Randomized Comparison of Clinical Effectiveness of Pharmacologic SPECT and PET MPI in Symptomatic CAD Patients.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:This study compared the clinical effectiveness of pharmacologic stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) plus positron emission tomography (PET) with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) presenting with symptoms suggestive of ischemia. BACKGROUND:Although PET MPI has been shown to have higher diagnostic accuracy in detecting hemodynamically significant CAD than SPECT MPI, whether this impacts downstream management has not been formally evaluated in randomized trials. METHODS:This study consisted of a single-center trial in which patients with known CAD and suspected ischemia were randomized to undergo PET or attenuation-corrected SPECT MPI between June 2009 and September 2013. Post-test management was at the discretion of the referring physician, and patients were followed for 12 months. The primary endpoint was diagnostic failure, defined as unnecessary angiography (absence of ?50% stenosis in ?1 vessel) or additional noninvasive testing within 60 days of the MPI. Secondary endpoints were post-test escalation of antianginal therapy, referral for angiography, coronary revascularization, and health status at 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS:A total of 322 patients with an evaluable MPI were randomized (n = 161 in each group). At baseline, 88.8% of patients were receiving aspirin therapy, 76.7% were taking beta-blockers, and 77.3% were taking statin therapy. Diagnostic failure within 60 days occurred in only 7 patients (2.2%) (3 [1.9%] in the PET group and 4 [2.5%] in the SPECT group; p = 0.70). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in subsequent rates of coronary angiography, coronary revascularization, or health status at 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up (all p values ?0.20); however, when subjects were stratified by findings on MPI in a post hoc analysis, those with high-risk MPI on PET testing had higher rates of angiography and revascularization on follow-up than those who had SPECT MPI, whereas those undergoing low-risk PET studies had lower rates of both procedures than those undergoing SPECT (interaction between randomized modality ?high-risk MPI for 12-month catheterization [p = 0.001] and 12-month revascularization [p = 0.09]). CONCLUSIONS:In this contemporary cohort of symptomatic CAD patients who were optimally medically managed, there were no discernible differences in rates of diagnostic failure at 60 days, subsequent coronary angiography, revascularization, or patient health status at 1 year between patients evaluated by pharmacologic PET compared with those evaluated by SPECT MPI. Downstream invasive testing rates with PET MPI were more consistent with high-risk features than those with SPECT MPI. (Effectiveness Study of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography [SPECT] Versus Positron Emission Tomography [PET] Myocardial Perfusion Imaging; NCT00976053).
Project description:Cardiac positron emission testing (PET) is more accurate than single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at identifying coronary artery disease (CAD); however, the 2 modalities have not been thoroughly compared in a real-world setting. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 60-day catheterization outcomes and 1-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after the transition from a SPECT- to a PET-based myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) program.MPI patients at Intermountain Medical Center from January 2011-December 2012 (the SPECT era, n = 6,777) and January 2014-December 2015 (the PET era, n = 7,817) were studied. Outcomes studied were 60-day coronary angiography, high-grade obstructive CAD, left main/severe 3-vessel disease, revascularization, and 1-year MACE-revascularization (MACE-revasc; death, myocardial infarction [MI], or revascularization >60 days).Patients were 64 ± 13 years old; 54% were male and 90% were of European descent; and 57% represented a screening population (no prior MI, revascularization, or CAD). During the PET era, compared with the SPECT era, a higher percentage of patients underwent coronary angiography (13.2% vs. 9.7%, P < 0.0001), had high-grade obstructive CAD (10.5% vs. 6.9%, P < 0.0001), had left main or severe 3-vessel disease (3.0% vs. 2.3%, P = 0.012), and had coronary revascularization (56.7% vs. 47.1%, P = 0.0001). Similar catheterization outcomes were seen when restricted to the screening population. There was no difference in 1-year MACE-revasc (PET [5.8%] vs. SPECT [5.3%], P = 0.31).The PET-based MPI program resulted in improved identification of patients with high-grade obstructive CAD, as well as a larger percentage of revascularization, thus resulting in fewer patients undergoing coronary angiography without revascularization.This observational study was funded using internal departmental funds.
