Clinical Impact of an Electronic Dashboard and Alert System for Sedation Minimization and Ventilator Liberation: A Before-After Study.
ABSTRACT: Sedation minimization and ventilator liberation protocols improve outcomes but are challenging to implement. We sought to demonstrate proof-of-concept and impact of an electronic application promoting sedation minimization and ventilator liberation. Design:Multi-ICU proof-of-concept study and a single ICU before-after study. Setting:University hospital ICUs. Patients:Adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Interventions:An automated application consisting of 1) a web-based dashboard with real-time data on spontaneous breathing trial readiness, sedation depth, sedative infusions, and nudges to wean sedation and ventilatory support and 2) text-message alerts once patients met criteria for a spontaneous breathing trial and spontaneous awakening trial. Pre-intervention, sedation minimization, and ventilator liberation were reviewed daily during a multidisciplinary huddle. Post-intervention, the dashboard was used during the multidisciplinary huddle, throughout the day by respiratory therapists, and text alerts were sent to bedside providers. Measurements and Main Results:We enrolled 115 subjects in the proof-of-concept study. Spontaneous breathing trial alerts were accurate (98.3%), usually sent while patients were receiving mandatory ventilation (88.5%), and 61.9% of patients received concurrent spontaneous awakening trial alerts. We enrolled 457 subjects in the before-after study, 221 pre-intervention and 236 post-intervention. After implementation, patients were 28% more likely to be extubated (hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01-1.63; p = 0.042) and 31% more likely to be discharged from the ICU (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.67; p = 0.027) at any time point. After implementation, the median duration of mechanical ventilation was 2.20 days (95% CI, 0.09-4.31 d; p = 0.042) shorter and the median ICU length of stay was 2.65 days (95% CI, 0.13-5.16 d; p = 0.040) shorter, compared with the expected durations without the application. Conclusions:Implementation of an electronic dashboard and alert system promoting sedation minimization and ventilator liberation was associated with reductions in the duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay.
Project description:Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most demanding conditions in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Management of analgesia and sedation in ARDS is particularly challenging. An expert panel was convened to produce a "state-of-the-art" article to support clinicians in the optimal management of analgesia/sedation in mechanically ventilated adults with ARDS, including those with COVID-19. Current ICU analgesia/sedation guidelines promote analgesia first and minimization of sedation, wakefulness, delirium prevention and early rehabilitation to facilitate ventilator and ICU liberation. However, these strategies cannot always be applied to patients with ARDS who sometimes require deep sedation and/or paralysis. Patients with severe ARDS may be under-represented in analgesia/sedation studies and currently recommended strategies may not be feasible. With lightened sedation, distress-related symptoms (e.g., pain and discomfort, anxiety, dyspnea) and patient-ventilator asynchrony should be systematically assessed and managed through interprofessional collaboration, prioritizing analgesia and anxiolysis. Adaptation of ventilator settings (e.g., use of a pressure-set mode, spontaneous breathing, sensitive inspiratory trigger) should be systematically considered before additional medications are administered. Managing the mechanical ventilator is of paramount importance to avoid the unnecessary use of deep sedation and/or paralysis. Therefore, applying an "ABCDEF-R" bundle (R?=?Respiratory-drive-control) may be beneficial in ARDS patients. Further studies are needed, especially regarding the use and long-term effects of fast-offset drugs (e.g., remifentanil, volatile anesthetics) and the electrophysiological assessment of analgesia/sedation (e.g., electroencephalogram devices, heart-rate variability, and video pupillometry). This review is particularly relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic given drug shortages and limited ICU-bed capacity.
Project description:Objectives:The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has stretched ICU resources in an unprecedented fashion and outstripped personal protective equipment supplies. The combination of a novel disease, resource limitations, and risks to medical personnel health have created new barriers to implementing the ICU Liberation ("A" for Assessment, Prevention, and Manage pain; "B" for Both Spontaneous Awakening Trials and Spontaneous Breathing Trials; "C" for Choice of Analgesia and Sedation; "D" for Delirium Assess, Prevent, and Manage; "E" for Early Mobility and Exercise; and "F" for Family Engagement and Empowerment [ABCDEF]) Bundle, a proven ICU care approach that reduces delirium, shortens mechanical ventilation duration, prevents post-ICU syndrome, and reduces healthcare costs. This narrative review acknowledges barriers and offers strategies to optimize Bundle performance in coronavirus disease 2019 patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Data Sources Study Selection and Data Extraction:The most relevant literature, media reports, and author experiences were assessed for inclusion in this narrative review including PubMed, national newspapers, and critical care/pharmacology textbooks. Data Synthesis:Uncertainty regarding coronavirus disease 2019 clinical course, shifts in attitude, and changes in routine behavior have hindered Bundle use. A domino effect results from: 1) changes to critical care hierarchy, priorities, and ICU team composition; 2) significant personal protective equipment shortages cause; 3) reduced/restricted physical bedside presence favoring; 4) increased depth of sedation and use of neuromuscular blockade; 5) which exacerbate drug shortages; and 6) which require prolonged use of limited ventilator resources. Other identified barriers include manageable knowledge deficits among non-ICU clinicians unfamiliar with the Bundle or among PICU specialists deploying pediatric-based Bundle approaches who are unfamiliar with adult medicine. Both groups have been enlisted to augment the adult ICU work force to meet demand. Strategies were identified to facilitate Bundle performance to liberate patients from the ICU. Conclusions:We acknowledge current challenges that interfere with comprehensive management of critically ill patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Rapid response to new circumstances precisely requires established safety mechanisms and protocols like the ABCDEF Bundle to increase ICU and ventilator capacity and help survivors maximize recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 as early as possible.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Weaning is the process during which mechanical ventilation is withdrawn and the work of breathing is transferred from the ventilator back to the patient. Prolonged weaning is associated with development of ventilator-related complications and longer stays in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Computerized or Automated Weaning is a novel weaning strategy that continuously measures and adapts ventilator support (by frequently measuring and averaging three breathing parameters) and automatically conducts Spontaneous Breathing Trials to ascertain whether patients can resume autonomous breathing. Automated Weaning holds promise as a strategy to reduce the time spent on the ventilator, decrease ICU length of stay, and improve clinically important outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: A pilot weaning randomized controlled trial (RCT) is underway in the ICUs of 8 Canadian hospitals. We will randomize 90 critically ill adults requiring invasive ventilation for at least 24 hours and identified at an early stage of the weaning process to either Automated Weaning (SmartCare) or Protocolized Weaning. The results of a National Weaning Survey informed the design of the Protocolized Weaning arm. Both weaning protocols are operationalized in Pressure Support mode, include opportunities for Spontaneous Breathing Trials, and share a common sedation protocol, oxygen titration parameters, and extubation and reintubation criteria. The primary outcome of the WEAN study is to evaluate compliance with the proposed weaning and sedation protocols. A key secondary outcome of the pilot RCT is to evaluate clinician acceptance of the weaning and sedation protocols. Prior to initiating the WEAN Study, we conducted a run-in phase, involving two patients per centre (randomizing the first participant to either weaning strategy and assigning the second patient to the alternate strategy) to ensure that participating centres could implement the weaning and sedation protocols and complete the detailed case report forms. DISCUSSION: Mechanical ventilation studies are difficult to implement; requiring protocols to be operationalized continuously and entailing detailed daily data collection. As the first multicentre weaning RCT in Canada, the WEAN Study seeks to determine the feasibility of conducting a large scale future weaning trial and to establish a collaborative network of ICU clinicians dedicated to advancing the science of weaning. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN43760151.
Project description:Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) inhibit patient-initiated active breath and the risk of high tidal volumes and consequent high transpulmonary pressure swings, and minimize patient/ ventilator asynchrony in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Minimization of volutrauma and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) results in a lower incidence of barotrauma, improved oxygenation and a decrease in circulating proinflammatory markers. Recent randomized clinical trials did not reveal harmful muscular effects during a short course of NMBAs. The use of NMBAs should be considered during the early phase of severe ARDS for patients to facilitate lung protective ventilation or prone positioning only after optimising mechanical ventilation and sedation. The use of NMBAs should be integrated in a global strategy including the reduction of tidal volume, the rational use of PEEP, prone positioning and the use of a ventilatory mode allowing spontaneous ventilation as soon as possible. Partial neuromuscular blockade should be evaluated in future trials.
