Utility of color flow Doppler ultrasound to identify peripheral intravenous catheter position in adult surgical patients.
ABSTRACT: Objective:To evaluate color flow Doppler flow ultrasound compared to standard clinical techniques, to detect the intravascular position of peripheral intravenous catheters in adult surgical patients. Methods:A prospective study was conducted in adult (>18?years old) patients scheduled to undergo elective surgery. Peripheral intravenous catheter position was evaluated with standard clinical techniques (free flow of fluid from a hanging bag, easy saline injection, and aspiration of blood), and with color flow Doppler ultrasound proximal to the insertion site to identify intravascular catheter position. Comparative test performance was carried out. Results:In total, 174 patients were enrolled. The venous catheter was deemed to be intravascular in 92.53% (n?=?161) and 90.23% (n?=?157) based on clinical evaluation and color flow Doppler, respectively (p?=?0.206). Moderate to substantial agreement between the two approaches was found. Cohen's kappa was 0.64 (95% CI 0.43-0.83). Specificity of clinical judgment to detect catheter extravascular position was only 58.82%, when the color flow Doppler technique was set as the gold standard. Free flow from a hanging bag method showed the best agreement with color flow Doppler to determine intravascular position of a catheter (p?=?0.3173, kappa?=?0.68), with sensitivity of 98.09% and specificity of 64.71%. Conclusion:Color flow Doppler is a specific tool complementary to sensitive clinical indicators to detect peripheral venous catheter infiltration. The ability of color flow Doppler to accurately determine the position of a peripheral venous catheter depends on experience and familiarity with the tool by providers, who can master the technique with education and training.
Project description:Feasibility of detecting intravascular flow using a catheter based endovascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is demonstrated in a porcine carotid model in vivo. The effects of A-line density, radial distance, signal-to-noise ratio, non-uniform rotational distortion (NURD), phase stability of the swept wavelength laser and interferometer system on Doppler shift detection limit were investigated in stationary and flow phantoms. Techniques for NURD induced phase shift artifact removal were developed by tracking the catheter sheath. Detection of high flow velocity (~51 cm/s) present in the porcine carotid artery was obtained by phase unwrapping techniques and compared to numerical simulation, taking into consideration flow profile distortion by the eccentrically positioned imaging catheter. Using diluted blood in saline mixture as clearing agent, simultaneous Doppler OCT imaging of intravascular flow and structural OCT imaging of the carotid artery wall was feasible. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo demonstration of Doppler imaging and absolute measurement of intravascular flow using a rotating fiber catheter in carotid artery.
Project description:Vascular occlusion is a rare, but serious complication after kidney transplantation often resulting in graft loss. We therefore aimed to develop an experimental porcine model for stepwise reduction of the renal venous blood flow and to compare an implantable Doppler probe and microdialysis for fast detection of vascular occlusion.In 20 pigs, implantable Doppler probes were placed on the renal artery and vein and a microdialysis catheter was placed in the renal cortex. An arterial flowprobe served as gold standard. Following two-hour baseline measurements, the pigs were randomised to stepwise venous occlusion, complete venous occlusion, complete arterial occlusion or controls.All parameters were stable through baseline measurements. Glutamate and lactate measured by microdialysis increased significantly (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03 respectively) 30 minutes after a 2/3 (66%) reduction in renal blood flow. The implantable Doppler probe was not able to detect flow changes until there was total venous occlusion. Microdialysis detected changes in local metabolism after both arterial and venous occlusion; the implantable Doppler probe could only detect vascular occlusions on the vessel it was placed.We developed a new model for stepwise renal venous blood flow occlusion. Furthermore, the first comparison of the implantable Doppler probe and microdialysis for detection of renal vascular occlusions was made. The implantable Doppler probe could only detect flow changes after a complete occlusion, whereas microdialysis detected changes earlier, and could detect both arterial and venous occlusion. Based on these results, the implantable Doppler probe for early detection of vascular occlusions cannot be recommended.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Ultrasound-guided biopsies and minimally invasive procedures have been used in numerous medical applications, including catheter guidance. The biggest challenge for catheter guidance by ultrasound lies in distinguishing the catheter from neighboring tissue, as well as the ability to differentiate the catheter body from its tip. METHODS:In our previous work, we introduced a functional prototype of an acoustically active catheter, in which a miniature piezoelectric crystal allowed accurate localization of the catheter tip by pulsed wave (PW) Doppler imaging and Doppler spectrogram. In this paper, the theory behind the symmetric Doppler shift due to the interaction of ultrasound wave with a vibrating piezoelectric crystal is explained. The theory is validated in an experimental continuous flow phantom setup. A novel algorithm, symmetric