Project description:Determining the anatomic severity and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) by means of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effect on perfusion using myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) form the pillars of the non-invasive imaging assessment of CAD. This review will 1) focus on CCTA and [15O]H2O positron emission tomography MPI as stand-alone imaging modalities and their combined use for detecting CAD, 2) highlight some of the lessons learned from the PACIFIC trial (Comparison of Coronary CT Angiography, SPECT, PET, and Hybrid Imaging for Diagnosis of Ischemic Heart Disease Determined by Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) (NCT01521468)), and 3) discuss the use of [15O]H2O PET MPI in the clinical work-up of patients with a chronic coronary total occlusion (CTO).
Project description:AIMS:To evaluate the diagnostic power of integrating the results of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and CT myocardial perfusion (CTP) to identify coronary artery disease (CAD) defined as a flow limiting coronary artery stenosis causing a perfusion defect by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). METHODS AND RESULTS:We conducted a multicentre study to evaluate the accuracy of integrated CTA-CTP for the identification of patients with flow-limiting CAD defined by ?50% stenosis by invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with a corresponding perfusion deficit on stress single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/MPI). Sixteen centres enroled 381 patients who underwent combined CTA-CTP and SPECT/MPI prior to conventional coronary angiography. All four image modalities were analysed in blinded independent core laboratories. The prevalence of obstructive CAD defined by combined ICA-SPECT/MPI and ICA alone was 38 and 59%, respectively. The patient-based diagnostic accuracy defined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of integrated CTA-CTP for detecting or excluding flow-limiting CAD was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84-0.91]. In patients without prior myocardial infarction, the AUC was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.87-0.94) and in patients without prior CAD the AUC for combined CTA-CTP was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89-0.97). For the combination of a CTA stenosis ?50% stenosis and a CTP perfusion deficit, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predicative values (95% CI) were 80% (72-86), 74% (68-80), 65% (58-72), and 86% (80-90), respectively. For flow-limiting disease defined by ICA-SPECT/MPI, the accuracy of CTA was significantly increased by the addition of CTP at both the patient and vessel levels. CONCLUSIONS:The combination of CTA and perfusion correctly identifies patients with flow limiting CAD defined as ?50 stenosis by ICA causing a perfusion defect by SPECT/MPI.
Project description:To determine and compare the diagnostic performance of stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), using conventional coronary angiography (CCA) as the reference standard.We searched Medline and Embase for literature that evaluated stress MPI for the diagnosis of obstructive CAD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), contrast-enhanced echocardiography (ECHO), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET).All pooled analyses were based on random effects models. Articles on MRI yielded a total of 2,970 patients from 28 studies, articles on ECHO yielded a sample size of 795 from 10 studies, articles on SPECT yielded 1,323 from 13 studies. For CAD defined as either at least 50 %, at least 70 % or at least 75 % lumen diameter reduction on CCA, the natural logarithms of the diagnostic odds ratio (lnDOR) for MRI (3.63; 95 % CI 3.26-4.00) was significantly higher compared to that of SPECT (2.76; 95 % CI 2.28-3.25; P?=?0.006) and that of ECHO (2.83; 95 % CI 2.29-3.37; P?=?0.02). There was no significant difference between the lnDOR of SPECT and ECHO (P?=?0.52).Our results suggest that MRI is superior for the diagnosis of obstructive CAD compared with ECHO and SPECT. ECHO and SPECT demonstrated similar diagnostic performance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Establishing the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in symptomatic patients allows appropriately allocating preventative measures. Single-photon emission computed tomography (CT)-acquired myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) is frequently used for the evaluation of CAD, but coronary CT angiography (CTA) has emerged as a valid alternative. METHODS AND RESULTS:We compared the accuracy of SPECT-MPI and CTA for the diagnosis of CAD in 391 symptomatic patients who were prospectively enrolled in a multicenter study after clinical referral for cardiac catheterization. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CTA and SPECT-MPI for identifying patients with CAD defined as the presence of ?1 coronary artery with ?50% lumen stenosis by quantitative coronary angiography. Sensitivity to identify patients with CAD was greater for CTA than SPECT-MPI (0.92 versus 0.62, respectively; P<0.001), resulting in greater overall accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.91 [95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.94] versus 0.69 [0.64-0.74]; P<0.001). Results were similar in patients without previous history of CAD (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.92 [0.89-0.96] versus 0.67 [0.61-0.73]; P<0.001) and also for the secondary end points of ?70% stenosis and multivessel disease, as well as subgroups, except for patients with a calcium score of ?400 and those with high-risk anatomy in whom the overall accuracy was similar because CTA's superior sensitivity was offset by lower specificity in these settings. Radiation doses were 3.9 mSv for CTA and 9.8 for SPECT-MPI (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:CTA is more accurate than SPECT-MPI for the diagnosis of CAD as defined by conventional angiography and may be underused for this purpose in symptomatic patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00934037.
Project description:Acute rest single-photon emission computed tomography-myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) has high predictive value for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in emergency department patients. Prior studies have shown excellent agreement between rest/stress computed tomography perfusion (CTP) and SPECT-MPI, but the value of resting CTP (rCTP) in acute chest pain triage remains unclear. We sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of early rCTP, incremental value beyond obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD; ?50% stenosis), and compared early rCTP to late stress SPECT-MPI in patients with CAD presenting with suspicion of ACS to the emergency department.In this prespecified subanalysis of 183 patients (58.1±10.2 years; 33% women), we included patients with any CAD by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) from Rule Out Myocardial Infarction Using Computer-Assisted Tomography I. rCTP was assessed semiquantitatively, blinded to CAD interpretation. Overall, 31 had ACS and 48 had abnormal rCTP. Sensitivity and specificity of rCTP for ACS were 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30%-67%) and 78% (95% CI, 71%-85%), respectively. rCTP predicted ACS (adjusted odds ratio, 3.40 [95% CI, 1.37-8.42]; P=0.008) independently of obstructive CAD, and sensitivity for ACS increased from 77% (95% CI, 59%-90%) for obstructive CAD to 90% (95% CI, 74%-98%) with addition of rCTP (P=0.05). In a subgroup undergoing late rest/stress SPECT-MPI (n=81), CCTA/rCTP had noninferior discriminatory value to CCTA/SPECT-MPI (area under the curve, 0.88 versus 0.90; P=0.64) using a noninferiority margin of 10%.Early rCTP provides incremental value beyond obstructive CAD to detect ACS. CCTA/rCTP is noninferior to CCTA/SPECT-MPI to discriminate ACS and presents an attractive alternative to triage patients presenting with acute chest pain.http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00990262.