Project description:Daily sedative interruption and intermittent sedation are effective in abbreviating the time on mechanical ventilation. Whether one is superior to the other has not yet been determined. Our aim was to compare daily interruption and intermittent sedation during the mechanical ventilation period in a low nurse staffing ICU.Adult patients expected to need mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours were randomly assigned, in a single center, either to daily interruption of continuous sedative and opioid infusion or to intermittent sedation. In both cases, our goal was to maintain a Sedation Agitation Scale (SAS) level of 3 or 4; that is patients should be calm, easily arousable or awakened with verbal stimuli or gentle shaking. Primary outcome was ventilator-free days in 28 days. Secondary outcomes were ICU and hospital mortality, incidence of delirium, nurse workload, self-extubation and psychological distress six months after ICU discharge.A total of 60 patients were included. There were no differences in the ventilator-free days in 28 days between daily interruption and intermittent sedation (median: 24 versus 25 days, P = 0.160). There were also no differences in ICU mortality (40 versus 23.3%, P = 0.165), hospital mortality (43.3 versus 30%, P = 0.284), incidence of delirium (30 versus 40%, P = 0.472), self-extubation (3.3 versus 6.7%, P = 0.514), and psychological stress six months after ICU discharge. Also, the nurse workload was not different between groups, but it was reduced on day 5 compared to day 1 in both groups (Nurse Activity Score (NAS) in the intermittent sedation group was 54 on day 1 versus 39 on day 5, P < 0.001; NAS in daily interruption group was 53 on day 1 versus 38 on day 5, P < 0.001). Fentanyl and midazolam total dosages per patient were higher in the daily interruption group. The tidal volume was higher in the intermittent sedation group during the first five days of ICU stay.There was no difference in the number of ventilator-free days in 28 days between both groups. Intermittent sedation was associated with lower sedative and opioid doses.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00824239.
Project description:Background:A large proportion of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop severe respiratory failure requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and about 80% of them need mechanical ventilation (MV). These patients show great complexity due to multiple organ involvement and a dynamic evolution over time; moreover, few information is available about the risk factors that may contribute to increase the time course of mechanical ventilation.The primary objective of this study is to investigate the risk factors associated with the inability to liberate COVID-19 patients from mechanical ventilation. Due to the complex evolution of the disease, we analyzed both pulmonary variables and occurrence of non-pulmonary complications during mechanical ventilation. The secondary objective of this study was the evaluation of risk factors for ICU mortality. Methods:This multicenter prospective observational study enrolled 391 patients from fifteen COVID-19 dedicated Italian ICUs which underwent invasive mechanical ventilation for COVID-19 pneumonia. Clinical and laboratory data, ventilator parameters, occurrence of organ dysfunction, and outcome were recorded. The primary outcome measure was 28?days ventilator-free days and the liberation from MV at 28?days was studied by performing a competing risks regression model on data, according to the method of Fine and Gray; the event death was considered as a competing risk. Results:Liberation from mechanical ventilation was achieved in 53.2% of the patients (208/391). Competing risks analysis, considering death as a competing event, demonstrated a decreased sub-hazard ratio for liberation from mechanical ventilation (MV) with increasing age and SOFA score at ICU admission, low values of PaO2/FiO2 ratio during the first 5?days of MV, respiratory system compliance (CRS) lower than 40?mL/cmH2O during the first 5?days of MV, need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and cardiovascular complications.ICU mortality during the observation period was 36.1% (141/391). Similar results were obtained by the multivariate logistic regression analysis using mortality as a dependent variable. Conclusions:Age, SOFA score at ICU admission, CRS, PaO2/FiO2, renal and cardiovascular complications, and late-onset VAP were all independent risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19. Trial registration:NCT04411459.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Evidence for benefit of high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is largely lacking for invasively ventilated, critically ill patients with uninjured lungs. We hypothesize that ventilation with low PEEP is noninferior to ventilation with high PEEP with regard to the number of ventilator-free days and being alive at day 28 in this population. METHODS/DESIGN: The "REstricted versus Liberal positive end-expiratory pressure in patients without ARDS" trial (RELAx) is a national, multicenter, randomized controlled, noninferiority trial in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients with uninjured lungs who are expected not to be extubated within 24 h. RELAx will run in 13 ICUs in the Netherlands to enroll 980 patients under invasive ventilation. In all patients, low tidal volumes are used. Patients assigned to ventilation with low PEEP will receive the lowest possible PEEP between 0 and 5 cm H2O, while patients assigned to ventilation with high PEEP will receive PEEP of 8 cm H2O. The primary endpoint is the number of ventilator-free days and being alive at day 28, a composite endpoint for liberation from the ventilator and mortality until day 28, with a noninferiority margin for a difference between groups of 0.5 days. Secondary endpoints are length of stay (LOS), mortality, and occurrence of pulmonary complications, including severe hypoxemia, major atelectasis, need for rescue therapies, pneumonia, pneumothorax, and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Hemodynamic support and sedation needs will be collected and compared. DISCUSSION:RELAx will be the first sufficiently sized randomized controlled trial in invasively ventilated, critically ill patients with uninjured lungs using a clinically relevant and objective endpoint to determine whether invasive, low-tidal-volume ventilation with low PEEP is noninferior to ventilation with high PEEP. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov , ID: NCT03167580 . Registered on 23 May 2017.
Project description:Mechanical ventilation (MV) is the cornerstone of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) management. The use of protective ventilation is a priority in this acute phase of lung inflammation. Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) induce reversible muscle paralysis. Their use in patients with ARDS remains controversial but occurs frequently. NMBAs are used in 25-45% of ARDS patients for a mean period of 1±2 days. The main indications of NMBAs are hypoxemia and facilitation of MV. For ethical reasons, NMBA use is inseparable from sedation in the management of early ARDS. During paralysis, sedation monitoring seems to be necessary to avoid awareness with recall. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated that the systematic use of NMBAs in the early management of ARDS patients improves oxygenation. Furthermore, the most recent trial reported a reduction of mortality at 90 days when NMBAs were infused over 48 hours. Spontaneous ventilation (SV) during MV at the acute phase of ARDS could improve oxygenation and alveolar recruitment, but it may not allow protective ventilation. The major risk is an increase in ventilator-induced lung injury. However, the adverse effects of NMBAs are widely discussed, particularly the occurrence of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness. This review analyses the recent findings in the literature concerning sedation and paralysis in managing ARDS.
Project description:Sedation and/or analgesia can relieve the patient-ventilator asynchrony. However, whether sedation and/or analgesia can benefit the clinical outcome of the patients with interface intolerance is still unclear.A retrospective study was performed on patients with interface intolerance who received noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) after extubation in seven intensive care units (ICU) of West China Hospital, Sichuan University. The primary outcome was rate of NIPPV failure (defined as need for reintubation and mechanical ventilation); Secondary outcomes were hospital mortality rate and length of ICU stay after extubation.A total of 80 patients with oral-nasal mask (90%) and facial mask (10%) were included in the analysis. 41 out of 80 patients received sedation and/or analgesia treatment (17 used analgesia, 11 used sedation and 13 used both) at some time during NIPPV. They showed a decrease of NIPPV failure rate, (15% vs. 38%, P = 0.015; adjusted odd ratio [OR] 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.86, P = 0.025), mortality rate (7% vs. 33%, P = 0.004; adjusted OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03-0.60, P = 0.008), and the length of ICU stay after extubation.This clinical study suggests that sedation and/or analgesia treatment can decrease the rate of NIPPV failure, hospital mortality rate and ICU LOS in patients with interface intolerance after extubution during NIPPV.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Predicting successful liberation from mechanical ventilation (MV) among critically ill patients receiving MV can be challenging. The current parameters used to predict successful extubation have shown variable predictive value. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been proposed as a novel biomarker to help guide decision-making in readiness for liberation of MV following a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). Current evidence on the predictive ability of BNP has been uncertain, and BNP has not been integrated into clinical practice guidelines. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We will perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the value of BNP during SBT to predict success of liberation from MV. A search strategy will be developed in collaboration with a research librarian, and electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science) and additional sources will be searched. Search themes will include: (1) BNP and (2) weaning, extubation and/or liberation from MV. Citation screening, selection, quality assessment and data abstraction will be performed in duplicate. The primary outcome will be liberation from MV; secondary outcomes will include time to reintubation, mortality, MV duration, total and postextubation intensive care unit (ICU) stay, hospitalisation duration, tracheostomy rate, ICU-acquired weakness rate and ventilator-free days. Primary statistical analysis will include predictive value of BNP by receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity/specificity and likelihood ratios for combination of BNP and SBT parameters for failure of liberation from MV. Secondary statistical analysis will be performed on individual and combinations of extracted metrics. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Our review will add knowledge by mapping the current body of evidence on the value of BNP testing for prediction of successful liberation from MV, and describe knowledge gaps and research priorities. Our findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication, presentation at a scientific congress, through regional/national organisations and social media. Research ethics approval is not required. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42018087474.