frequency detection algorithm, is presented for identification and visualization of the catheter tip in real time along with B-mode and PW Doppler. RESULTS:The catheter tip is identified with a distinct color differentiable from common Doppler colors with a frame rate varying from 22 to 50 Hz. The catheter tip can be visualized in a small region of 2.4 mm in the elevational direction. CONCLUSION:The algorithm can be implemented in most clinical ultrasound machines with minor additions to the PW Doppler processing algorithm. The algorithm is optimized to be robust for a variety of blood flow velocities and is shown to perform well when the signal from the blood is on par in amplitude with the catheter signal. SIGNIFICANCE:Unambiguous and distinct visualization of catheter tip facilitates real-time tracking of the catheter and aids minimally invasive procedures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Up to one-third of critically ill patients have difficult intravenous access (DIVA). This occurs often in obese patients, those with generalized edemas or in patients with previous venous cannulations. In DIVA patients, the conventional technique often fails. In contrast, ultrasound-guided cannulation has demonstrated a high success rate, improving patient satisfaction and even a reduction in the need of central venous lines. However, a high rate of premature catheter failure has been shown in cannulations performed by ultrasound guidance and thus a comprehensive knowledge of several aspects related to this procedure is mandatory to improve cannulation success, avoid complications and lengthen the survival of the catheter. MAIN TEXT:Several practical issues related to peripheral venous cannulation are described: peripheral venous anatomy, vein size and catheter selection, distance from skin to vein, insertion angle and selection of the catheter length, cannulation technique itself (out-of-plane or in-plane) and checking catheter position. CONCLUSION:Key concepts regarding ultrasound-guided peripheral vein cannulation should be well known for practitioners, aiding in improving cannulation success and catheter dwell time, and avoiding complications.
Project description:We present a case of broken peripheral intravenous catheter/cannula (PIVC), a well-known, underreported complication of PIVC placement. The fractured cannula could have resulted in intravascular foreign body retention, which is usually iatrogenic.In this case, we conceded that both iatrogenic and self-infliction were culpable. The intoxicated, aggressive patient forcefully removed the inserted cannula after repeated attempts by medical personnel to place it. The same cannula was used for multiple attempts. After the location of the fractured catheter was reconfirmed with radiological imaging, venotomy and removal of the foreign body were performed.Due to potentially devastating consequences, early detection, adherence to standard operating procedures for peripheral venous access, management of aggressive patients, and meticulous teamwork must be upheld.
Project description:Objectives:To report the use of common femoral vein Doppler interrogation as a simple technique to diagnose right ventricular dysfunction. Design:Case report. Setting:Cardiac surgical ICU. Patients:Postoperative cardiac surgical patients. Interventions:Common femoral pulsed-wave and color Doppler examination associated with hepatic, portal, and renal venous Doppler measurement were obtained in both patients and before and after treatment in patient number 1. In addition, right ventricular pressure waveform examination was obtained in patient number 2. Measurements and Main Results:The technique to obtain common femoral venous Doppler is described. Two cases of patients presenting with right ventricular dysfunction and fluid overload with portal and renal venous congestion in the perioperative period undergoing complex multivalvular cardiac surgery are presented. Hemodynamic waveform monitoring was performed alongside echocardiographic, hepatic, and renal venous flow Doppler assessment, and spectral Doppler profiles of the common femoral veins were examined. Those findings were useful in confirming our diagnosis and guiding our response to treatment. An algorithm was developed and tested on two additional hemodynamically unstable patients. Conclusions:Doppler examination of the common femoral vein is a simple, fast, and noninvasive technique that could be useful to rule in the presence of right ventricular dysfunction with venous congestion and help guide the management of such patients.
Project description:Since hemodynamics plays a key role in the development and evolution of cardiovascular pathologies, physician's decision must be based on proper monitoring of relevant physiological flow quantities.A numerical analysis of the error introduced by an intravascular Doppler guide wire on the peak velocity measurements has been carried out. The effect of probe misalignment (±10°) with respect to the vessel axis was investigated. Numerical simulations were performed on a realistic 3D geometry, reconstructed from coronary angiography images. Furthermore, instead of using Poiseuille or Womersley approximations, the unsteady pulsatile inlet boundary condition has been calculated from experimental peak-velocity measurements inside the vessel through a new approach based on an iterative Newton's algorithm.The results show that the presence of the guide modifies significantly both the maximum velocity and the peak position in the section plane; the difference is between 6 and 17 % of the maximum measured velocity depending on the distance from the probe tip and the instantaneous vessel flow rate. