Emerging partner violence among young adolescents in a low-income country: Perpetration, victimization and adversity.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent in high- as well as low-income contexts. It results in a substantial public health burden and significant negative socioeconomic and health outcomes throughout the life-course. However, limited knowledge exists about IPV during early adolescence. This period is critical during the transition to adulthood for at least two reasons: it is when the majority of adolescents in low-income countries first encounter dating, sexuality and partnerships, often with older adolescents or adults, and it is also the period when lifelong patterns of violence and norms about acceptable IPV are formed. The current study is one of the first to measure IPV prevalence among young adolescents in a low-income setting, examine the potential etiology, and investigate relationships with gender ideology, poverty, mental health and childhood adversity. METHODS:We surveyed 2,089 adolescents aged 10-16 in Malawi using standardized instruments. We estimated the prevalence of IPV, and use multivariate logistic regression to test potential correlates. RESULTS:More than a quarter (27%) of ever-partnered adolescents in Malawi report being victimized. A substantial proportion of both male and female adolescents (15%) report committing violence against their partner. Girls were more likely than boys to report being a victim of sexual IPV (24% versus 8%), and boys more likely to perpetrate such (9% versus 1%). Almost 10% of the sample had both committed and been a victim of IPV. Cumulative childhood adversity (e.g., physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence) was a consistent and strong correlate of IPV victimization (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.30) and of perpetration (aOR 1.35). Depression and PTSD were likewise associated with IPV victimization in the overall sample. Notably, gender ideology was not predictive of either victimization or perpetration, even among boys. CONCLUSIONS:IPV is common for both male and female young Malawian adolescents, and includes both victimization and perpetration. IPV compounds other adversities experienced by adolescents in this low-income setting, and it is rarely alleviated through help from the health system or other formal support. These findings underscore the need to intervene early when interventions can still break destructive pathways and help foster healthier relationships. This focus on early adolescence is particularly critical in low-income countries given the early onset and rapid pace of the transition to adulthood, with sexual activity, dating and partnership thus being common already in young adolescence. Promising interventions would be those that reduce violence against or around children, as well as those that reduce the impacts of such trauma on mental health during adolescence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and child health outcomes, including poor mental health. Previous IPV research has largely focused on women's victimization experiences; however, evidence suggests young women may be more likely to engage in bilateral violence (report both victimization and perpetration) or perpetrate IPV (unilateral perpetration) during pregnancy than to report being victimized (unilateral victimization). This study examined prevalence of unilateral victimization, unilateral perpetration, and bilateral violence, and the association between these IPV profiles and mental health outcomes during pregnancy among young, low-income adolescents. METHODS:Survey data were collected from 930 adolescents (14-21?years; 95.4% Black and Latina) from fourteen Community Health Centers and hospitals in New York City during second and third trimester of pregnancy. Multivariable regression models tested the association between IPV profiles and prenatal depression, anxiety, and distress, adjusting for known predictors of psychological morbidity. RESULTS:Thirty-eight percent of adolescents experienced IPV during their third trimester of pregnancy. Of these, 13% were solely victims, 35% were solely perpetrators, and 52% were engaged in bilateral violence. All women with violent IPV profiles had significantly higher odds of having depression and anxiety compared to individuals reporting no IPV. Adolescents experiencing bilateral violence had nearly 4-fold higher odds of depression (OR?=?3.52, 95% CI: 2.43, 5.09) and a nearly 5-fold increased likelihood of anxiety (OR?=?4.98, 95% CI: 3.29, 7.55). Unilateral victims and unilateral perpetrators were also at risk for adverse mental health outcomes, with risk of depression and anxiety two- to three-fold higher, compared to pregnant adolescents who report no IPV. Prenatal distress was higher among adolescents who experienced bilateral violence (OR?=?2.84, 95% CI: 1.94, 4.16) and those who were unilateral victims (OR?=?2.21, 95% CI: 1.19, 4.12). CONCLUSIONS:All violent IPV profiles were associated with adverse mental health outcomes among pregnant adolescents, with bilateral violence having the most detrimental associations. Comprehensive IPV screening for both victimization and perpetration experiences during pregnancy is warranted. Clinical and community prevention efforts should target pregnant adolescents and their partners to reduce their vulnerability to violence and its adverse consequences. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00628771 . Registered 29 February 2008.
