Genetic Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Risk in Familial Hypercholesterolemia.
ABSTRACT: Background:Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited condition of elevated serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol leading to premature coronary heart disease. We evaluated whether FH mutations are independently associated with the development of myocardial infarction (MI), after adjusting for LDL cholesterol level and clinical risk factors. Methods:In 182 unrelated patients from different families referred with clinically suspected FH, targeted next-generation DNA sequencing was performed on 73 lipid-related genes and 178 single nucleotide polymorphisms, at 300-times mean read depth, to identify monogenic mutations and high-risk single nucleotide polymorphisms. Results:Pathogenic FH mutations were identified in 27% of patients. Patients with mutations, compared with those without, were 12 years younger when referred to the lipid clinic (P < 0.001) and had higher baseline and post-treatment LDL cholesterol by 1.11 mmol/L (P < 0.001) and 0.62 mmol/L (P = 0.01), respectively. The hazard ratio for premature MI with respect to having an FH mutation, controlling for sex, hypertension, body mass index, diabetes, LDL cholesterol, and smoking, was 4.51 (P = 0.002). Conclusion:FH is a genetically diverse condition. FH mutations are independently associated with higher risk of premature MI in patients referred for hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, genotyping could guide cardiovascular risk stratification in the personalized treatment of FH.
Project description:For patients with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), it remains unclear whether differences exist in the risk of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) between patients with confirmed mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) vs those without detectable mutations.This study sought to assess the risk of premature CHD in ADH patients with mutations in LDLR (referred to as familial hypercholesterolemia [FH]) vs those without detectable mutations (unexplained ADH), stratified by sex.Comparative study of premature CHD in a multiethnic cohort of 111 men and 165 women meeting adult Simon-Broome criteria for ADH.Women with FH (n = 51) had an increased risk of premature CHD compared with unexplained ADH women (n = 111; hazard ratio [HR], 2.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-5.34; P = .003) even after adjustment for lipid levels and traditional CHD risk factors (HR, 2.53 [1.10-5.83]; P = .005). Men with FH (n = 42), in contrast, had a similar risk of premature CHD when compared with unexplained ADH men (n = 66; unadjusted: HR, 1.48 [0.84-2.63]; P = .18; adjusted: HR, 1.04 [0.46-2.37]; P = .72). To address whether mutation status provides additional information beyond LDL-cholesterol level, we analyzed premature CHD risk for FH vs unexplained ADH at various percentiles of LDL-cholesterol: the risk ratios were significant for women at 25th percentile (HR, 4.90 [1.69-14.19]) and 50th percentile (HR, 3.44 [1.42-8.32]) but not at 75th percentile (HR, 1.99 [0.95-4.17]), and were not significant for men at any percentile.Our findings suggest that genetic confirmation of ADH may be important to identify patient's risk of CHD, especially for female LDLR mutation carriers.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The risk of premature cardiovascular disease in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) can be profoundly reduced by cholesterol-lowering therapy, and current guidelines for FH advocate ambitious low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals. In the present study, we determined whether these goals are reflected in current clinical practice once FH has been diagnosed.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>In 2008, we sent questionnaires to all subjects (aged 18-65 years) who were molecularly diagnosed with FH in the year 2006 through the screening program in The Netherlands. Of these 1062 subjects, 781 completed the questionnaire (46% males; mean age: 42+/-12 years; mean LDL-C at molecular diagnosis (baseline): 4.1+/-1.3 mmol/L). The number of persons that used cholesterol-lowering therapy increased from 397 (51%) at baseline to 636 (81%) after diagnosis. Mean treated LDL-C levels decreased significantly to 3.2+/-1.1 mmol/L two years after diagnosis. Only 22% achieved the LDL-C target level of < or = 2.5 mmol/L.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>The proportion of patients using cholesterol-lowering medication was significantly increased after FH diagnosis through genetic cascade screening. The attained LDL-C levels were lower than those reported in previous surveys on medication use in FH, which could reflect the effect of more stringent lipid target levels. However, only a minority of the medication users reached the LDL-C target.
Project description:Familial hypercholesterolemia is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by earlier elevated Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and increased risk for premature Myocardial Infarction (MI). Albeit the diagnosis of some medical Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) cases are due to mutations in PCSK9, APOB, or LDLR, detection of mutation rate and profiles relies heavily on different gene pools and ethnicity. We ran exome sequencing on blood genomic DNA (gDNA) from a 26-year-old Saudi patient on Ion Proton Platform (Ion Torrent, Guilford, Connecticut, USA) as part of a pilot study preluding the establishment of the Saudi Human Genome project. The sequencing results were analysed using Ion suit Bioinformatics system. The patient was matched with a lady of lean body mass and Welsh descent, who suffered from hypercholesterolemia. The first analysis of known FH genes identified five mutations in APOB, 25 mutations of known genes linked to FH, six mutations in LPR2, one mutation in LDLR, and three mutations in PCSK9. Finally, using disease filter algorithms, we filtered out more than 2000 intronic synonymous variants with likely no biological functions. No major new locus was found in FH. However, via variant reduction and TVC protocols we detected 15 new variants, among which 14 genes are linked to hypercholesterolemia, type-I, and type-II diabetes. We also detected three mutations in PCSK9 and confirmed one by Sanger. Taken together, this report suggests that the genetic determinant of FH in this Saudi patient is likely to be heterogeneous, complicating the diagnostic and novel gene discovery process.
