Structure of E3 ligase E6AP with a proteasome-binding site provided by substrate receptor hRpn10.
ABSTRACT: Regulated proteolysis by proteasomes involves ~800 enzymes for substrate modification with ubiquitin, including ~600 E3 ligases. We report here that E6AP/UBE3A is distinguished from other E3 ligases by having a 12?nM binding site at the proteasome contributed by substrate receptor hRpn10/PSMD4/S5a. Intrinsically disordered by itself, and previously uncharacterized, the E6AP-binding domain in hRpn10 locks into a well-defined helical structure to form an intermolecular 4-helix bundle with the E6AP AZUL, which is unique to this E3. We thus name the hRpn10 AZUL-binding domain RAZUL. We further find in human cells that loss of RAZUL by CRISPR-based gene editing leads to loss of E6AP at proteasomes. Moreover, proteasome-associated ubiquitin is reduced following E6AP knockdown or displacement from proteasomes, suggesting that E6AP ubiquitinates substrates at or for the proteasome. Altogether, our findings indicate E6AP to be a privileged E3 for the proteasome, with a dedicated, high affinity binding site contributed by hRpn10.
Project description:Deregulation of the HECT ubiquitin ligase UBE3A/E6AP has been implicated in Angelman syndrome as well as autism spectrum disorders. We and others have previously identified the 26S proteasome as one of the major UBE3A-interacting protein complexes. Here, we characterize the interaction of UBE3A and the proteasomal subunit PSMD4 (Rpn10/S5a). We map the interaction to the highly conserved Zn2+-binding N-terminal (AZUL) domain of UBE3A, the integrity of which is crucial for binding to PSMD4. Interestingly, two Angelman syndrome point mutations that affect the AZUL domain show an impaired ability to bind PSMD4. Although not affecting the ubiquitin ligase or the estrogen receptor ?-mediated transcriptional regulation activities, these AZUL domain mutations prevent UBE3A from stimulating the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that impaired binding to the 26S proteasome and consequential deregulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling might contribute to the functional defect of these mutants in Angelman syndrome.
Project description:The conjugation of ubiquitin to substrates requires a series of enzymatic reactions consisting of an activating enzyme (E1), conjugating enzymes (E2) and ligases (E3). Tagging the appropriate substrate with ubiquitin is achieved by specific E2-E3 and E3-substrate interactions. E6AP, a member of the HECT family of E3s, has been previously shown to bind and function with the E2s UbcH7 and UbcH8. To decipher the sequence determinants of this specificity we have developed a quantitative E2-E3 binding assay based on fluorescence polarization and used this assay to measure the affinity of wild-type and mutant E2-E6AP interactions. Alanine scanning of the E6AP-UbcH7 binding interface identified four side-chains on UbcH7 and six side-chains on E6AP that contribute more than 1 kcal/mol to the binding free energy. Two of the hot spot residues from UbcH7 (K96 and K100) are conserved in UbcH8 but vary across other E2s. To determine if these are key specificity determining residues, we attempted to induce a tighter association between the E2 UbcH5b and E6AP by mutating the corresponding positions in UbcH5b to lysine residues. Surprisingly, the mutations had little effect, but rather a mutation at UbcH7 position 4, which is not at a hot spot on the UbcH7-E6AP interface, significantly strengthened UbcH5bs affinity for E6AP. This result indicates that E2-E3 binding specificities are a function of both favorable interactions that promote binding, and unfavorable interactions that prevent binding with unwanted partners.
Project description:E3 ubiquitin (UB) ligases are the ending modules of the E1-E2-E3 cascades that transfer UB to cellular proteins and regulate their biological functions. Identifying the substrates of an E3 holds the key to elucidate its role in cell regulation. Here, we construct an orthogonal UB transfer (OUT) cascade to identify the substrates of E6AP, a HECT E3 also known as Ube3a that is implicated in cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders. We use yeast cell surface display to engineer E6AP to exclusively transfer an affinity-tagged UB variant (xUB) to its substrate proteins. Proteomic identification of xUB-conjugated proteins in HEK293 cells affords 130 potential E6AP targets. Among them, we verify that MAPK1, CDK1, CDK4, PRMT5, ?-catenin, and UbxD8 are directly ubiquitinated by E6AP in vitro and in the cell. Our work establishes OUT as an efficient platform to profile E3 substrates and reveal the cellular circuits mediated by the E3 enzymes.