Project description:<h4>Context</h4>Intimate partner violence (IPV) among sexual minority young adults has been understudied, and victimization and perpetration estimates are needed.<h4>Methods</h4>Data on 13,653 women and men aged 24-32 who participated in Wave 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were used to examine associations between sexual orientation and IPV perpetration and victimization in respondents' current or most recent relationship. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations between respondent characteristics and three IPV categories (physical violence, threatened violence and forced sex).<h4>Results</h4>Some 94% of males and 80% of females identified as 100% heterosexual; 4% of males and 16% of females as mostly heterosexual; 1% of males and 2% of females as bisexual; and 2% of males and females as either mostly homosexual or 100% homosexual. Compared with their heterosexual counterparts, mostly heterosexual women were more likely to report having perpetrated or been a victim of physical IPV (odds ratios, 1.9 and 1.6, respectively), having threatened violence (2.0) and having been a victim of threatened violence and forced sex (1.6 for each); mostly heterosexual males were more likely to have been a perpetrator or victim of physical IPV (3.1 and 1.8, respectively) and a perpetrator of forced sex and threatened violence (2.0 and 1.8, respectively). Bisexual males had elevated odds of physical violence victimization (3.3) and forced sex victimization (4.9) and perpetration (5.0).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Some sexual minority groups are disproportionately affected by IPV, indicating a need for increased prevention efforts and for studies exploring the mechanisms underlying these differences.
Project description:Approximately twenty percent of female and ten percent of male adolescents report violence in their dating relationships and there is a significant association between dating violence in adolescence and later perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Identification of factors associated with dating violence can inform intervention and prevention efforts. This study was designed to examine the associations of early childhood maltreatment experience and involvement in adolescent dating violence. It also aimed to identify the moderating effect of insecure attachment styles on these associations. One hundred fifty adolescent who participated in a larger longitudinal study on prenatal drug exposure participated in this study. Participants completed self-report measures of childhood maltreatment at a standard follow-up visit between the ages of 15-19 years. Approximately 18 month later, they completed questionnaires on their attachment styles and level of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Hierarchical regression modeling revealed a significant main effect for childhood abuse but not insecure attachment on perpetration and victimization of dating violence. Avoidant attachment significantly moderated the relationship between childhood abuse exposure and dating violence: For adolescents who reported an avoidant attachment style, an increase in the level of experienced childhood maltreatment predicted significantly higher increases in victimization by dating violence, compared to those did not have avoidant attachment. Results suggest adolescents with child maltreatment history and avoidant attachment styles may be at higher risk for involvement in dating violence and support intervention efforts for fostering attachment relationship to attenuate the association between early exposures to maltreatment and involvement in dating violence later.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IPV, associations of socio-economic and psychosocial factors with IPV, and the association of IPV with depression and sexual behaviour, among GBMSM in the PROUD trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). METHODS:PROUD enrolled 544 HIV-negative participants in England from 2012 to 2014; participants were randomised to immediate or deferred PrEP. This analysis included 436 GBMSM who had IPV data at month-12 and/or 24. Prevalence of IPV victimization and perpetration (lifetime, and in the past year) was assessed at these time-points. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate associations with IPV, using pooled data from both time-points. RESULTS:At month-12 (N?=?410), 44.9% of men reported ever being a victim of IPV, 15.6% in the last year, and 19.5% reported ever perpetrating IPV, 7.8% in the last year. At month-24 (N?=?333), the corresponding prevalence was 40.2 and 14.7% for lifetime and past year IPV victimization and 18.0 and 6.9% for lifetime and past year IPV perpetration. IPV prevalence did not differ by randomised arm. Men reporting internalized homophobia and sexualized drug use were more likely to report IPV. Lifetime and last year experience of IPV victimization and perpetration were strongly associated with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9???10) (adjusted for socio-demographics: lifetime IPV victimization PR 2.57 [95% CI: 1.71, 3.86]; past year IPV victimization PR 2.93 [95% CI: 1.96, 4.40]; lifetime IPV perpetration PR 2.87 [95% CI: 1.91, 4.32]; past year IPV perpetration PR 3.47 [95% CI: 2.13, 5.64], p?<?0.001 for all); IPV was not consistently associated with measures of condomless anal sex or high partner numbers. CONCLUSIONS:GBMSM at high-risk of HIV who are seeking/taking PrEP may experience a high burden of IPV, which may be linked to depression. Training on awareness of and enquiry for IPV among GBMSM in sexual health clinics is recommended. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02065986 . Registered 19 February 2014 (retrospectively registered).