Project description:This document from the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology represents an updated consensus statement on the evidence base of stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), emphasizing new developments in single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in the clinical evaluation of women presenting with symptoms of stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). The clinical evaluation of symptomatic women is challenging due to their varying clinical presentation, clinical risk factor burden, high degree of comorbidity, and increased risk of major ischemic heart disease events. Evidence is substantial that both SPECT and PET MPI effectively risk stratify women with SIHD. The addition of coronary flow reserve (CFR) with PET improves risk detection, including for women with nonobstructive coronary artery disease and coronary microvascular dysfunction. With the advent of PET with computed tomography (CT), multiparametric imaging approaches may enable integration of MPI and CFR with CT visualization of anatomical atherosclerotic plaque to uniquely identify at-risk women. Radiation dose-reduction strategies, including the use of ultra-low-dose protocols involving stress-only imaging, solid-state detector SPECT, and PET, should be uniformly applied whenever possible to all women undergoing MPI. Appropriate candidate selection for stress MPI and for post-MPI indications for guideline-directed medical therapy and/or invasive coronary angiography are discussed in this statement. The critical need for randomized and comparative trial data in female patients is also emphasized.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prior studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) have shown a survival benefit with early revascularization in patients with >10% to 12.5% ischemic myocardium. The relationship among positron emission tomography (PET)-derived extent of ischemia, early revascularization, and survival is unknown. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association among percent ischemia on PET MPI, revascularization, and survival. METHODS:A total of 16,029 unique consecutive patients who were undergoing Rubidium-82 rest-stress PET MPI from 2010 to 2016 were included. Patients with known cardiomyopathy and nondiagnostic perfusion results were excluded. Percent ischemic myocardium was estimated from a 17-segment model. Propensity scoring was used to account for nonrandomized referral to early revascularization (90 days of PET). A Cox model was developed, adjusting for propensity scores for early revascularization and percent ischemia, and an interaction between ischemia and early revascularization was tested. RESULTS:Median follow-up was 3.7 years. Overall, 1,277 (8%) patients underwent early revascularization and 2,493 (15.6%) died (738 cardiac). Nearly 37% of patients (n = 5,902) had ischemia, with 13.5% (n = 2,160) having ?10%. In propensity-adjusted analyses, there was a significant interaction between ischemia and early revascularization (p < 0.001 for all-cause and cardiac death), such that patients with greater ischemia had improved survival with early revascularization, with a potential ischemia threshold at 5% (upper limit 95% confidence interval at 10%). There was no differential association between ischemia and early revascularization on death based on history of known coronary artery disease (interaction p = 0.72). CONCLUSIONS:In a contemporary cohort of patients undergoing PET MPI, patients with greater ischemia had a survival benefit from early revascularization. On exploratory analyses, this threshold was lower than that previously reported for SPECT. These findings require future validation in prospective cohorts or trials.
Project description:Dual-energy CT (DECT) has potential to improve myocardial perfusion for physiologic assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). Diagnostic performance of rest-stress DECT perfusion (DECTP) is unknown.DECIDE-Gold is a prospective multicenter study to evaluate the accuracy of DECT to detect hemodynamic (HD) significant CAD, as compared to fractional flow reserve (FFR) as a reference standard.Eligible participants are subjects with symptoms of CAD referred for invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Participants will undergo DECTP, which will be performed by pharmacological stress, and participants will subsequently proceed to ICA and FFR. HD-significant CAD will be defined as FFR ? 0.80. In those undergoing myocardial stress imaging (MPI) by positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, ischemia will be graded by % ischemic myocardium. Blinded core laboratory interpretation will be performed for CCTA, DECTP, MPI, ICA, and FFR.Primary endpoint is accuracy of DECTP to detect ?1 HD-significant stenosis at the subject level when compared to FFR. Secondary and tertiary endpoints are accuracies of combinations of DECTP at the subject and vessel levels compared to FFR and MPI.DECIDE-Gold will determine the performance of DECTP for diagnosing ischemia.
Project description:Multidetector coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a promising modality for widespread clinical application because of its noninvasive nature and high diagnostic accuracy as found in previous studies using 64 to 320 simultaneous detector rows. It is, however, limited in its ability to detect myocardial ischemia. In this article, we describe the design of the CORE320 study ("Combined coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial perfusion evaluation using 320 detector row computed tomography"). This prospective, multicenter, multinational study is unique in that it is designed to assess the diagnostic performance of combined 320-row CTA and myocardial CT perfusion imaging (CTP) in comparison with the combination of invasive coronary angiography and single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI). The trial is being performed at 16 medical centers located in 8 countries worldwide. CT has the potential to assess both anatomy and physiology in a single imaging session. The co-primary aim of the CORE320 study is to define the per-patient diagnostic accuracy of the combination of coronary CTA and myocardial CTP to detect physiologically significant coronary artery disease compared with (1) the combination of conventional coronary angiography and SPECT-MPI and (2) conventional coronary angiography alone. If successful, the technology could revolutionize the management of patients with symptomatic CAD.