A Pharmacogenomic Dissection of a Rosuvastatin-Induced Rhabdomyolysis Case Evokes the Polygenic Nature of Adverse Drug Reactions.
ABSTRACT: Rosuvastatin, is a widely-used statin for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Although rosuvastatin is well tolerated, about 3/10.000 patients can suffer severe myopathy. Rhabdomyolysis is a severe medical condition that causes injury to the skeletal muscle, electrolyte imbalances, acute renal failure and extreme creatine kinase (CK) elevation. Little is known regarding the molecular involvement of rosuvastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis (RIR). It has been demonstrated that genomic variants associated with decreased enzymatic activity of proteins are important determinants in plasmatic and skeletal muscle distribution of rosuvastatin and its toxicity. Until now, no interactions of ticagrelor, ezetimibe and rosuvastatin have been described with the consideration of pharmacogenomics predisposition. The present report involves a whole-exome sequencing (WES), in a patient affected by rosuvastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis. A pharmacogenomic dissection was performed by analyzing a comprehensive subset of candidate genes (n=160) potentially related to RIR. The genes were selected according to their implication in drug metabolism or inherited myopathies. Using an innovative approach of bioinformatics analysis, considering rare and common variants, we identified 19 genomic variations potentially related to the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modifications of rosuvastatin, ezetimibe and ticagrelor. The affected genes are involved in Phase I metabolism (CYP2C19, CYP2E1, CYP1A1, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9), Phase II metabolism (UGT2B15 and UGT2B7), influx transportation (SLCO1B3 and SLCO2B1), efflux transportation (ABCG8, ABCB11, ABCC4 and ABCB1), drug targeting (NPC1L1) and inherited myopathy etiology (OBSCN). We report three rare, potentially pathogenic molecular variants in CYP2C19, NPC1L1 and OBSCN genes. Pharmacogenetic analysis indicated that the patient was a carrier of inactivating alleles in several pharmacogenes involved in drug toxicity. The whole-exome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis presented here represents an innovative way to identify genomic variants contributing with RIR´s origin and evokes the polygenic nature of adverse drug reactions.
Project description:The introduction of ticagrelor, one of the first directly-acting oral antiplatelet drugs, provided new possibilities in the prevention of thrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Current guidelines recommend ticagrelor in dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin over clopidogrel for prevention of stent thrombosis in patients with ACS. Moreover, in the management of ACS, lipid-lowering treatment with high-intensity statin therapy is advised for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events over the long term. Despite the apparent advantages of combined antiplatelet and lipid-lowering treatments, a possible interaction between statins and ticagrelor may lead to myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. In this review, relevant information was gathered on the ticagrelor-statin interaction that might lead to this life-threatening condition. This review focuses on the most widely used statins-simvastatin, atorvastatin, and rosuvastatin. Possible mechanisms of this interaction are discussed, including CYP3A4 isoenzymes, organic anion transporter polypeptide (OATPs), P-glycoprotein and glucuronidation. PubMed database was searched for relevant case reports and all data gathered from the introduction of ticagrelor to March 2018 are presented and discussed. In summary, co-administration of statins and ticagrelor was found to be relatively safe in routinely prescribed doses. However, caution should be exercised, especially in elder populations.
