One-component order parameter in URu2Si2 uncovered by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and machine learning.
ABSTRACT: The unusual correlated state that emerges in URu2Si2 below T HO = 17.5 K is known as "hidden order" because even basic characteristics of the order parameter, such as its dimensionality (whether it has one component or two), are "hidden." We use resonant ultrasound spectroscopy to measure the symmetry-resolved elastic anomalies across T HO. We observe no anomalies in the shear elastic moduli, providing strong thermodynamic evidence for a one-component order parameter. We develop a machine learning framework that reaches this conclusion directly from the raw data, even in a crystal that is too small for traditional resonant ultrasound. Our result rules out a broad class of theories of hidden order based on two-component order parameters, and constrains the nature of the fluctuations from which unconventional superconductivity emerges at lower temperature. Our machine learning framework is a powerful new tool for classifying the ubiquitous competing orders in correlated electron systems.
Project description:Elastic and anelastic properties of a member of the BiFeO3-CaFeO2.5 perovskite solid solution (BCFO), which is known to have multiple instabilities, have been investigated by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. This phase, with 64% Bi and 36% Ca on the A site, is antiferromagnetic (T N ∼650 K) and has an ordered arrangement of oxygen vacancies with tetragonal lattice geometry. The inverse mechanical quality factor, Q (-1), has a maximum near 100 K, correlating closely with a peak in dielectric loss, reported previously, consistent with a loss mechanism that involves the movement of oxygen vacancies accompanied by local lattice distortion. At higher temperature, there is a further acoustic loss peak that is correlated with complex impedance anomalies. There is no clear relationship to the magnetic transition, and the observations are interpreted as relating to ionic conductivity. A small stiffening, scaling with the square of the magnetic order parameter below T N, indicates that the main coupling with strain is biquadratic, confirming that conventional coupling of magnetic order with symmetry-breaking shear strains is weak in BCFO. Data from the literature for BCFO indicates that local strain fields are likely to be responsible for suppressing the spin cycloid present in BiFeO3.
Project description:In matter, any spontaneous symmetry breaking induces a phase transition characterized by an order parameter, such as the magnetization vector in ferromagnets, or a macroscopic many-electron wave function in superconductors. Phase transitions with unknown order parameter are rare but extremely appealing, as they may lead to novel physics. An emblematic and still unsolved example is the transition of the heavy fermion compound [Formula: see text] (URS) into the so-called hidden-order (HO) phase when the temperature drops below [Formula: see text] K. Here, we show that the interaction between the heavy fermion and the conduction band states near the Fermi level has a key role in the emergence of the HO phase. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we find that while the Fermi surfaces of the HO and of a neighboring antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase of well-defined order parameter have the same topography, they differ in the size of some, but not all, of their electron pockets. Such a nonrigid change of the electronic structure indicates that a change in the interaction strength between states near the Fermi level is a crucial ingredient for the HO to AFM phase transition.
Project description:A phase transition is often accompanied by the appearance of an order parameter and symmetry breaking. Certain magnetic materials exhibit exotic hidden-order phases, in which the order parameters are not directly accessible to conventional magnetic measurements. Thus, experimental identification and theoretical understanding of a hidden order are difficult. Here we combine neutron scattering and thermodynamic probes to study the newly discovered rare-earth triangular-lattice magnet TmMgGaO<sub>4</sub>. Clear magnetic Bragg peaks at K points are observed in the elastic neutron diffraction measurements. More interesting, however, is the observation of sharp and highly dispersive spin excitations that cannot be explained by a magnetic dipolar order, but instead is the direct consequence of the underlying multipolar order that is "hidden" in the neutron diffraction experiments. We demonstrate that the observed unusual spin correlations and thermodynamics can be accurately described by a transverse field Ising model on the triangular lattice with an intertwined dipolar and ferro-multipolar order.
Project description:Generalized Landau-de Gennes theory is proposed that comprehensively explains currently available experimental data for the heliconical twist-bend nematic (NTB) phase observed in liquid crystalline systems of chemically achiral bent-core-like molecules. A bifurcation analysis gives insight into possible structures that the model can predict and guides in the numerical analysis of relative stability of the isotropic (I), uniaxial nematic (NU), and twist-bend nematic phases. An estimate of constitutive parameters of the model from temperature variation of the nematic order parameter and the Frank elastic constants in the nematic phase enables us to demonstrate quantitative agreement between the calculated and experimentally determined temperature dependence of the pitch and conical angle in NTB. Properties of order parameters also explain a puzzling lack of a half-pitch band in resonant soft X-ray scattering. Other key findings of the model are predictions of I-NTB and NU-NTB tricritical points and insight into biaxiality of NTB.
Project description:Parametric amplification, resulting from intentionally varying a parameter in a resonator at twice its resonant frequency, has been successfully employed to increase the sensitivity of many micro- and nano-scale sensors. Here, we introduce the concept of self-induced parametric amplification, which arises naturally from nonlinear elastic coupling between the degenerate vibration modes in a micromechanical disk-resonator, and is not externally applied. The device functions as a gyroscope wherein angular rotation is detected from Coriolis coupling of elastic vibration energy from a driven vibration mode into a second degenerate sensing mode. While nonlinear elasticity in silicon resonators is extremely weak, in this high quality-factor device, ppm-level nonlinear elastic effects result in an order-of-magnitude increase in the observed sensitivity to Coriolis force relative to linear theory. Perfect degeneracy of the primary and secondary vibration modes is achieved through electrostatic frequency tuning, which also enables the phase and frequency of the parametric coupling to be varied, and we show that the resulting phase and frequency dependence of the amplification follow the theory of parametric resonance. We expect that this phenomenon will be useful for both fundamental studies of dynamic systems with low dissipation and for increasing signal-to-noise ratio in practical applications such as gyroscopes.
Project description:Sperm traverse their microenvironment through viscous fluid by propagating flagellar waves; the waveform emerges as a consequence of elastic structure, internal active moments and low Reynolds number fluid dynamics. Engineered microchannels have recently been proposed as a method of sorting and manipulating motile cells; the interaction of cells with these artificial environments therefore warrants investigation. A numerical method is presented for large-amplitude elastohydrodynamic interaction of active swimmers with domain features. This method is employed to examine hydrodynamic scattering by a model microchannel backstep feature. Scattering is shown to depend on backstep height and the relative strength of viscous and elastic forces in the flagellum. In a 'high viscosity' parameter regime corresponding to human sperm in cervical mucus analogue, this hydrodynamic contribution to scattering is comparable in magnitude to recent data on contact effects, being of the order of 5°-10°. Scattering can be positive or negative depending on the relative strength of viscous and elastic effects, emphasizing the importance of viscosity on the interaction of sperm with their microenvironment. The modulation of scattering angle by viscosity is associated with variations in flagellar asymmetry induced by the elastohydrodynamic interaction with the boundary feature.
Project description:The additive manufacturing (AM) of components through laser-blown-powder directed-energy-deposition (LBP-DED) is highly applicable to the repair of aerospace components. Fabrication of superalloys with this technique, as with other AM methods, often encounters complications that include the formation of undesired phases, irregular microstructure and texture leading to anisotropic elastic properties. Heat treatments and other post-processing techniques can be used to mitigate these issues. The collected data demonstrates the effects of different heat treatment protocols on the microstructure, elastic properties, and hardness of LBP-DED IN718. In this study eight different heat treatment were used to investigate the effects of treatment time and temperature. The microstructure was investigated through SEM, with XRD and EDX used for phase analysis. The texture was characterised using SEM coupled with EBSD and the elastic properties were determined from resonant ultrasound spectroscopy.
Project description:We demonstrate for the first time that seismic resonant multiples, usually considered as noise, can be used for super-resolution imaging in the far-field region of sources and receivers. Tests with both synthetic data and field data show that resonant multiples can image reflector boundaries with resolutions more than twice the classical resolution limit. Resolution increases with the order of the resonant multiples. This procedure has important applications in earthquake and exploration seismology, radar, sonar, LIDAR (light detection and ranging), and ultrasound imaging, where the multiples can be used to make high-resolution images.
Project description:The cortex of the femoral neck is a key structural element of the human body, yet there is not a reliable metric for predicting the mechanical properties of the bone in this critical region. This study explored the use of a range of non-destructive metrics to measure femoral neck cortical bone stiffness at the millimetre length scale. A range of testing methods and imaging techniques were assessed for their ability to measure or predict the mechanical properties of cortical bone samples obtained from the femoral neck of hip replacement patients. Techniques that can potentially be applied in vivo to measure bone stiffness, including computed tomography (CT), bulk wave ultrasound (BWUS) and indentation, were compared against in vitro techniques, including compression testing, density measurements and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. Porosity, as measured by micro-CT, correlated with femoral neck cortical bone's elastic modulus and ultimate compressive strength at the millimetre length scale. Large-tip spherical indentation also correlated with bone mechanical properties at this length scale but to a lesser extent. As the elastic mechanical properties of cortical bone correlated with porosity, we would recommend further development of technologies that can safely measure cortical porosity in vivo.
Project description:URu<sub>2</sub>Si<sub>2</sub> is one of the most enigmatic strongly correlated electron systems and offers a fertile testing ground for new concepts in condensed matter science. In spite of >30 years of intense research, no consensus on the order parameter of its low-temperature hidden-order phase exists. A strong magnetic field transforms the hidden order into magnetically ordered phases, whose order parameter has also been defying experimental observation. Here, thanks to neutron diffraction under pulsed magnetic fields up to 40?T, we identify the field-induced phases of URu<sub>2</sub>Si<sub>2</sub> as a spin-density-wave state. The transition to the spin-density wave represents a unique touchstone for understanding the hidden-order phase. An intimate relationship between this magnetic structure, the magnetic fluctuations and the Fermi surface is emphasized, calling for dedicated band-structure calculations.