE/0378). Dissemination strategies include scientific meeting presentations, peer-reviewed journal publications, development of plain English summaries/materials, patient engagement events, development of a social media identity, workshops and other events.