Project description:Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) results in very high levels of atherogenic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol from the time of birth. Mutations of the genes encoding for the LDL receptor, apolipoprotein B and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, are causes for this autosomal dominant inherited condition. Heterozygous FH is very common, while homozygous FH is rare. Affected individuals can experience premature cardiovascular disease; most homozygous patients experience this before the age of 20 years. Since effective LDL cholesterol lowering therapies are available, morbidity and mortality are decreased. The use of statins is the first choice in therapy; combining other lipid-lowering medications is recommended to lower LDL cholesterol sufficiently. In some cases, lipoprotein apheresis is necessary. In heterozygous FH, these measures are effective to lower LDL cholesterol, but in severe cases and in homozygous FH there remains an unmet need. Emerging therapies, such as the recently approved microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor and the apolipoprotein B antisense oligonucleotide, might offer further options for these patients with very high cardiovascular risk. Early diagnosis and early treatment are important to reduce cardiovascular events and premature death.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Approximately 7% of American adults have severe hypercholesterolemia (untreated low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol ?190 mg/dl), which may be due to familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Lifelong LDL cholesterol elevations in FH mutation carriers may confer coronary artery disease (CAD) risk beyond that captured by a single LDL cholesterol measurement. OBJECTIVES:This study assessed the prevalence of an FH mutation among those with severe hypercholesterolemia and determined whether CAD risk varies according to mutation status beyond the observed LDL cholesterol level. METHODS:Three genes causative for FH (LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9) were sequenced in 26,025 participants from 7 case-control studies (5,540 CAD case subjects, 8,577 CAD-free control subjects) and 5 prospective cohort studies (11,908 participants). FH mutations included loss-of-function variants in LDLR, missense mutations in LDLR predicted to be damaging, and variants linked to FH in ClinVar, a clinical genetics database. RESULTS:Among 20,485 CAD-free control and prospective cohort participants, 1,386 (6.7%) had LDL cholesterol ?190 mg/dl; of these, only 24 (1.7%) carried an FH mutation. Within any stratum of observed LDL cholesterol, risk of CAD was higher among FH mutation carriers than noncarriers. Compared with a reference group with LDL cholesterol <130 mg/dl and no mutation, participants with LDL cholesterol ?190 mg/dl and no FH mutation had a 6-fold higher risk for CAD (odds ratio: 6.0; 95% confidence interval: 5.2 to 6.9), whereas those with both LDL cholesterol ?190 mg/dl and an FH mutation demonstrated a 22-fold increased risk (odds ratio: 22.3; 95% confidence interval: 10.7 to 53.2). In an analysis of participants with serial lipid measurements over many years, FH mutation carriers had higher cumulative exposure to LDL cholesterol than noncarriers. CONCLUSIONS:Among participants with LDL cholesterol ?190 mg/dl, gene sequencing identified an FH mutation in <2%. However, for any observed LDL cholesterol, FH mutation carriers had substantially increased risk for CAD.
Project description:Background: The monogenic defect in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is detected in ?40% of cases. The majority of mutation-negative patients have a polygenic cause of high LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). We sought to investigate whether the underlying monogenic or polygenic defect is associated with the response to rosuvastatin. METHODS:FH Individuals were tested for mutations in LDLR and APOB genes. A previously established LDL-C-specific polygenic risk score (PRS) was used to examine the possibility of polygenic hypercholesterolemia in mutation-negative patients. All of the patients received rosuvastatin and they were followed for 8 ± 2 months. A propensity score analysis was performed to evaluate the variables associated with the response to treatment. RESULTS:Monogenic subjects had higher mean (±SD) baseline LDL-C when compared to polygenic (7.6 ± 1.5 mmol/L vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 mmol/L; p < 0.001). Adjusted model showed a lower percentage of change in LDL-C after rosuvastatin treatment in monogenic patients vs. polygenic subjects (45.9% vs. 55.4%, p < 0.001). The probability of achieving LDL-C targets in monogenic FH was lower than in polygenic subjects (0.075 vs. 0.245, p = 0.004). Polygenic patients were more likely to achieve LDL-C goals, as compared to those monogenic (OR 3.28; 95% CI: 1.23-8.72). CONCLUSION:Our findings indicate an essentially higher responsiveness to rosuvastatin in FH patients with a polygenic cause, as compared to those carrying monogenic mutations.