Project description:Perturbed stability of regulatory proteins is a major cause of transformations leading to cancer, including several leukemia subtypes. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that E6-associated protein (E6AP), an E3 ubiquitin ligase negatively targets MAX binding protein MNT for ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation and impedes ATRA mediated myeloid cell differentiation. MNT is a member of the Myc/Max/Mad network of transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. Wild-type E6AP promoted proteasome dependent degradation of MNT, while catalytically inactive E6AP having cysteine replaced with alanine at amino-acid 843 position (E6APC843A) rather stabilized it. Further, these proteins physically associated with each other both in non-myeloid (HEK293T) and myeloid cells. MNT overexpression induced G0-G1 growth arrest and promoted myeloid differentiation while its knockdown mitigated even ATRA induced differentiation suggesting MNT to be crucial for myeloid differentiation. We further showed that ATRA inhibited E6AP and stabilized MNT expression by protecting it from E6AP mediated ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Notably, E6AP knockdown in HL60 cells restored MNT expression and promoted myeloid differentiation. Taken together, our data demonstrated that E6AP negatively regulates granulocytic differentiation by targeting MNT for degradation which is required for growth arrest and subsequent myeloid differentiation by various differentiation inducing agents.
Project description:CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha (C/EBP?) is a key transcription factor involved in the adipocyte differentiation. Here for the first time we demonstrate that E6AP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells as revealed by reduced lipid staining with oil red. Knock down of E6AP in mouse 3T3L1 preadipocytes is sufficient to convert them to adipocytes independent of external hormonal induction. C/EBP? protein level is drastically increased in E6AP deficient 3T3L1 preadipocytes while inverse is observed when wild type E6AP is over expressed. We show that transient transfection of wild type E6AP downregulates C/EBP? protein expression in a dose dependent manner while catalytically inactive E6AP-C843A rather stabilizes it. In addition, wild type E6AP inhibits expression of proadipogenic genes while E6AP-C843A enhances them. More importantly, overexpression of E6AP-C843A in mesenchymal progenitor cells promotes accumulation of lipid droplets while there is drastically reduced lipid droplet formation when E6AP is over expressed. Taken together, our finding suggests that E6AP may negatively control adipogenesis by inhibiting C/EBP? expression by targeting it to ubiquitin-proteasome pathway for degradation.
Project description:The E6AP ubiquitin ligase catalyzes the high-risk human papillomaviruses' E6-mediated ubiquitylation of p53, contributing to the neoplastic progression of cells infected by these viruses. Defects in the activity and the dosage of E6AP are linked to Angelman syndrome and to autism spectrum disorders, respectively, highlighting the need for precise control of the enzyme. With the exception of HERC2, which modulates the ubiquitin ligase activity of E6AP, little is known about the regulation or function of E6AP normally. Using a proteomic approach, we have identified and validated several new E6AP-interacting proteins, including HIF1AN, NEURL4, and mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MAPK6). E6AP exists as part of several different protein complexes, including the proteasome and an independent high-molecular-weight complex containing HERC2, NEURL4, and MAPK6. In examining the functional consequence of its interaction with the proteasome, we found that UBE3C (another proteasome-associated ubiquitin ligase), but not E6AP, contributes to proteasomal processivity in mammalian cells. We also found that E6 associates with the HERC2-containing high-molecular-weight complex through its binding to E6AP. These proteomic studies reveal a level of complexity for E6AP that has not been previously appreciated and identify a number of new cellular proteins through which E6AP may be regulated or functioning.
Project description:CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP?) is an important transcription factor involved in granulocytic differentiation. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that E6-associated protein (E6AP), an E3 ubiquitin ligase targets C/EBP? for ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation and thereby negatively modulates its functions. Wild-type E6AP promotes ubiquitin dependent proteasome degradation of C/EBP?, while catalytically inactive E6-associated protein having cysteine replaced with alanine at amino-acid position 843 (E6AP-C843A) rather stabilizes it. Further, these two proteins physically associate both in non-myeloid (overexpressed human embryonic kidney epithelium) and myeloid cells. We show that E6AP-mediated degradation of C/EBP? protein expression curtails its transactivation potential on its target genes. Noticeably, E6AP degrades both wild-type 42?kDa CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (p42C/EBP?) and mutant isoform 30?kDa CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (p30C/EBP?), this may explain perturbed p42C/EBP?/p30C/EBP? ratio often observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We show that overexpression of catalytically inactive E6AP-C843A in C/EBP? inducible K562- p42C/EBP?-estrogen receptor (ER) cells inhibits ?-estradiol (E2)-induced C/EBP? degradation leading to enhanced granulocytic differentiation. This enhanced granulocytic differentiation upon E2-induced activation of C/EBP? in C/EBP? stably transfected cells (?-estradiol inducible K562 cells stably expressing p42C/EBP?-ER (K562-C/EBP?-p42-ER)) was further substantiated by siE6AP-mediated knockdown of E6AP in both K562-C/EBP?-p42-ER and 32dcl3 (32D clone 3, a cell line widely used model for in vitro study of hematopoietic cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis) cells. Taken together, our data suggest that E6AP targeted C/EBP? protein degradation may provide a possible explanation for both loss of expression and/or functional inactivation of C/EBP? often experienced in myeloid leukemia.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is a major component of viral nucleocapsid and a multifunctional protein involved in viral pathogenesis and hepatocarcinogenesis. We previously showed that the HCV core protein is degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. However, the molecular machinery for core ubiquitylation is unknown. Using tandem affinity purification, we identified the ubiquitin ligase E6AP as an HCV core-binding protein. E6AP was found to bind to the core protein in vitro and in vivo and promote its degradation in hepatic and nonhepatic cells. Knockdown of endogenous E6AP by RNA interference increased the HCV core protein level. In vitro and in vivo ubiquitylation assays showed that E6AP promotes ubiquitylation of the core protein. Exogenous expression of E6AP decreased intracellular core protein levels and supernatant HCV infectivity titers in the HCV JFH1-infected Huh-7 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of endogenous E6AP by RNA interference increased intracellular core protein levels and supernatant HCV infectivity titers in the HCV JFH1-infected cells. Taken together, our results provide evidence that E6AP mediates ubiquitylation and degradation of HCV core protein. We propose that the E6AP-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may affect the production of HCV particles through controlling the amounts of viral nucleocapsid protein.
Project description:Deregulation of the ubiquitin-protein ligase E6AP contributes to the development of the Angelman syndrome and to cervical carcinogenesis suggesting that the activity of E6AP needs to be under tight control. However, how E6AP activity is regulated at the post-translational level under non-pathologic conditions is poorly understood. In this study, we report that the giant protein HERC2, which is like E6AP a member of the HECT family of ubiquitin-protein ligases, binds to E6AP. The interaction is mediated by the RCC1-like domain 2 of HERC2 and a region spanning amino acid residues 150-200 of E6AP. Furthermore, we provide evidence that HERC2 stimulates the ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of E6AP in vitro and within cells and that this stimulatory effect does not depend on the ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of HERC2. Thus, the data obtained indicate that HERC2 acts as a regulator of E6AP.
Project description:Deregulation of the HECT-type ubiquitin ligase E6AP (UBE3A) is implicated in human papilloma virus-induced cervical tumorigenesis and several neurodevelopmental disorders. Yet the structural underpinnings of activity and specificity in this crucial ligase are incompletely understood. Here, we unravel the determinants of ubiquitin recognition by the catalytic domain of E6AP and assign them to particular steps in the catalytic cycle. We identify a functionally critical interface that is specifically required during the initial formation of a thioester-linked intermediate between the C terminus of ubiquitin and the ligase-active site. This interface resembles the one utilized by NEDD4-type enzymes, indicating that it is widely conserved across HECT ligases, independent of their linkage specificities. Moreover, we uncover surface regions in ubiquitin and E6AP, both in the N- and C-terminal portions of the catalytic domain, that are important for the subsequent reaction step of isopeptide bond formation between two ubiquitin molecules. We decipher key elements of linkage specificity, including the C-terminal tail of E6AP and a hydrophilic surface region of ubiquitin in proximity to the acceptor site Lys-48. Intriguingly, mutation of Glu-51, a single residue within this region, permits formation of alternative chain types, thus pointing to a key role of ubiquitin in conferring linkage specificity to E6AP. We speculate that substrate-assisted catalysis, as described previously for certain RING-associated ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, constitutes a common principle during linkage-specific ubiquitin chain assembly by diverse classes of ubiquitination enzymes, including HECT ligases.