The effects of daylight exposure on melatonin levels, Kiss1 expression, and melanoma formation in mice.
ABSTRACT: AIM:To determine how daylight exposure in mice affects melatonin protein expression in blood and Kiss1 gene expression in the hypothalamus. The second aim was to assess the relationship between skin cancer formation, daylight exposure, melatonin blood level, and kisspeptin gene expression level. METHODS:New-born mice (n=96) were assigned into the blind group or daylight group. The blind group was raised in the dark and the daylight group was raised under 12 hours light/12 hours dark cycle for 17 weeks. At the end of the 11th week, melanoma cell line was inoculated to mice, and tumor growth was observed for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, melatonin level was measured from blood serum and Kiss1 expression from the hypothalamus. RESULTS:The blind group had significantly higher melatonin and lower Kiss1 expression levels than the daylight group. Tumor volume was inversely proportional to melatonin levels and directly proportional to Kiss1 expression levels. Tumor growth speed was lower in the blind than in the daylight group. CONCLUSION:Melatonin and Kiss1 were shown to be nvolved in tumor suppression. They were affected by daylight and were mutually affected by each other.
Project description:Rhythmic incremental growth lines and the presence of melatonin receptors were discovered in tooth enamel, suggesting possible role of circadian rhythm. We therefore hypothesized that circadian rhythm may regulate enamel formation through melatonin receptors. To test this hypothesis, we examined expression of melatonin receptors (MTs) and amelogenin (AMELX), a maker of enamel formation, during tooth germ development in mouse. Using qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, we found that mRNA and protein levels of both MTs and AMELX in normal mandibular first molar tooth germs increased gradually after birth, peaked at 3 or 4 day postnatal, and then decreased. Expression of MTs and AMELX by immunocytochemistry was significantly delayed in neonatal mice raised in all-dark or all-light environment as well as the enamel development. Furthermore, development of tooth enamel was also delayed showing significant immature histology in those animals, especially for newborn mice raised in all daylight condition. Interestingly, disruption in circadian rhythm in pregnant mice also resulted in delayed enamel development in their babies. Treatment with melatonin receptor antagonist 4P-PDOT in pregnant mice caused underexpression of MTs and AMELX associated with long-lasting deficiency in baby enamel tissue. Electromicroscopic evidence demonstrated increased necrosis and poor enamel mineralization in ameloblasts. The above results suggest that circadian rhythm is important for normal enamel development at both pre- and postnatal stages. Melatonin receptors were partly responsible for the regulation.
Project description:The reproduction of seasonal breeders is modulated by exposure to light in an interval of 24?h defined as photoperiod. The interruption of reproductive functions in seasonally breeding rodents is accompanied by the suppression of the Kiss1 gene expression, which is known to be essential for reproduction. In non-seasonal male rodents, such as rats and mice, short-day photoperiod (SP) conditions or exogenous melatonin treatment also have anti-gonadotropic effects; however, whether photoperiod is able to modulate the puberty onset or Kiss1 gene expression in mice is unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether photoperiodism influences the sexual maturation of female mice via changes in the kisspeptin system. We observed that SP condition delayed the timing of puberty in female mice, decreased the hypothalamic expression of genes related to the reproductive axis and reduced the number of Kiss1-expressing neurons in the rostral hypothalamus. However, SP also reduced the body weight gain during development and affected the expression of neuropeptides involved in the energy balance regulation. When body weight was recovered via a reduction in litter size, the timing of puberty in mice born and raised in SP was advanced and the effects in hypothalamic mRNA expression were reverted. These results suggest that the SP delays the timing of puberty in female mice via changes in the kisspeptin system, although the effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are likely secondary to changes in body weight gain.
Project description:Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women, and its metastasis increases the risk of mortality. Melatonin, a hormone that regulates the circadian rhythm, has been revealed to inhibit breast cancer growth and metastasis. However, its involvement in highly metastatic triple-negative breast cancer cells is yet to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that melatonin inhibited the metastatic abilities of triple-negative breast cancer cells and prolonged its inhibitory effect via the expression of kisspeptin (KiSS1), which is a suppressor of metastasis. Melatonin at concentrations ranging from 1 nM to 10 µM did not affect the proliferation of metastatic MDA-MB-231 and HCC-70 triple-negative breast cancer cells. However, melatonin repressed invasiveness in triple-negative breast cancer cells. Additionally, conditional medium from melatonin-treated MDA-MB-231 cells repressed the invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer cells. Melatonin promoted the production of KiSS1, a metastasis suppressor encoded by the KiSS1 gene. In addition, melatonin increased KiSS1 expression via the expression and transcriptional activation of GATA binding protein 3. Silencing of KiSS1 weakened melatonin inhibition of breast cancer cell invasiveness. Therefore, the present study concluded that melatonin activates KiSS1 production in metastatic breast cancer cells, suggesting that melatonin activation of KiSS1 production may regulate the process of breast cancer metastasis.
