Polychlorinated biphenyl exposures differentially regulate hepatic metabolism and pancreatic function: Implications for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetes.
ABSTRACT: The endocrine disrupting chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and diabetes. However, an integrative analysis of the effects of PCBs on the liver and pancreas has never been performed for the two major PCB subtypes, dioxin-like (DL) and nondioxin-like (NDL), and a mixture of NDL/DL PCBs. Therefore, male C57BL/6?J mice fed a control synthetic diet were treated with either a NDL PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260 (20?mg/kg); a single DL PCB congener, PCB 126 (20??g/kg); a NDL/DL mixture, Aroclor 1260 plus PCB 126; or vehicle control for 2?weeks. PCB126 had the greatest impact on hepatic lipid metabolism. It caused steatosis due to increased hepatic lipid import with associated hypolipidemia. However, all PCB exposures impacted expression of hepatic lipid metabolism genes in different manners. The 'NASH gene', Pnpla3, was elevated by Aroclor 1260, but decreased by all other exposures. The expression of hepatokines implicated in metabolic syndrome (Fgf21, Igf1, and betatrophin) were differentially regulated. The NDL/DL PCB mixture had the greatest effects on pancreatic histology, including acinar cell atrophy, mild steatosis, and fibrosis without ductal changes or immune cell infiltration. It decreased expression of insulin and altered the expression of genes regulating islet identity. None of these exposures was associated with altered HOMA-IR or HOMA-B. In summary, PCB exposures differentially regulated liver and pancreas structure and function. Novel mechanisms for PCB-induced endocrine/metabolic disruption included altered hepatokines and Pnpla3 as well as 'PCB pancreatopathy' that was associated with altered expression of pancreatic islet identity factors. More research is required to understand fully these findings in the context of human NASH and diabetes.
Project description:Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants associated with non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis (NASH), diabetes, and obesity. We previously demonstrated that the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, induced steatohepatitis and activated nuclear receptors in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. This study aims to evaluate PCB interactions with the pregnane-xenobiotic receptor (Pxr: Nr1i2) and constitutive androstane receptor (Car: Nr1i3) in NASH. Wild type C57Bl/6 (WT), Pxr(-/-) and Car(-/-) mice were fed the high fat diet (42% milk fat) and exposed to a single dose of Aroclor 1260 (20?mg/kg) in this 12-week study. Metabolic phenotyping and analysis of serum, liver, and adipose was performed. Steatohepatitis was pathologically similar in all Aroclor-exposed groups, while Pxr(-/-) mice displayed higher basal pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Pxr repressed Car expression as evident by increased basal Car/Cyp2b10 expression in Pxr(-/-) mice. Both Pxr(-/-) and Car(-/-) mice showed decreased basal respiratory exchange rate (RER) consistent with preferential lipid metabolism. Aroclor increased RER and carbohydrate metabolism, associated with increased light cycle activity in both knockouts, and decreased food consumption in the Car(-/-) mice. Aroclor exposure improved insulin sensitivity in WT mice but not glucose tolerance. The Aroclor-exposed, Pxr(-/-) mice displayed increased gluconeogenic gene expression. Lipid-oxidative gene expression was higher in WT and Pxr(-/-) mice although RER was not changed, suggesting PCB-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, Pxr and Car regulated inflammation, behavior, and energy metabolism in PCB-mediated NASH. Future studies should address the 'off-target' effects of PCBs in steatohepatitis.
Project description:Environmental pollution contributes to fatty liver disease pathogenesis. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures have been associated with liver enzyme elevation and suspected steatohepatitis in cohort studies. Male mice treated with the commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg), and fed high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks developed steatohepatitis. Receptor-based modes of action including inhibition of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor were previously proposed, but other mechanisms likely exist. Objectives were to identify and validate the pathways, transcription factors, and mechanisms responsible for the steatohepatitis associated with PCB and HFD coexposures. Comparative proteomics analysis was performed in archived mouse liver samples from the aforementioned chronic exposure study. Pathway and transcription factor analysis (TFA) was performed, and selected results were validated. Liver proteomics detected 1103 unique proteins. Aroclor 1260 upregulated 154 and downregulated 93 of these. Aroclor 1260 + HFD coexposures affected 55 pathways including glutathione metabolism, intermediary metabolism, and cytoskeletal remodeling. TFA of Aroclor 1260 treatment demonstrated alterations in the function of 42 transcription factors including downregulation of NRF2 and key nuclear receptors previously demonstrated to protect against steatohepatitis (e.g., HNF4?, FXR, PPAR?/?/?, etc.). Validation studies demonstrated that Aroclor 1260 significantly reduced HNF4? protein levels, while Aroclor 1260 + HFD reduced expression of the HNF4? target gene, albumin, in vivo. Aroclor 1260 attenuated EGF-dependent HNF4? phosphorylation and target gene activation in vitro. Aroclor 1260 reduced levels of NRF2, its target genes, and glutathione in vivo. Aroclor 1260 attenuated EGF-dependent NRF2 upregulation, in vitro. Aroclor 1260 indirectly activated hepatic stellate cells in vitro via induction of hepatocyte-derived TGF?. PCB exposures adversely impacted transcription factors regulating liver protection, function, and fibrosis. PCBs, thus, compromised the liver by reducing its protective responses against nutritional stress to promote diet-induced steatohepatitis. The identified mechanisms by which environmental pollutants influence fatty liver disease pathogenesis require confirmation in humans.
Project description:1.?Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that disrupt hepatic xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism, leading to metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). 2.?Since phenobarbital indirectly activates Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) by antagonizing growth factor binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we hypothesized that PCBs may also diminish EGFR signaling. 3.?The effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1260 on the protein phosphorylation cascade triggered by EGFR activation were determined in murine (in vitro and in vivo) and human models (in vitro). EGFR tyrosine residue phosphorylation was decreased by PCBs in all models tested. 4.?The IC50 values for Aroclor 1260 concentrations that decreased Y1173 phosphorylation of EGFR were similar in murine AML-12 and human HepG2 cells (?2-4??g/mL). Both dioxin and non-dioxin-like PCB congeners decreased EGFR phosphorylation in cell culture. 5.?PCB treatment reduced phosphorylation of downstream EGFR effectors including Akt and mTOR, as well as other phosphoprotein targets including STAT3 and c-RAF in vivo. 6.?PCBs diminish EGFR signaling in human and murine hepatocyte models and may dysregulate critical phosphoprotein regulators of energy metabolism and nutrition, providing a new mechanism of action in environmental diseases.
Project description:Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with metabolic disruption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Based on their ability to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), PCBs are subdivided into two classes: dioxin-like (DL) and non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs. Previously, we demonstrated that NDL PCBs compromised the liver to promote more severe diet-induced NAFLD. Here, the hepatic effects and potential mechanisms (by untargeted liver proteomics) of DL PCBs, NDL PCBs or co-exposure to both in diet-induced NAFLD are investigated. Male C57Bl/6 mice were fed a 42% fat diet and exposed to vehicle control; Aroclor1260 (20 mg/kg, NDL PCB mixture); PCB126 (20 μg/kg, DL PCB congener); or a mixture of Aroclor1260 (20 mg/kg)+PCB126 (20 μg/kg) for 12 weeks. Each exposure was associated with a distinct hepatic proteome. Phenotypic and proteomic analyses revealed increased hepatic inflammation and phosphoprotein signaling disruption by Aroclor1260. PCB126 decreased hepatic inflammation and fibrosis at the molecular level; while altering cytoskeletal remodeling, metal homeostasis, and intermediary/xenobiotic metabolism. PCB126 attenuated Aroclor1260-induced hepatic inflammation but increased hepatic free fatty acids in the co-exposure group. Aroclor1260+PCB126 exposure was strongly associated with multiple epigenetic processes, and these could potentially explain the observed non-additive effects of the exposures on the hepatic proteome. Taken together, the results demonstrated that PCB exposures differentially regulated the hepatic proteome and the histologic severity of diet-induced NAFLD. Future research is warranted to determine the AhR-dependence of the observed effects including metal homeostasis and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression.
Project description:1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are endocrine disrupting chemicals associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This study documents the species-specific differences between mouse (high affinity mAhR) and human AhR (hAhR) activation by PCB congeners and Aroclor mixtures. 2. AhR activation by TCDD or PCBs 77, 81, 114, 114, 126, and 169 was measured using luciferase reporter constructs transfected into either Hepa1c1c7 mouse or HepG2 human liver cell lines. The EC<sub>50</sub> values were lower in Hepa1c1c7 cells than HepG2 cells for all compounds tested except PCB 81. The results for TCDD and PCB 126 were validated in primary human and mouse hepatocytes by measuring CYP1A1 gene transcript levels. 3. Because humans are exposed to PCB mixtures, several mixtures (Aroclors 1254; 1260; and 1260?+?0.1% PCB126 each at 10?µg/ml) were then tested. Neither Aroclor 1254 nor Aroclor 1260 increased luciferase activity by the transfected AhR reporter construct. The Aroclor 1260?+?0.1% PCB 126 mixture induced mAhR-mediated transactivation, but not hAhR activation in cell lines. 4. In summary, significant concentration-dependent differences exist between human and mouse AhR activation by PCBs. Relative effect potencies differed, in some cases, from published toxic equivalency factors.
Project description:Previous reports suggested that non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB153 effects on cytochrome P450 3A (Cyp3a) expression in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) gills differed between F0 generation fish from a PCB site (New Bedford Harbor; NBH) and a reference site (Scorton Creek; SC). Here, we examined effects of PCB153, dioxin-like (DL) PCB126, or a mixture of both, on Cyp3a56 mRNA in killifish generations removed from the wild, without environmental PCB exposures. PCB126 effects in liver and gills differed between populations, as expected. Gill Cyp3a56 was not affected by either congener in NBH F2 generation fish, but was induced by PCB153 in SC F1 fish, with females showing a greater response. PCB153 did not affect Cyp3a56 in liver of either population. Results suggest a heritable resistance to NDL-PCBs in killifish from NBH, in addition to that reported for DL PCBs. Induction of Cyp3a56 in gills may be a biomarker of exposure to NDL PCBs in fish populations that are not resistant to PCBs.
Project description:Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and high fat diet (HFD) results in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in mice by altering intracellular signaling and inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Post-transcriptional chemical modification (PTM) of RNA regulates biological processes. This study tested the hypothesis that PCB exposure alters the global RNA epitranscriptome in HFD-fed male mouse liver. C57BL/6J male mice were fed a 42% milk fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20mg/kg), PCB 126 (20 µg/kg), both Aroclor 1260 and PCB 126, or vehicle control for 12 weeks. RNA modifications altered by PCB exposure were analyzed in comparison to the readers, writers, and erasers of these marks in the RNA transcriptome. Overall design: Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed a HFD (42% kCal from fat) and treated with Aroclor 1260, PCB 126, and the combination of Aroclor 1260 + PCB 126 for 12 weeks. A total of four sample groups with five replicates each were sequenced (high fat diet alone; high fat diet with Aroclor 1260 treament; high fat diet with PCB 126 treatment; and high fat diet with Aroclor 1260 + PCB 126 treatment).
Project description:Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXR?), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 ?g/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ?10 ?g/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (?20 ?g/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 ?g/ml) suppressed PPAR? activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPAR?.
Project description:Exposure to a single dose of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and a 12-week high-fat diet (HFD) results in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in mice by altering intracellular signaling and inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. Post-transcriptional chemical modification (PTM) of RNA regulates biological processes, but the contribution of epitranscriptomics to PCB-induced steatosis remains unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that PCB and HFD exposure alters the global RNA epitranscriptome in male mouse liver. C57BL/6J male mice were fed a HFD for 12 weeks and exposed to a single dose of Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg), PCB 126 (20 µg/kg), both Aroclor 1260 and PCB 126 or vehicle control after 2 weeks on HFD. Chemical RNA modifications were identified at the nucleoside level by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. From 22 PTM global RNA modifications, we identified 10 significant changes in RNA modifications in liver with HFD and PCB 126 exposure. Only two modifications were significantly different from HFD control liver in all three PCB exposure groups: 2'-O-methyladenosine (Am) and N(6)-methyladenosine (m6A). Exposure to HFD + PCB 126 + Aroclor 1260 increased the abundance of N(6), O(2)-dimethyladenosine (m6Am), which is associated with the largest number of transcript changes. Increased m6Am and pseudouridine were associated with increased protein expression of the writers of these modifications: Phosphorylated CTD Interacting Factor 1 (PCIF1) and Pseudouridine Synthase 10 (PUS10), respectively, in HFD + PCB 126- + Aroclor 1260-exposed mouse liver. Increased N1-methyladenosine (m1A) and m6A were associated with increased transcript levels of the readers of these modifications: YTH N6-Methyladenosine RNA Binding Protein 2 (YTHDF2), YTH Domain Containing 2 (YTHDC2), and reader FMRP Translational Regulator 1 (FMR1) transcript and protein abundance. The results demonstrate that PCB exposure alters the global epitranscriptome in a mouse model of NASH; however, the mechanism for these changes requires further investigation.
Project description:Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20mg/kg or 200mg/kg in corn oil) for 12weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260+HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNF? were increased only at 20mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant "second hit" in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis.