Amoxicillin Inactivation by Thiol-Catalyzed Cyclization Reduces Protein Haptenation and Antibacterial Potency.
ABSTRACT: Serum and cellular proteins are targets for the formation of adducts with the ?-lactam antibiotic amoxicillin. This process could be important for the development of adverse, and in particular, allergic reactions to this antibiotic. In studies exploring protein haptenation by amoxicillin, we observed that reducing agents influenced the extent of amoxicillin-protein adducts formation. Consequently, we show that several thiol-containing compounds, including dithiothreitol, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and glutathione, perform a nucleophilic attack on the amoxicillin molecule that is followed by an internal rearrangement leading to amoxicillin diketopiperazine, a known amoxicillin metabolite with residual activity. Increased diketopiperazine conversion is also observed with human serum albumin but not with L-cysteine, which mainly forms the amoxicilloyl amide. The effect of thiols is catalytic and can render complete amoxicillin conversion. Interestingly, this process is dependent on the presence of an amino group in the antibiotic lateral chain, as in amoxicillin and ampicillin. Furthermore, it does not occur for other ?-lactam antibiotics, including cefaclor or benzylpenicillin. Biological consequences of thiol-mediated amoxicillin transformation are exemplified by a reduced bacteriostatic action and a lower capacity of thiol-treated amoxicillin to form protein adducts. Finally, modulation of the intracellular redox status through inhibition of glutathione synthesis influenced the extent of amoxicillin adduct formation with cellular proteins. These results open novel perspectives for the understanding of amoxicillin metabolism and actions, including the formation of adducts involved in allergic reactions.
Project description:Allergic reactions to antibiotics are a major concern in the clinic, with almost 15% of the patients presenting with adverse reactions against β-lactam antibiotics. One of the mechanisms involved in this outcome is the modification of proteins by covalent binding of the drug (haptenation). Hence, the interest in identifying the corresponding serum and cellular protein targets. Importantly, haptenation susceptibility and extent can be modulated by the context, including factors affecting protein conformation or the occurrence of other posttranslational modifications. We previously identified the glycolytic enzyme α-enolase as a target for haptenation by amoxicillin, both in cells and in the extracellular milieu. Here, we performed an in vitro study to analyze amoxicillin haptenation of α-enolase using gel-based and activity assays. Moreover, the possible interplay or interference of amoxicillin haptenation with acetylation was also studied in 1D- and 2D-gels that showed decreased haptenation and displacement of the haptenation signal to lower pI spots upon chemical acetylation, respectively. Mass spectrometry identified lysine 239 as the amoxicillin target residue on α enolase, thus suggesting a selective haptenation under our conditions. The amoxicillin binding site and the surrounding interactions were investigated using the α-enolase crystal structure and molecular docking. Altogether, the results obtained provide the basis for the design of novel diagnostic tools or approaches in the study of amoxicillin-induced allergic reactions.
Project description:Clavulanic acid (CLV) and amoxicillin, frequently administered in combination, can be independently involved in allergic reactions. Protein haptenation with ?-lactams is considered necessary to activate the immune system. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of biotinylated analogues of CLV as probes to study protein haptenation by this ?-lactam. Two synthetic approaches afforded the labeling of CLV through esterification of its carboxylic group with a biotin moiety, via either direct binding (CLV-B) or tetraethylenglycol linker (CLV-TEG-B). The second analogue offered advantages as solubility in aqueous solution and potential lower steric hindrance for both intended interactions, with the protein and with avidin. NMR reactivity studies showed that both CLV and CLV-TEG-B reacts through ?-lactam ring opening by aliphatic amino nitrogen, however with different stability of resulting conjugates. Unlike CLV conjugates, that promoted the decomposition of clavulanate fragment, the conjugates obtained with the CLV-TEG-B remained linked, as a whole structure including biotin, to nucleophile and showed a better stability. This was a desired key feature to allow CLV-TEG-B conjugated protein detection at great sensitivity. We have used biotin detection and mass spectrometry (MS) to detect the haptenation of human serum albumin (HSA) and human serum proteins. MS of conjugates showed that HSA could be modified by CLV-TEG-B. Remarkably, HSA preincubation with CLV excess only reduced moderately the incorporation of CLV-TEG-B, which could be attributed to different protein interferences. The CLV-TEG-B fragment with opened ?-lactam was detected bound to the 404–430HSA peptide of the treated protein. Incubation of human serum with CLV-TEG-B resulted in the haptenation of several proteins that were identified by 2D-electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting as HSA, haptoglobin, and heavy and light chains of immunoglobulins. Taken together, our results show that tagged-CLV keeps some of the CLV features. Moreover, although we observe a different behavior in the conjugate stability and in the site of protein modification, the similar reactivity indicates that it could constitute a valuable tool to identify protein targets for haptenation by CLV with high sensitivity to get insights into the activation of the immune system by CLV and mechanisms involved in ?-lactams allergy.
Project description:Clavulanic acid (CLV) is a betalactam (BL) which inhibits betalactamases activity and is frequently administered combined with amoxicillin (AX). Both BLs can be independently involved in allergic reactions. Indeed, selective immediate allergic reactions to CLV have recently been reported in 30% of patients allergic to the AX-CLV combination. Although protein haptenation with β-lactams is considered necessary to activate the immune system, currently there are no straight-forward detection tools for the study of protein haptenation by CLV. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of two biotinylated analogues of CLV, CLV-B or CLV-TEG-B (containing the later a hydrophilic tetraethylenglycol linker), as probes to study protein haptenation by this β-lactam. Our results show that tagged CLV keeps some of the features of CLV, as the amide binding by which they haptenate proteins and it could constitute a valuable tool to identify protein targets for haptenation by CLV with high sensitivity to get insights into the activation of the immune system by CLV as well as mechanisms involved in allergy to β-lactams.
Project description:Previous studies showed that sub-MIC levels of ?-lactam antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Here, we investigated this process by measuring the effects of sub-MIC amoxicillin on biofilm formation by the epidemic community-associated MRSA strain USA300. We found that sub-MIC amoxicillin increased the ability of USA300 cells to attach to surfaces and form biofilms under both static and flow conditions. We also found that USA300 biofilms cultured in sub-MIC amoxicillin were thicker, contained more pillar and channel structures, and were less porous than biofilms cultured without antibiotic. Biofilm formation in sub-MIC amoxicillin correlated with the production of extracellular DNA (eDNA). However, eDNA released by amoxicillin-induced cell lysis alone was evidently not sufficient to stimulate biofilm. Sub-MIC levels of two other cell wall-active agents with different mechanisms of action-d-cycloserine and fosfomycin-also stimulated eDNA-dependent biofilm, suggesting that biofilm formation may be a mechanistic adaptation to cell wall stress. Screening a USA300 mariner transposon library for mutants deficient in biofilm formation in sub-MIC amoxicillin identified numerous known mediators of S. aureus ?-lactam resistance and biofilm formation, as well as novel genes not previously associated with these phenotypes. Our results link cell wall stress and biofilm formation in MRSA and suggest that eDNA-dependent biofilm formation by strain USA300 in low-dose amoxicillin is an inducible phenotype that can be used to identify novel genes impacting MRSA ?-lactam resistance and biofilm formation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Allergy documentation is frequently inconsistent and incomplete. The impact of this variability on subsequent treatment is not well described. OBJECTIVE:To determine how allergy documentation affects subsequent antibiotic choice. DESIGN:Retrospective, cohort study. PARTICIPANTS:232,616 adult patients seen by 199 primary care providers (PCPs) between January 1, 2009 and January 1, 2014 at an academic medical system. MAIN MEASURES:Inter-physician variation in beta-lactam allergy documentation; antibiotic treatment following beta-lactam allergy documentation. KEY RESULTS:15.6% of patients had a reported beta-lactam allergy. Of those patients, 39.8% had a specific allergen identified and 22.7% had allergic reaction characteristics documented. Variation between PCPs was greater than would be expected by chance (all p<0.001) in the percentage of their patients with a documented beta-lactam allergy (7.9% to 24.8%), identification of a specific allergen (e.g. amoxicillin as opposed to "penicillins") (24.0% to 58.2%) and documentation of the reaction characteristics (5.4% to 51.9%). After beta-lactam allergy documentation, patients were less likely to receive penicillins (Relative Risk [RR] 0.16 [95% Confidence Interval: 0.15-0.17]) and cephalosporins (RR 0.28 [95% CI 0.27-0.30]) and more likely to receive fluoroquinolones (RR 1.5 [95% CI 1.5-1.6]), clindamycin (RR 3.8 [95% CI 3.6-4.0]) and vancomycin (RR 5.0 [95% CI 4.3-5.8]). Among patients with beta-lactam allergy, rechallenge was more likely when a specific allergen was identified (RR 1.6 [95% CI 1.5-1.8]) and when reaction characteristics were documented (RR 2.0 [95% CI 1.8-2.2]). CONCLUSIONS:Provider documentation of beta-lactam allergy is highly variable, and details of the allergy are infrequently documented. Classification of a patient as beta-lactam allergic and incomplete documentation regarding the details of the allergy lead to beta-lactam avoidance and use of other antimicrobial agents, behaviors that may adversely impact care quality and cost.
Project description:Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA)-approved category B antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat infections during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (GM) that occur during pregnancy. The 16S rRNA amplicon deep-sequencing method was used to analyze the effect of category B antibiotics (azithromycin, amoxicillin and cefaclor) on GM during pregnancy using a rat model. The GM composition was substantially modulated by pregnancy and antibiotics administration. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Chlamydiae, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were the dominant phyla. Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and reduced Firmicutes. The genera Shigella, Streptococcus, Candidatus Arthromitus, and Helicobacter were significantly (p < 0.05) more abundant during pregnancy. Antibiotics significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the relative abundance of Lactobacillus but increased that of Enterobacter. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillus crispatus during pregnancy. Antibiotic treatment reduced bacterial diversity; the lowest number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in the cefaclor-treated groups. Antibiotics significantly (p < 0.05) promoted weight gain during pregnancy, and increased relative abundance of Shigella sonnei, Enterococcus hormaechei, and Acinetobacter sp. GM perturbations were accompanied by increases in Proteobacteria abundance and weight gain in pregnancy following antibiotic treatment.
Project description:Beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria to degrade beta-lactam antibiotics, have been harnessed as therapeutics to protect the gut microbiome from damage caused by antibiotics. Proof-of-concept of this approach using SYN-004 (ribaxamase), a beta-lactamase formulated for oral delivery with intravenous (IV) penicillins and cephalosporins, was demonstrated with animal models and in humans. Ribaxamase degraded ceftriaxone in the gastrointestinal tract, protected the gut microbiome, significantly reduced the incidence of Clostridioides difficile disease and attenuated emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. SYN-007 is a delayed release formulation of ribaxamase intended for use with oral beta-lactams. In dogs treated with oral amoxicillin, SYN-007 diminished antibiotic-mediated microbiome disruption and reduced the emergence of antibiotic resistance without altering amoxicillin systemic absorption. Here, SYN-007 function in the presence of clavulanate, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, was investigated. Dogs received amoxicillin (40 mg/kg, orally (PO), three times a day (TID)) or the combined antibiotic/beta-lactamase inhibitor, amoxicillin/clavulanate (40 mg/kg amoxicillin, 5.7 mg/kg clavulanate, PO, TID) +/- SYN-007 (10 mg, PO, TID) for five days. Serum amoxicillin levels were not significantly different +/- SYN-007 compared to amoxicillin alone or amoxicillin/clavulanate alone as controls for both first and last doses, indicating SYN-007 did not interfere with systemic absorption of the antibiotic. Whole genome shotgun metagenomics analyses of the fecal microbiomes demonstrated both amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate significantly reduced diversity and increased the frequency of antibiotic resistance genes. Microbiome damage appeared more severe with amoxicillin/clavulanate. In contrast, with SYN-007, microbiome diversity was not significantly altered, and frequency of antibiotic resistance genes did not increase. Importantly, SYN-007 functioned in the presence of clavulanate to protect the gut microbiome indicating that SYN-007 activity was not inhibited by clavulanate in the dog gastrointestinal tract. SYN-007 has the potential to expand microbiome protection to beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations delivered orally or systemically.
Project description:While treatment of serious infectious diseases may require high-dose amoxicillin, continuous infusion may be limited by lack of knowledge regarding the chemical stability of the drug. Therefore, we have performed a comprehensive study so as to determine the chemical stability of high-dose amoxicillin solutions conducive to safe and effective continuous intravenous administration using portable elastomeric pumps. First, amoxicillin solubility in water was assessed within the range of 25 to 300 mg/mL. Then, amoxicillin solutions were prepared at different concentrations (25, 50, 125, 250 mg/mL) and stored in different conditions (5±2°C, 25±1°C, 30±1°C and 37±1°C) to investigate the influence of concentration and temperature on the chemical stability of amoxicillin. Finally, its stability was assessed under optimized conditions using a fully validated HPLC-UV stability-indicating method. Degradation products of amoxicillin were investigated by accurate mass determination using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Amoxicillin displayed limited water solubility requiring reconstitution at concentrations below or equal to 150 mg/mL. Amoxicillin degradation were time, temperature as well as concentration-dependent, resulting in short-term stability, in particular at high concentrations. Four degradation products of amoxicillin have been identified. Among them, amoxicilloic acid and diketopiperazine amoxicillin are at risk of allergic reaction and may accumulate in the patient. Optimized conditions allowing for continuous infusion of high-dose amoxicillin has been determined: amoxicillin should be reconstituted at 25 mg/mL and stored up to 12 hours at room temperature (22 ± 4°C) or up to 24 hours between 4 and 8°C.
Project description:Antibiotics damage the gut microbiome, which can result in overgrowth of pathogenic microorganisms and emergence of antibiotic resistance. Inactivation of antibiotics in the small intestine represents a novel strategy to protect the colonic microbiota. SYN-004 (ribaxamase) is a beta-lactamase formulated for oral delivery intended to degrade intravenously administered beta-lactam antibiotics in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The enteric coating of ribaxamase protects the enzyme from stomach acid and mediates pH-dependent release in the upper small intestine, the site of antibiotic biliary excretion. Clinical benefit was established in animal and human studies in which ribaxamase was shown to degrade ceftriaxone in the GI tract, thereby preserving the gut microbiome, significantly reducing Clostridioides difficile disease, and attenuating antibiotic resistance. To expand ribaxamase utility to oral beta-lactams, delayed release formulations of ribaxamase, SYN-007, were engineered to allow enzyme release in the lower small intestine, distal to the site of oral antibiotic absorption. Based on in vitro dissolution profiles, three SYN-007 formulations were selected for evaluation in a canine model of antibiotic-mediated gut dysbiosis. Dogs received amoxicillin (40 mg/kg, PO, TID) +/- SYN-007 (10 mg, PO, TID) for five days. Serum amoxicillin levels were measured after the first and last antibiotic doses and gut microbiomes were evaluated using whole genome shotgun sequence metagenomics analyses of fecal DNA prior to and after antibiotic treatment. Serum amoxicillin levels did not significantly differ +/- SYN-007 after the first dose for all SYN-007 formulations, while only one SYN-007 formulation did not significantly reduce systemic antibiotic concentrations after the last dose. Gut microbiomes of animals receiving amoxicillin alone displayed significant loss of diversity and emergence of antibiotic resistance genes. In contrast, for animals receiving amoxicillin + SYN-007, microbiome diversities were not altered significantly and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes was reduced. These data demonstrate that SYN-007 diminishes amoxicillin-mediated microbiome disruption and mitigates emergence and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes without interfering with antibiotic systemic absorption. Thus, SYN-007 has the potential to protect the gut microbiome by inactivation of beta-lactam antibiotics when administered by both oral and parenteral routes and to reduce emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
Project description:Antibiotics, while lifesaving, damage the gut microbiome and can precipitate proliferation of pathobionts. A strategy to preserve gut microbiome integrity is to eliminate biologically active antimicrobials excreted into the gastrointestinal tract (GI) without negatively affecting antibiotic therapeutic efficacy. Clinical proof of concept was achieved with SYN-004 (ribaxamase), a beta-lactamase enzyme formulated for oral delivery with intravenous penicillins and cephalosporins. Ribaxamase inactivated intestinal ceftriaxone, protected the gut microbiome, and significantly reduced the incidence of Clostridioides difficile disease. For use with oral beta-lactam antibiotics, a delayed release formulation of ribaxamase, SYN-007, was engineered for dissolution in the lower small intestine distal to the site of oral antibiotic absorption. In dogs that received oral amoxicillin, SYN-007 reduced microbiome disruption without interfering with amoxicillin systemic absorption. Here, a study to determine the lowest effective dose of SYN-007 was performed. Dogs received amoxicillin (40 mg/kg, PO, TID) +/- SYN-007 (PO, TID) at three doses, 10 mg, 3 mg, or 1 mg for five days. Serum amoxicillin levels, measured after the first and last antibiotic doses, were not significantly different +/-SYN-007 at all dose levels indicating that SYN-007 did not interfere with amoxicillin systemic absorption. Microbiome analyses demonstrated that amoxicillin significantly reduced bacteria richness and microbiome diversity resulting in altered microbiome composition. However, with all doses of SYN-007, microbiome richness and diversity were not significantly different from pretreatment and changes in microbiome composition were attenuated. These data demonstrate that effective SYN-007 doses can be reduced at least 10-fold while maintaining gut microbiome preservation. The potential to employ low SYN-007 doses to protect the gut microbiota has important implications for enhancing therapeutic outcomes for patients receiving oral beta-lactam antibiotics while simultaneously reducing cost per dose and ultimately, healthcare expenses.