Project description:Background:Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone that regulates many functions involving energy metabolism and behavior in mammals throughout the light/dark cycle. It is considered an output signal of the central circadian clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. Melatonin synthesis can be influenced by other hormones, such as insulin and glucocorticoids in pathological conditions or during stress. Furthermore, glucocorticoids appear to modulate circadian clock genes in peripheral tissues and are associated with the onset of metabolic diseases. In the pineal gland, the modulation of melatonin synthesis by clock genes has already been demonstrated. However, few studies have shown the effects of glucocorticoids on clock genes expression in the pineal gland. Results:We verified that rats treated with dexamethasone (2 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal) for 10 consecutive days, showed hyperglycemia and pronounced hyperinsulinemia during the dark phase. Insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, melatonin synthesis, and enzymatic activity of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, the key enzyme of melatonin synthesis, were reduced. Furthermore, we observed an increase in the expression of Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Cry1, and Cry2 in pineal glands of rats treated with dexamethasone. Conclusion:These results show that chronic treatment with dexamethasone can modulate both melatonin synthesis and circadian clock expression during the dark phase.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to determine changes in the expression levels of kisspeptin-1 (Kiss1) in the hypothalamus during the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and after treatment with sleeve gastrectomy (SG). METHODS:This study used chronic dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) alone and DHEA plus a high-fat diet (HFD) to generate a PCOS rat model. Subsequently, SG was performed in the animals with PCOS and the effects on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, sex hormones, estrous cyclicity, adiponectin, and Kiss1 expression in the hypothalamus were investigated. RESULTS:Impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, reduced adiponectin levels, disrupted estrous cyclicity, and elevated sex hormone levels associated with PCOS models were restored to normal following SG. In addition, SG was able to restore the increase in the expression of Kiss1 mRNA and Kiss1-positive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of rats with PCOS. Interestingly, although SG did not result in a significant loss of body weight in rats administered DHEA under a chow diet, it resulted in comparable metabolic improvements and Kiss1 expression in rats that had been administered DHEA along with an HFD. CONCLUSIONS:The recovery of normal levels of Kiss1 expression in the hypothalamus after SG in this study suggests that Kiss1 might play an important role in the development of PCOS and its improvement by SG.
Project description:The mammalian Per1 gene is expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, where it is thought to play a critical role in the generation of circadian rhythms. Per1 mRNA also is expressed in other tissues. Its expression in the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary is noteworthy because, like the suprachiasmatic nucleus, it is a known site of action of melatonin. The duration of the nocturnal melatonin signal encodes photoperiodic time, and many species use this to coordinate physiological adaptations with the yearly climatic cycle. This study reveals how the duration of photoperiodic time, conveyed through melatonin, is decoded as amplitude of Per1 and ICER (inducible cAMP early repressor) gene expression in the PT. Syrian hamsters display a robust and transient peak of Per1 and ICER gene expression 3 h after lights-on (Zeitgeber time 3) in the PT, under both long (16 h light/8 h dark) and short (8 h light/16 h dark) photoperiods. However, the amplitude of these peaks is greatly attenuated under a short photoperiod. The data show how amplitude of these genes may be important to the long-term measurement of photoperiodic time intervals.
Project description:Melatonin and glucocorticoids are key hormones in determining daily rhythmicity and modulating defense responses. In nocturnal animals, corticosterone peaks at light/dark transition,while melatonin peaks at the middle of the night in both nocturnal and diurnal animals. The crosstalk between adrenal and pineal glands under inflammatory conditions indicates that corticosterone potentiates nocturnal melatonin synthesis by reducing the activity of NF?B. This transcription factor, which modulates the expression of a key enzyme in melatonin synthesis, is sharply reduced at the entrance of darkness in the rat pineal gland. In this study, we established the basis for understanding the crosstalk between adrenal and pineal glands in physiological conditions. Here we show that the expression of 70 out of 84 genes implied in defense responses exhibit a sharp reduction exactly at the entrance of darkness. Mifepristone impair the changes of 13 out of 84 genes, suggesting that the rhythm of corticosterone modulates pineal phenotype, as mifepristone also reduces the expression of Aanat and the nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. Therefore, darkness-induced synthesis of the pineal hormone, besides being controlled by the central clock located in the hypothalamus, is also influencedby glucocorticoids through the regulation of NF?B transcriptional program.
Project description:The differential expression and secretion of the neuropeptide kisspeptin from neurons in the arcuate (Arc) and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nuclei of the hypothalamus coordinate the temporal release of pituitary gonadotropins that control the female reproductive cycle. However, the molecular basis for this differential regulation is incompletely understood. Here, we report that liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is expressed in kisspeptin neurons in the Arc but not in the AVPV in female mice. LRH-1 binds directly to the kisspeptin (Kiss1) promoter and stimulates Kiss1 transcription. Deletion of LRH-1 from kisspeptin neurons in mice decreased Kiss1 expression in the Arc, leading to reduced plasma FSH levels, dysregulated follicle maturation, and prolongation of the estrous cycle. Conversely, overexpression of LRH-1 in kisspeptin neurons increased Arc Kiss1 expression and plasma FSH concentrations. These studies provide a molecular basis for the differential regulation of basal kisspeptin expression in Arc and AVPV neurons and reveal a prominent role for LRH-1 in hypothalamus in regulating the female reproductive axis.
Project description:The expression characteristics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis-related candidate genes, <i>DIO2</i>, <i>EYA3</i>, <i>KISS1</i> and <i>GPR54</i>, were analyzed in year-round estrous rams (small-tail Han sheep, STH) and seasonally estrous rams (Sunite sheep, SNT) using qPCR. The results were as follows: <i>DIO2</i> was mainly expressed in pituitary, and <i>KISS1</i> was specifically expressed in hypothalamus in the two groups. However, <i>EYA3</i> and <i>GPR54</i> were widely expressed in the cerebrum, cerebellum, hypothalamus, pituitary, testis, epididymis, vas deferens and adrenal gland tissues in both breeds, with significant differences in the cerebellum, hypothalamus, pituitary, testis and vas deferens tissues. We speculated that <i>DIO2</i> and <i>KISS1</i> may have positive roles in different regions in ram year-round estrus. Moreover, the expression patterns of <i>EYA3</i> and <i>GPR54</i> suggested that they may regulate the estrous mode of ram via testis and vas deferens. This is the first study to systematically analyze the expression patterns of HPG axis-related genes in rams.
Project description:Kisspeptin neuropeptides are encoded by the Kiss1 gene and play a critical role in the regulation of the mammalian reproductive axis. Kiss1 neurones are found in two locations in the rodent hypothalamus: one in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and another in the RP3V region, which includes the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Detailed mapping of the fibre distribution of Kiss1 neurones will help with our understanding of the action of these neurones in other regions of the brain. We have generated a transgenic mouse in which the Kiss1 coding region is disrupted by a CRE-GFP transgene so that expression of the CRE recombinase protein is driven from the Kiss1 promoter. As expected, mutant mice of both sexes are sterile with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and do not show the normal rise in luteinising hormone after gonadectomy. Mutant female mice do not develop mature Graafian follicles or form corpora lutea consistent with ovulatory failure. Mutant male mice have low blood testosterone levels and impaired spermatogenesis beyond the meiosis stage. Breeding Kiss-CRE heterozygous mice with CRE-activated tdTomato reporter mice allows fluorescence visualisation of Kiss1 neurones in brain slices. Approximately 80-90% of tdTomato positive neurones in the ARC were co-labelled with kisspeptin and expression of tdTomato in the AVPV region was sexually dimorphic, with higher expression in females than males. A small number of tdTomato-labelled neurones was also found in other locations, including the lateral septum, the anterodorsal preoptic nucleus, the amygdala, the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, the periaquaductal grey, and the mammillary nucleus. Three dimensional visualisation of Kiss1 neurones and fibres by CLARITY processing of whole brains showed an increase in ARC expression during puberty and higher numbers of Kiss1 neurones in the caudal region of the ARC compared to the rostral region. ARC Kiss1 neurones sent fibre projections to several hypothalamic regions, including rostrally to the periventricular and pre-optic areas and to the lateral hypothalamus.