Project description:Background:Prolonged conflict and economic instability challenge the existing support networks in families and society places significant stress on both adults and adolescents. Exploring individual, family and social factors that increase the likelihood of or protect adolescents from negative outcomes are important to the development of evidence-based prevention and response programing in global settings. Objective:Examine the relationship between parent mental health and experience/perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and adolescent behaviors, stigma, and school attendance. The relationship is further examined for differences by gender. Methods:Secondary analysis of data from an ongoing comparative effectiveness trial of a productive asset transfer program in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Results:Three hundred and eighty-eight adolescent and parent dyads were included in the analysis. The analysis demonstrated that parent mental health and IPV can have a negative impact their children's well-being and the impact is different for boys and girls, likely linked to gender roles and responsibilities in the home and community. Social relationships of adolescents, as reported through experienced stigma, were negatively impacted for both boys and girls. Parent report of symptoms of PTSD and depression had a stronger negative effect on girls' outcomes, including experienced stigma, externalizing behaviors, and missed days of school than boys. For adolescent boys, their parent's report of IPV victimization/perpetration was associated with more negative behaviors at the 8-month follow-up assessment. Conclusion:The findings reinforce the critical importance of interventions that engage parents and their children in activities that advance health and improve relationships within the family.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with many negative consequences, particularly for pregnant women. This randomized trial investigated the effectiveness of an IPV preventive intervention embedded within the Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) program. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Participants enrolled over a 20-month period and were interviewed at baseline and 1- and 2-year follow-up. Eligibility criteria included first pregnancy, eligible for the nutrition program Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), English or Spanish speaking, and at least 15 years of age. All women initially referred and screened were randomized to either intervention (NFP+) or control (NFP only) condition. The final sample consisted of 238 women completing baseline assessments; retention was 81% at 2-year follow-up. RESULTS:Analyses indicated that there were no main effects: the intervention affected participants differently depending on their baseline experience with IPV. For physical violence victimization, an interaction between baseline victimization and treatment was found; the intervention reduced victimization at 1 year (and approached significance at 2 years), but only among women who had not experienced past-year physical victimization at baseline. For sexual violence victimization, another interaction emerged; women in the intervention group were more likely to report sexual violence victimization at 2-year follow-up, but only among participants who had reported sexual victimization at baseline. The only effect on IPV perpetration was psychological perpetration at 2-year follow-up; again, the treatment effect was moderated by baseline perpetration. The intervention reduced psychological perpetration for participants who were nonperpetrators at baseline, but had no effect on those reporting perpetration. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, findings suggest that the intervention was effective in reducing some forms of violence among those not experiencing IPV at baseline, but was ineffective or potentially harmful for those already experiencing IPV.
Project description:Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children's physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children's peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children's peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan.A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls' and four boys' schools). All children were interviewed with a questionnaire developed for the study. The main outcome is a three-level peer violence variable consisting of (a) no violence, (b) victimization only, or (c) perpetration (with or without victimization). Peer violence victimization was measured through the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale, and peer violence perpetration was measured through an adjusted version of the same scale with wording changed to measure perpetration.49.7% of boys and 43.3% of girls reported having experienced more than one instance of violence victimization in the past month, and 31.7% of boys and 17.6% of girls disclosed perpetration of more than one instance of violence in the past month, with considerable overlap found between experience of victimization and perpetration, particularly among boys. Multinomial models of factors associated with peer violence show that for boys, food insecurity was associated with perpetration of peer violence but not with victimization, and experiencing corporal punishment at school in the last month was significantly associated with both peer victimization and perpetration. For girls, food insecurity, more depressive symptoms and experiencing any beating at home were associated with both violence victimization and perpetration. Having a disability was associated with victimization only, and having witnessed their father fighting and experiencing any kind of corporal punishment were associated with peer violence perpetration only.Peer violence in Afghanistan is linked to food insecurity, exposure of children to witnessing family violence, and children's experience of physical violence at home and corporal punishment at school. School-based settings provide an important platform for interventions to reduce and prevent peer violence; however, such interventions may benefit from broader violence-prevention initiatives conducted at the community level.
Project description:Bullying is a phenomenon that affects children and adolescents worldwide, and it has major consequences for all participants involved in these situations. In Chile, researchers have validated several instruments used to investigate aggression between peers and school violence, but there is a lack of validation of instruments to investigate bullying. The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of the validity and reliability of the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire-Revised version (OBVQ-R) in the Chilean context. The participants were 2,775 students from schools of low, medium, and high socioeconomic status. OBVQ-R is a self-report questionnaire with 42 items, which has been used in different countries, and has adequate psychometric properties to assess the prevalence of victimization and aggression and various forms of bullying worldwide. Results confirmed the two-factor structure of the OBVQ-R (victimization and perpetration subscales) and good reliability (ω = 0.81 and ω = 0.75, respectively). These dimensions seem to be correlated. Comparison between OBVQ-R with the School Violence between Peers Questionnaire and the Internet Experiences Questionnaire showed some degree of agreement. The Item Response Theory analysis showed that the item about verbal bullying, in both subscales, had the lowest-severity parameters, meaning that these forms of bullying were the most prevalent. The higher-severity parameter in the victimization scale was the cyberbullying item, and the sexual bullying item showed higher severity in the perpetration subscale. The differential item functioning analysis by gender showed a trend in which boys responded with lower-severity parameters than girls. In the victimization scale, the exception was the item about spreading rumors, and in the perpetration subscale, it was the item about racial bullying. We have provided evidence of the validation of OBVQ-R among school-age children and adolescents in Chile. This study is part of a trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02898324.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who have sex with men (MSM) has become a serious and widespread public health issue, which might result in low quality of life and increase the global burden of diseases.<h4>Aim</h4>To quantitatively estimate the pooled prevalence of IPV and its specific forms (physical violence, sexual violence and emotional violence) among MSM.<h4>Methods</h4>Databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CNKI, WANFANG Data, and Weipu (CQVIP) Data were searched for identified studies published between January 1990 and August 2020. Random effect meta-analyses were used to synthesize the pooled prevalence and 95% CIs of IPV.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>The pooled prevalence of IPV in victimization and in perpetration among MSM.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 52 studies with 32,048 participants were included for final analysis. The pooled prevalence of IPV was 33% (6,342 of 19,873; 95%CI, 28-39%) in victimization and 29% (1,491 of 5,983; 95%CI, 17 -40%) in perpetration across all recall periods among MSM population. Furthermore, the pooled prevalence of physical violence was 17% (3,979 of 22,928; 95%CI, 14 -20%) and 12% (942 of 9,236; 95%CI, 10 -15%), of sexual violence was 9% (1,527 of 19,511; 95%CI, 8 -11%) and 4% (324 of 8,044; 95%CI, 3 -5%), of emotional violence was 33% (5,147 of 17,994; 95%CI, 25 -40%) and 41% (1,317 of 3,811; 95%CI, 17 -65%) in victimization and perpetration, respectively. Out of all the IPV identified, emotional violence was estimated at the highest level.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study demonstrated a high prevalence of IPV both in victimization and perpetration among MSM, and emotional violence was estimated at the highest level out of all IPV forms. Efforts are needed to develop corresponding prevention programs for victims with an intent to increase the accessible availability of health services, and ultimately improve their life quality. Liu M., Cai X., Hao G. et al., Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sex Med 2021;9:100433.
Project description:To examine correlates of perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV) under and not under the influence of a substance, we conducted a study among women in Russia.In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients receiving services at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis.Of 299 women, 104 (34.8%) and 113 (37.8%) reported a history of IPV perpetration and victimization, respectively. Nearly half (47.1%) of perpetrators and 61.1% of victims reported that the latest IPV event (perpetration and victimization, respectively) was experienced under the influence of a substance. Factors independently associated with IPV victimization under the influence of a substance were alcohol misuse and a higher number of lifetime sex partners, whereas only experience of childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV victimization that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Childhood physical abuse, lower age of first sex, sensation seeking, and alcohol misuse were independently associated with IPV perpetration under the influence of a substance, while only childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV perpetration that did not occur under the influence of a substance.IPV under and not under the influence of a substance had different correlates (e.g., alcohol misuse and sensation seeking). Despite the strong association between substance use and IPV, experience of childhood abuse is an important predictor of IPV perpetration and victimization in Russia, above and beyond substance use.