Project description:Early reperfusion of the occluded coronary artery during acute myocardial infarction is considered crucial for reduction of infarcted mass and recovery of ventricular function. Effective microcirculation and the balance between protective and harmful lymphocytes may have roles in reperfusion injury and may affect final ventricular remodeling.BATTLE-AMI is an open-label, randomized trial comparing the effects of four therapeutic strategies (rosuvastatin/ticagrelor, rosuvastatin/clopidogrel, simvastatin plus ezetimibe/ticagrelor, or simvastatin plus ezetimibe/clopidogrel) on infarcted mass and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (blinded endpoints) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction submitted to fibrinolytic therapy before coronary angiogram (pharmacoinvasive strategy). All patients (n?=?300, 75 per arm) will be followed up for six months. The effects of treatment on subsets of B and T lymphocytes will be determined by flow-cytometry/ELISPOT and will be correlated with the infarcted mass, LVEF, and microcirculation perfusion obtained by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The primary hypothesis is that the combined rosuvastatin/ticagrelor therapy will be superior to other therapies (particularly for the comparison with simvastatin plus ezetimibe/clopidogrel) for the achievement of better LVEF at 30 days (primary endpoint) and smaller infarcted mass (secondary endpoint) at 30 days and six months. The trial will also evaluate the improvement in the immune/inflammatory responses mediated by B and T lymphocytes. Omics field (metabolomics and proteomics) will help to understand these responses by molecular events.BATTLE-AMI is aimed to (1) evaluate the role of subsets of lymphocytes on microcirculation improvement and (2) show how the choice of statin/antiplatelet therapy may affect cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction with ST elevation.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02428374 . Registered on 28 September 2014.
Project description:Ezetimibe is a potent inhibitor of cholesterol absorption that has been approved for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, but its molecular target has been elusive. Using a genetic approach, we recently identified Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) as a critical mediator of cholesterol absorption and an essential component of the ezetimibe-sensitive pathway. To determine whether NPC1L1 is the direct molecular target of ezetimibe, we have developed a binding assay and shown that labeled ezetimibe glucuronide binds specifically to a single site in brush border membranes and to human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing NPC1L1. Moreover, the binding affinities of ezetimibe and several key analogs to recombinant NPC1L1 are virtually identical to those observed for native enterocyte membranes. KD values of ezetimibe glucuronide for mouse, rat, rhesus monkey, and human NPC1L1 are 12,000, 540, 40, and 220 nM, respectively. Last, ezetimibe no longer binds to membranes from NPC1L1 knockout mice. These results unequivocally establish NPC1L1 as the direct target of ezetimibe and should facilitate efforts to identify the molecular mechanism of cholesterol transport.
Project description:Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is required for cholesterol absorption. Intestinal NPC1L1 appears to be a target of ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor that effectively lowers plasma LDL-cholesterol in humans. However, human liver also expresses NPC1L1. Hepatic function of NPC1L1 was previously unknown, but we recently discovered that NPC1L1 localizes to the canalicular membrane of primate hepatocytes and that NPC1L1 facilitates cholesterol uptake in hepatoma cells. Based upon these findings, we hypothesized that hepatic NPC1L1 allows the retention of biliary cholesterol by hepatocytes and that ezetimibe disrupts hepatic function of NPC1L1. To test this hypothesis, transgenic mice expressing human NPC1L1 in hepatocytes (L1-Tg mice) were created. Hepatic overexpression of NPC1L1 resulted in a 10- to 20-fold decrease in biliary cholesterol concentration, but not phospholipid and bile acid concentrations. This decrease was associated with a 30%-60% increase in plasma cholesterol, mainly because of the accumulation of apoE-rich HDL. Biliary and plasma cholesterol concentrations in these animals were virtually returned to normal with ezetimibe treatment. These findings suggest that in humans, ezetimibe may reduce plasma cholesterol by inhibiting NPC1L1 function in both intestine and liver, and hepatic NPC1L1 may have evolved to protect the body from excessive biliary loss of cholesterol.
Project description:Hypercholesterolemia is one of the key risk factors for coronary heart disease, a major cause of death in developed countries. Suppression of NPC1L1-mediated dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption is predicted to be one of the most effective ways to reduce the risk of hypercholesterolemia. In a screen for natural products that inhibit ezetimibe glucuronide binding to NPC1L1, we found a novel compound, fomiroid A, in extracts of the mushroom Fomitopsis nigra. Fomiroid A is a lanosterone derivative with molecular formula C30H48O3. Fomiroid A inhibited ezetimibe glucuronide binding to NPC1L1, and dose-dependently prevented NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol uptake and formation of esterified cholesterol in NPC1L1-expressing Caco2 cells. Fomiroid A exhibited a pharmacological chaperone activity that corrected trafficking defects of the L1072T/L1168I mutant of NPC1L1. Because ezetimibe does not have such an activity, the binding site and mode of action of fomiroid A are likely to be distinct from those of ezetimibe.
