A systematic review of the applications of artificial intelligence and machine learning in autoimmune diseases.
ABSTRACT: Autoimmune diseases are chronic, multifactorial conditions. Through machine learning (ML), a branch of the wider field of artificial intelligence, it is possible to extract patterns within patient data, and exploit these patterns to predict patient outcomes for improved clinical management. Here, we surveyed the use of ML methods to address clinical problems in autoimmune disease. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, embase and computers and applied sciences complete databases. Relevant papers included "machine learning" or "artificial intelligence" and the autoimmune diseases search term(s) in their title, abstract or key words. Exclusion criteria: studies not written in English, no real human patient data included, publication prior to 2001, studies that were not peer reviewed, non-autoimmune disease comorbidity research and review papers. 169 (of 702) studies met the criteria for inclusion. Support vector machines and random forests were the most popular ML methods used. ML models using data on multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease were most common. A small proportion of studies (7.7% or 13/169) combined different data types in the modelling process. Cross-validation, combined with a separate testing set for more robust model evaluation occurred in 8.3% of papers (14/169). The field may benefit from adopting a best practice of validation, cross-validation and independent testing of ML models. Many models achieved good predictive results in simple scenarios (e.g. classification of cases and controls). Progression to more complex predictive models may be achievable in future through integration of multiple data types.
Project description:Artificial intelligence, in particular machine learning (ML), has emerged as a key promising pillar to overcome the high failure rate in drug development. Here, we present a primer on the ML algorithms most commonly used in drug discovery and development. We also list possible data sources, describe good practices for ML model development and validation, and share a reproducible example. A companion article will summarize applications of ML in drug discovery, drug development, and postapproval phase.
Project description:Artificial intelligence has been advancing in fields including anesthesiology. This scoping review of the intersection of artificial intelligence and anesthesia research identified and summarized six themes of applications of artificial intelligence in anesthesiology: (1) depth of anesthesia monitoring, (2) control of anesthesia, (3) event and risk prediction, (4) ultrasound guidance, (5) pain management, and (6) operating room logistics. Based on papers identified in the review, several topics within artificial intelligence were described and summarized: (1) machine learning (including supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning), (2) techniques in artificial intelligence (e.g., classical machine learning, neural networks and deep learning, Bayesian methods), and (3) major applied fields in artificial intelligence.The implications of artificial intelligence for the practicing anesthesiologist are discussed as are its limitations and the role of clinicians in further developing artificial intelligence for use in clinical care. Artificial intelligence has the potential to impact the practice of anesthesiology in aspects ranging from perioperative support to critical care delivery to outpatient pain management.
Project description:Novel artificial intelligence techniques are emerging in all fields of healthcare, including gastroenterology. The aim of this review is to give an overview of artificial intelligence applications in the management of pancreatic diseases. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed and Medline up to May 2020 to identify relevant articles. Our results showed that the development of machine-learning based applications is rapidly evolving in the management of pancreatic diseases, guiding precision medicine in clinical, endoscopic and radiologic settings. Before implementation into clinical practice, further research should focus on the external validation of novel techniques, clarifying the accuracy and robustness of these models.
Project description:Introduction: Improving end-of-life (EOL) care is a priority worldwide as this population experiences poor outcomes and accounts disproportionately for costs. In clinical practice, physician judgement is the core method of identifying EOL care needs but has important limitations. Machine learning (ML) is a subset of artificial intelligence advancing capacity to identify patterns and make predictions using large datasets. ML approaches have the potential to improve clinical decision-making and policy design, but there has been no systematic assembly of current evidence. Methods: We conducted a rapid review, searching systematically seven databases from inception to December 31st, 2018: EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, WOS, SCOPUS and ECONLIT. We included peer-reviewed studies that used ML approaches on routine data to improve palliative and EOL care for adults. Our specified outcomes were survival, quality of life (QoL), place of death, costs, and receipt of high-intensity treatment near end of life. We did not search grey literature and excluded material that was not a peer-reviewed article. Results: The database search identified 426 citations. We discarded 162 duplicates and screened 264 unique title/abstracts, of which 22 were forwarded for full text review. Three papers were included, 18 papers were excluded and one full text was sought but unobtainable. One paper predicted six-month mortality, one paper predicted 12-month mortality and one paper cross-referenced predicted 12-month mortality with healthcare spending. ML-informed models outperformed logistic regression in predicting mortality but poor prognosis is a weak driver of costs. Models using only routine administrative data had limited benefit from ML methods. Conclusion: While ML can in principle help to identify those at risk of adverse outcomes and inappropriate treatment near EOL, applications to policy and practice are formative. Future research must not only expand scope to other outcomes and longer timeframes, but also engage with individual preferences and ethical challenges.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), causes highest number of deaths globally for any bacterial disease necessitating novel diagnosis and treatment strategies. High-throughput sequencing methods generate a large amount of data which could be exploited in determining multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) associated mutations. The present work is a computational framework that uses artificial intelligence (AI) based machine learning (ML) approaches for predicting resistance in the genes rpoB, inhA, katG, pncA, gyrA and gyrB for the drugs rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and fluoroquinolones. The single nucleotide variations were represented by several sequence and structural features that indicate the influence of mutations on the target protein coded by each gene. We used ML algorithms - naïve bayes, k nearest neighbor, support vector machine, and artificial neural network, to build the prediction models. The classification models had an average accuracy of 85% across all examined genes and were evaluated on an external unseen dataset to demonstrate their application. Further, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed for wild type and predicted resistance causing mutant protein and anti-TB drug complexes to study their impact on the conformation of proteins to confirm the observed phenotype.
Project description:Our study aimed to explore the applicability of deep learning and machine learning techniques to distinguish MPE from BPE. We initially used a retrospective cohort with 726 PE patients to train and test the predictive performances of the driverless artificial intelligence (AI), and then stacked with a deep learning and five machine learning models, namely gradient boosting machine (GBM), extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), extremely randomized trees (XRT), distributed random forest (DRF), and generalized linear models (GLM). Furthermore, a prospective cohort with 172 PE patients was applied to detect the external validity of the predictive models. The area under the curve (AUC) in the training, test and validation set were deep learning (0.995, 0.848, 0.917), GBM (0.981, 0.910, 0.951), XGBoost (0.933, 0.916, 0.935), XRT (0.927, 0.909, 0.963), DRF (0.906, 0.809, 0.969), and GLM (0.898, 0.866, 0.892), respectively. Although the Deep Learning model had the highest AUC in the training set (AUC?=?0.995), GBM demonstrated stable and high predictive efficiency in three data sets. The final AI model by stacked ensemble yielded optimal diagnostic performance with AUC of 0.991, 0.912 and 0.953 in the training, test and validation sets, respectively. Using the driverless AI framework based on the routinely collected clinical data could significantly improve diagnostic performance in distinguishing MPE from BPE.
Project description:Machine learning techniques are widely used nowadays in the healthcare domain for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of diseases. These techniques have applications in the field of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), which is a potentially curative therapy for hematological malignancies. Herein, a systematic review of the application of machine learning (ML) techniques in the HCT setting was conducted. We examined the type of data streams included, specific ML techniques used, and type of clinical outcomes measured. A systematic review of English articles using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and IEEE Xplore databases was performed. Search terms included "hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)," "autologous HCT," "allogeneic HCT," "machine learning," and "artificial intelligence." Only full-text studies reported between January 2015 and July 2020 were included. Data were extracted by two authors using predefined data fields. Following PRISMA guidelines, a total of 242 studies were identified, of which 27 studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were sub-categorized into three broad topics and the type of ML techniques used included ensemble learning (63%), regression (44%), Bayesian learning (30%), and support vector machine (30%). The majority of studies examined models to predict HCT outcomes (e.g., survival, relapse, graft-versus-host disease). Clinical and genetic data were the most commonly used predictors in the modeling process. Overall, this review provided a systematic review of ML techniques applied in the context of HCT. The evidence is not sufficiently robust to determine the optimal ML technique to use in the HCT setting and/or what minimal data variables are required.
Project description:Artificial intelligence (AI) driven by machine learning (ML) algorithms is a branch in computer science that is rapidly gaining popularity within the healthcare sector. Recent regulatory approvals of AI-driven companion diagnostics and other products are glimmers of a future in which these tools could play a key role by defining the way medicine will be practiced. Educating the next generation of medical professionals with the right ML techniques will enable them to become part of this emerging data science revolution.
Project description:Machine learning (ML) applications have received extensive attention in endocrinology research during the last decade. This review summarizes the basic concepts of ML and certain research topics in endocrinology and metabolism where ML principles have been actively deployed. Relevant studies are discussed to provide an overview of the methodology, main findings, and limitations of ML, with the goal of stimulating insights into future research directions. Clear, testable study hypotheses stem from unmet clinical needs, and the management of data quality (beyond a focus on quantity alone), open collaboration between clinical experts and ML engineers, the development of interpretable high-performance ML models beyond the black-box nature of some algorithms, and a creative environment are the core prerequisites for the foreseeable changes expected to be brought about by ML and artificial intelligence in the field of endocrinology and metabolism, with actual improvements in clinical practice beyond hype. Of note, endocrinologists will continue to play a central role in these developments as domain experts who can properly generate, refine, analyze, and interpret data with a combination of clinical expertise and scientific rigor.