Project description:Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant condition with a population prevalence of one in 300-500 (heterozygous) that is characterized by high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, tendon xanthomata, and premature atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). FH is caused mainly by mutations in the LDLR gene. However, mutations in other genes including APOB and PCSK9, can give rise to a similar phenotype. Homozygous FH with an estimated prevalence of one in a million is associated with severe hypercholesterolemia with accelerated atherosclerotic CHD in childhood and without treatment, death usually occurs before the age of 30 years. Current approaches for the treatment of homozygous FH include statin-based lipid-lowering therapies and LDL apheresis. Mipomersen is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeted to human apolipoprotein B (apoB)-100. This review provides an overview of the pathophysiology and current treatment options for familial hypercholesterolemia and describes novel therapeutic strategies focusing on mipomersen, an antisense apoB synthesis inhibitor. Mipomersen is distributed mainly to the liver where it silences apoB mRNA, thereby reducing hepatic apoB-100 and giving rise to reductions in plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and apoB concentrations in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Mipomersen has been shown to decrease apoB, LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) in patients with heterozygous and homozygous FH on maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. The short-term efficacy and safety of mipomersen has been established, however, injection site reactions are common and concern exists regarding the long-term potential for hepatic steatosis with this ASO. In summary, mipomersen given alone or in combination with standard lipid-lowering medications shows promise as an adjunct therapy in patients with homozygous or refractory heterozygous FH at high risk of atherosclerotic CHD, who are not at target or are intolerant of statins.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The majority of FH cases are caused by low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene mutations. The C308Y mutation in LDL-R results in approximately 70% loss of LDL-R activity, leading to the elevation of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and an increased risk of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of this study was to identify FH cases by cascade screening in family members and relatives of a 37-year old male with premature CHD and hypercholesterolemia. METHODS:Clinical exam, blood lipid profiling and genomic DNA sequencing of all exons of LDL-R were performed for the proband and his 14 family members and relatives. FH diagnosis was carried out using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) criteria. RESULTS:Lipid profiling showed that 9 individuals, including the proband, had hypercholesterolemia. All these 9 subjects had a G?>?A substitution at nucleotide 986 in exon 7 resulting in the C308Y mutation as determined by DNA sequencing, and all those carrying the mutation were diagnosed as having definite FH under the DLCN criteria. However, most (7/9) did not have suggestive clinical manifestations of CHD. CONCLUSIONS:The C308Y mutation was discovered in multiple family members and relatives for the first time in mainland China. Cascade screening is key for the confirmatory diagnosis of FH. Our hypothesis that the C308Y is a common variant in the population of Southern China origin warrants further validation by screening for the C308Y mutation in a large population.
Project description:Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disorder that causes elevated LDL cholesterol levels from birth. Untreated FH accelerates atherosclerosis and predisposes individuals to premature coronary artery disease (CAD) in adulthood. Mendelian randomization studies have demonstrated that LDL cholesterol has both a causal and cumulative effect on the risk of CAD. This supports clinical recommendations that children with FH commence pharmacological treatment from the age of 8 to 10 years, to reduce the burden of hypercholesterolemia. Worldwide, the majority of children with FH remain undiagnosed. Recent evidence suggests that the frequency of FH is at least 1 in 250 and this constitutes a public health issue. We review and identify the knowns and unknowns concerning the detection and management of pediatric FH that impact on the developing model of care for this condition.
Project description:The prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in Russia has not previously been evaluated. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of FH in the population of the West Siberian region of Russia, and then estimate the frequency of coronary artery disease (CAD) and treatment with cholesterol-lowering medication in FH patients.The sample of our study consisted of participants from the population-based cohort of The Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Diseases in Regions of the Russian Federation Study (ESSE-RF), conducted in the Tyumen and Kemerovo regions (1,630 and 1,622 people, respectively, aged 25-64). All participants who had LDL-cholesterol higher than 4.9 mmol/l and who had LDL-cholesterol less than or equal to 4.9 mmol/l but had statin therapy were examined and interviewed by experts in FH.The prevalence of patients with definite FH was 0.24% (one in 407) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06%-0.42%), with probable FH was 0.68% (one in 148) (95% CI: 0.38%-0.98%), and with definite or probable FH combined was 0.92% (one in 108) (95% CI: 0.58%-1.26%). 40% (95% CI: 20.8%-59.2%) of patients with definite or probable FH had CAD. However, only 23% (95% CI: 6.3%-39.7%) of patients with definite or probable FH were on statins. The odds ratios for CAD and myocardial infarction (MI), adjusted for age, gender, region, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, were 3.71 (95% CI: 1.58-8.72) (p = 0.003) and 4.06 (95% CI: 0.89-18.55) (р = 0.070) respectively for individuals with definite or probable FH relative to those who were unlikely to have FH.The prevalence of FH in Russia may be significantly higher than previously estimated. There is underdiagnosis and undertreatment of FH in Russia.