Project description:The intestinal absorption of cholesterol is mediated by a multipass membrane protein, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1), the molecular target of a cholesterol lowering therapy ezetimibe. While ezetimibe gained Food and Drug Administration approval in 2002, its mechanism of action has remained unclear. Here, we present two cryo-electron microscopy structures of NPC1L1, one in its apo form and the other complexed with ezetimibe. The apo form represents an open state in which the N-terminal domain (NTD) interacts loosely with the rest of NPC1L1, leaving the NTD central cavity accessible for cholesterol loading. The ezetimibe-bound form signifies a closed state in which the NTD rotates ~60°, creating a continuous tunnel enabling cholesterol movement into the plasma membrane. Ezetimibe blocks cholesterol transport by occluding the tunnel instead of competing with cholesterol binding. These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol transport and ezetimibe inhibition, paving the way for more effective therapeutic development.
Project description:Rosuvastatin and ezetimibe are commonly applied in lipid-lowering pharmacotherapy. However, the pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction was not clear by the coadministration of rosuvastatin and ezetimibe. This study investigated the pharmacodynamic (PD) and PK interactions between rosuvastatin and ezetimibe through a crossover clinical trial.A randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence crossover study with two treatment parts was conducted in healthy male subjects. Study part A involved rosuvastatin, and study part B involved ezetimibe. A total of 25 subjects in both parts completed the PK and PD evaluations. Rosuvastatin (20 mg) or ezetimibe (10 mg) was administered once daily for 7 days as monotherapy or co-therapy. The plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin, total ezetimibe and free ezetimibe were measured for 72 h after day 7. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) were investigated for the PD assessments on day 1 (pretreatment) and day 8.Rosuvastatin and ezetimibe presented multiple peaks. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios for the peak plasma concentration at steady state (Cmax,ss) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve during the dosing interval at steady state (AUC?,ss) of rosuvastatin and total ezetimibe were within the range 0.8-1.25. However, the coadministration increased the systemic exposure of free ezetimibe. In the PD assessments, rosuvastatin and ezetimibe monotherapy reduced the LDL-C and TC levels effectively. In addition, the lipid-lowering effects of the coadministration corresponded to an approximate summation of the effects of rosuvastatin and ezetimibe monotherapy. However, no significant changes in HDL-C were observed with rosuvastatin or ezetimibe treatment. No significant safety issue was noted.The coadministration of rosuvastatin and ezetimibe revealed a bioequivalent PK interaction. Additional lipid-lowering effects, including decreased LDL-C and TC, were observed as expected in combination therapy without significant safety concern.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The correlation between intestinal cholesterol absorption values and plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remains controversial. Niemann-Pick-C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) is essential for intestinal cholesterol absorption, and is the target of ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor. However, studies with NPC1L1 knockout mice or ezetimibe cannot definitively clarify this correlation because NPC1L1 expression is not restricted to intestine in humans and mice. In this study we sought to genetically address this issue. METHODS AND RESULTS:We developed a mouse model that lacks endogenous (NPC1L1) and LDL receptor (LDLR) (DKO), but transgenically expresses human NPC1L1 in gastrointestinal tract only (DKO/L1(IntOnly) mice). Our novel model eliminated potential effects of non-intestinal NPC1L1 on cholesterol homeostasis. We found that human NPC1L1 was localized at the intestinal brush border membrane of DKO/L1(IntOnly) mice. Cholesterol feeding induced formation of NPC1L1-positive vesicles beneath this membrane in an ezetimibe-sensitive manner. Compared to DKO mice, DKO/L1(IntOnly) mice showed significant increases in cholesterol absorption and blood/hepatic/biliary cholesterol. Increased blood cholesterol was restricted to very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and LDL fractions, which was associated with increased secretion and plasma levels of apolipoproteins B100 and B48. Additionally, DKO/L1(IntOnly) mice displayed decreased fecal cholesterol excretion and hepatic/intestinal expression of cholesterologenic genes. Ezetimibe treatment virtually reversed all of the transgene-related phenotypes in DKO/L1(IntOnly) mice. CONCLUSION:Our findings from DKO/L1(IntOnly) mice clearly demonstrate that NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol absorption is a major determinant of blood levels of apolipoprotein B-containing atherogenic lipoproteins, at least in mice.
