Interaction of oxidative stress and neurotrauma in ALDH2-/- mice causes significant and persistent behavioral and pro-inflammatory effects in a tractable model of mild traumatic brain injury.
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress induced by lipid peroxidation products (LPP) accompanies aging and has been hypothesized to exacerbate the secondary cascade in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Increased oxidative stress is a contributor to loss of neural reserve that defines the ability to maintain healthy cognitive function despite the accumulation of neuropathology. ALDH2-/- mice are unable to clear aldehyde LPP by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (Aldh2) detoxification and provide a model to study mild TBI (mTBI), therapeutic interventions, and underlying mechanisms. The ALDH2-/- mouse model presents with elevated LPP-mediated protein modification, lowered levels of PSD-95, PGC1-?, and SOD-1, and mild cognitive deficits from 4 months of age. LPP scavengers are neuroprotective in vitro and in ALDH2-/- mice restore cognitive performance. A single-hit, closed skull mTBI failed to elicit significant effects in WT mice; however, ALDH2-/- mice showed a significant inflammatory cytokine surge in the ipsilateral hemisphere 24 h post-mTBI, and increased GFAP cleavage, a biomarker for TBI. Known neuroprotective agents, were able to reverse the effects of mTBI. This new preclinical model of mTBI, incorporating significant perturbations in behavior, inflammation, and clinically relevant biomarkers, allows mechanistic study of the interaction of LPP and neurotrauma in loss of neural reserve.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a commonly occurring injury in sports, victims of motor vehicle accidents, and falls. TBI has become a pressing public health concern with no specific therapeutic treatment. Mild TBI (mTBI), which accounts for approximately 90% of all TBI cases, may frequently lead to long-lasting cognitive, behavioral, and emotional impairments. The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are gastrointestinal hormones that induce glucose-dependent insulin secretion, promote ?-cell proliferation, and enhance resistance to apoptosis. GLP-1 mimetics are marketed as treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and are well tolerated. Both GLP-1 and GIP mimetics have shown neuroprotective properties in animal models of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effects of liraglutide, a GLP-1 analog, and twincretin, a dual GLP-1R/GIPR agonist, in a murine mTBI model. First, we subjected mice to mTBI using a weight-drop device and, thereafter, administered liraglutide or twincretin as a 7-day regimen of subcutaneous (s.c.) injections. We then investigated the effects of these drugs on mTBI-induced cognitive impairments, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation. Finally, we assessed their effects on neuroprotective proteins expression that are downstream to GLP-1R/GIPR activation; specifically, PI3K and PKA phosphorylation. Both drugs ameliorated mTBI-induced cognitive impairments evaluated by the novel object recognition (NOR) and the Y-maze paradigms in which neither anxiety nor locomotor activity were confounds, as the latter were unaffected by either mTBI or drugs. Additionally, both drugs significantly mitigated mTBI-induced neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, as quantified by immunohistochemical staining with Fluoro-Jade/anti-NeuN and anti-Iba-1 antibodies, respectively. mTBI challenge significantly decreased PKA phosphorylation levels in ipsilateral cortex, which was mitigated by both drugs. However, PI3K phosphorylation was not affected by mTBI. These findings offer a new potential therapeutic approach to treat mTBI, and support further investigation of the neuroprotective effects and mechanism of action of incretin-based therapies for neurological disorders.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global problem reaching near epidemic numbers that manifests clinically with cognitive problems that decades later may result in dementias like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Presently, little can be done to prevent ensuing neurological dysfunctions by pharmacological means. Recently, it has become apparent that several CNS diseases share common terminal features of neuronal cell death. The effects of exendin-4 (Ex-4), a neuroprotective agent delivered via a subcutaneous micro-osmotic pump, were examined in the setting of mild TBI (mTBI). Utilizing a model of mTBI, where cognitive disturbances occur over time, animals were subjected to four treatments: sham; Ex-4; mTBI and Ex-4/mTBI. mTBI mice displayed deficits in novel object recognition, while Ex-4/mTBI mice performed similar to sham. Hippocampal gene expression, assessed by gene array methods, showed significant differences with little overlap in co-regulated genes between groups. Importantly, changes in gene expression induced by mTBI, including genes associated with AD were largely prevented by Ex-4. These data suggest a strong beneficial action of Ex-4 in managing secondary events induced by a traumatic brain injury.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a brain dysfunction for which there is no present effective treatment, is often caused by a concussive impact to the head and affects an estimated 1.7 million Americans annually. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that exendin-4, a long-lasting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, has neuroprotective effects in cellular and animal models of TBI. Here, we demonstrate neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of a different GLP-1R agonist, liraglutide, in neuronal cultures and a mouse model of mild TBI (mTBI). Liraglutide promoted dose-dependent proliferation in SH-SY5Y cells and in a GLP-1R over-expressing cell line at reduced concentrations. Pre-treatment with liraglutide rescued neuronal cells from oxidative stress- and glutamate excitotoxicity-induced cell death. Liraglutide produced neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects similar to those of exendin-4 in vitro. The cAMP/PKA/pCREB pathway appears to play an important role in this neuroprotective activity of liraglutide. Furthermore, our findings in cell culture were well-translated in a weight drop mTBI mouse model. Post-treatment with a clinically relevant dose of liraglutide for 7 days in mice ameliorated memory impairments caused by mTBI when evaluated 7 and 30 days post trauma. These data cross-validate former studies of exendin-4 and suggest that liraglutide holds therapeutic potential for the treatment of mTBI. Exendin-4, a long-lasting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, has neuroprotective effects in cellular and animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we demonstrate neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of a different GLP-1R agonist, liraglutide, in neuronal cultures and a mouse model of mild TBI (mTBI). Liraglutide promoted dose-dependent proliferation in SH-SY5Y cells and in a GLP-1R over-expressing cell line at reduced concentrations. Pretreatment with liraglutide rescued neuronal cells from oxidative stress- and glutamate excitotoxicity-induced cell death. Liraglutide produced neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects similar to those of exendin-4 in vitro, likely involving the cAMP/PKA/pCREB pathway. Our findings in cell culture were well-translated in a weight-drop mTBI mouse model. Post-treatment with a clinically relevant dose of liraglutide for 7 days in mice ameliorated memory impairments caused by mTBI.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health concern which strikes someone every 15 s on average in the US. Even mild TBI, which comprise as many as 75% of all TBI cases, carries long term consequences. The effects of age and sex on long term outcome from TBI is not fully understood, but due to the increased risk for neurodegenerative diseases after TBI it is important to understand how these factors influence the outcome from TBI. This study examined the neurobehavioral and neuropathological effects of age and sex on the outcome 15 days following repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI) in mice transgenic for human tau (hTau). These mice express the six human isoforms of tau but do not express endogenous murine tau and they develop tau pathology and memory impairment in an age-dependent manner. After 5 mild impacts, aged female mice showed motor impairments that were absent in aged male mice, as well as younger animals. Conversely, aged female sham mice outperformed all other groups of aged mice in a Barnes maze spatial memory test. Pathologically, increases in IBA-1 and GFAP staining typically seen in this model of r-mTBI showed the expected increases with both injury and age, but phosphorylated tau stained with CP13 in the hippocampus (reduced in female sham mice compared to males) and PHF1 in the cortex (reduced in female TBI mice compared to male TBI mice) showed the only histological signs of sex-dependent differences in these mice.
Project description:There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI), often caused by a concussive impact to the head, affects an estimated 1.7 million Americans annually. With no approved drugs, its pharmacological treatment represents a significant and currently unmet medical need. In our prior development of the anti-cholinesterase compound phenserine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, we recognized that it also possesses non-cholinergic actions with clinical potential. Here, we demonstrate neuroprotective actions of phenserine in neuronal cultures challenged with oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity, two insults of relevance to TBI. These actions translated into amelioration of spatial and visual memory impairments in a mouse model of closed head mild TBI (mTBI) two days following cessation of clinically translatable dosing with phenserine (2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg BID x 5 days initiated post mTBI) in the absence of anti-cholinesterase activity. mTBI elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of oxidative stress. Phenserine counteracted this by augmenting homeostatic mechanisms to mitigate oxidative stress, including superoxide dismutase [SOD] 1 and 2, and glutathione peroxidase [GPx], the activity and protein levels of which were measured by specific assays. Microarray analysis of hippocampal gene expression established that large numbers of genes were exclusively regulated by each individual treatment with a substantial number of them co-regulated between groups. Molecular pathways associated with lipid peroxidation were found to be regulated by mTBI, and treatment of mTBI animals with phenserine effectively reversed injury-induced regulations in the 'Blalock Alzheimer's Disease Up' pathway. Together these data suggest that multiple phenserine-associated actions underpin this compound's ability to ameliorate cognitive deficits caused by mTBI, and support the further evaluation of the compound as a therapeutic for TBI.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which no effective pharmacological treatment is available. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues such as Exenatide have previously demonstrated neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in cellular and animal models of TBI. However, chronic or repeated administration was needed for efficacy. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of PT302, a clinically available sustained-release Exenatide formulation (SR-Exenatide) were evaluated in a concussive mild (m)TBI mouse model. A single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of PT302 (0.6, 0.12, and 0.024?mg/kg) was administered and plasma Exenatide concentrations were time-dependently measured over 3?weeks. An initial rapid regulated release of Exenatide in plasma was followed by a secondary phase of sustained-release in a dose-dependent manner. Short- and longer-term (7 and 30?day) cognitive impairments (visual and spatial deficits) induced by weight drop mTBI were mitigated by a single post-injury treatment with Exenatide delivered by s.c. injection of PT302 in clinically translatable doses. Immunohistochemical evaluation of neuronal cell death and inflammatory markers, likewise, cross-validated the neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of SR-Exenatide in this mouse mTBI model. Exenatide central nervous system concentrations were 1.5% to 2.0% of concomitant plasma levels under steady-state conditions. These data demonstrate a positive beneficial action of PT302 in mTBI. This convenient single, sustained-release dosing regimen also has application for other neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and multiple sclerosis where prior preclinical studies, likewise, have demonstrated positive Exenatide actions.
Project description:Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are prevalent worldwide. mTBIs can impair hippocampal-based functions such as memory and cause network hyperexcitability of the dentate gyrus (DG), a key entry point to hippocampal circuitry. One candidate for mediating mTBI-induced hippocampal cognitive and physiological dysfunction is injury-induced changes in the process of DG neurogenesis. There are conflicting results on how TBI impacts the process of DG neurogenesis; this is not surprising given that both the neurogenesis process and the post-injury period are dynamic, and that the quantification of neurogenesis varies widely in the literature. Even within the minority of TBI studies focusing specifically on mild injuries, there is disagreement about if and how mTBI changes the process of DG neurogenesis. Here we utilized a clinically relevant rodent model of mTBI (lateral fluid percussion injury, LFPI), gold-standard markers and quantification of the neurogenesis process, and three time points post-injury to generate a comprehensive picture of how mTBI affects adult hippocampal DG neurogenesis. Male C57BL/6J mice (6-8 weeks old) received either sham surgery or mTBI via LFPI. Proliferating cells, neuroblasts/immature neurons, and surviving cells were quantified via stereology in DG subregions (subgranular zone [SGZ], outer granule cell layer [oGCL], molecular layer, and hilus) at short-term (3 days post-injury, dpi), intermediate (7 dpi), and long-term (31 dpi) time points. The data show this model of mTBI induces transient, sequential increases in ipsilateral SGZ/GCL proliferating cells, neuroblasts/immature neurons, and surviving cells which is suggestive of mTBI-induced neurogenesis. In contrast to these ipsilateral hemisphere findings, measures in the contralateral hemisphere were not increased in key neurogenic DG subregions after LFPI. Our work in this mTBI model is in line with most literature on other and more severe models of TBI in showing TBI stimulates the process of DG neurogenesis. However, as our DG data in mTBI provide temporal, subregional, and neurogenesis-stage resolution, these data are important to consider in regard to the functional importance of TBI-induction of the neurogenesis process and future work assessing the potential of replacing and/or repairing DG neurons in the brain after TBI.
Project description:Repeated exposure to mild TBI (mTBI) has been linked to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Some pathological features typically observed in AD have been found in postmortem brains of TBI and CTE, hence treatments tested for AD have a potential to be effective against r-mTBI outcomes. Neuroinflammation may present a possible answer due to its central role both in acute brain injury and in chronic degenerative-like disorders. Our previous studies have shown that drug nilvadipine, acting as an inhibitor of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), is effective at reducing inflammation, tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid production in AD mouse models. To demonstrate the effect of nilvadipine in the absence of age-related variables, we introduced the same treatment to young r-mTBI mice. We further investigate therapeutic mechanisms of nilvadipine using its racemic properties. Both enantiomers, (+)-nilvadipine and (-)-nilvadipine, can lower SYK activity, whereas (+)-nilvadipine is also a potent L-type calcium channel blocker (CCB) and shown to be anti-hypertensive. All r-mTBI mice exhibited increased neuroinflammation and impaired cognitive performance and motor functions. Treatment with racemic nilvadipine mitigated the TBI-induced inflammatory response and significantly improved spatial memory, whereas (-)-enantiomer decreased microgliosis and improved spatial memory but failed to reduce the astroglial response to as much as the racemate. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of SYK inhibition that is enhanced when combined with the CCB effect, which indicate a therapeutic advantage of multi-action drugs for r-mTBI.
Project description:In a recent paper published in Cell Research, an association between expression of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), a mitochondrial chaperon expressed in the brain, and the prevalence of stroke is revealed. This finding indicates that ALDH2 may serve as a potential endogenous neuroprotective target and a promising therapeutic strategy for the management of stroke.