Project description:We aimed to compare the effects of fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin to rosuvastatin alone in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, including a subgroup analysis of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MetS).This multicenter eight-week randomized double-blind phase III study evaluated the safety and efficacy of fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe 10 mg plus rosuvastatin, compared with rosuvastatin alone in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. Four hundred and seven patients with primary hypercholesterolemia who required lipid-lowering treatment according to the ATP III guideline were randomized to one of the following six treatments for 8 weeks: fixed-dose combinations with ezetimibe 10 mg daily plus rosuvastatin (5, 10, or 20 mg daily) or rosuvastatin alone (5, 10, or 20 mg daily).Fixed-dose combination of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin significantly reduced LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels compared with rosuvastatin alone. Depending on the rosuvastatin dose, these fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin provided LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride reductions of 56%-63%, 37%-43%, and 19%-24%, respectively. Moreover, the effect of combination treatment on cholesterol levels was more pronounced in patients with DM or MetS than in non-DM or non-MetS patients, respectively, whereas the effect of rosuvastatin alone did not differ between DM vs non-DM or MetS vs non-MetS patients.Fixed-dose combinations of ezetimibe and rosuvastatin provided significantly superior efficacy to rosuvastatin alone in lowering LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Moreover, the reduction rate was greater in patients with DM or MetS.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Ezetimibe/statin combination therapy has been reported to provide additional cardioprotective effects compared to statin monotherapy. The apolipoprotein B/A1 (apoB/A1) ratio is an effective predictor of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy versus rosuvastatin monotherapy using the apoB/A1 ratio in patients with diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. METHODS:In this randomized, multicenter, open-label, parallel-group study, patients were randomly assigned to receive the combination therapy of rosuvastatin 5 mg/ezetimibe 10 mg once daily (n?=?68) or monotherapy with rosuvastatin 10 mg once daily (n?=?68), for 8 weeks. RESULTS:After the 8-week treatment, percentage change (least-square means ± standard error) in the apoB/A1 ratio in the rosuvastatin/ezetimibe group was significantly decreased compared to the rosuvastatin group (-?46.14?±?1.58% vs. ?-?41.30?±?1.58%, respectively; P?=?0.03). In addition, the proportion of patients achieving > 50% reduction in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and in the comprehensive lipid target (LDL-C?<?70 mg/dL, non-HDL-cholesterol [non-HDL-C]?<?100 mg/dL, and apoB?<?80 mg/dL) was significantly different between the two groups (76.5 and 73.5% in the rosuvastatin/ezetimibe group and 47.1 and 45.6% in the rosuvastatin group, respectively; P?<?0.001). The reduction in total cholesterol, non-HDL-C, LDL-C, and apoB were greater in the rosuvastatin/ezetimibe group than in the rosuvastatin group. Both treatments were well tolerated, and no between-group differences in drug-related adverse events were observed. CONCLUSION:The apoB/A1 ratio was significantly reduced in patients receiving combination therapy with ezetimibe and rosuvastatin compared to those receiving rosuvastatin monotherapy. Both treatments were well tolerated in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03446261.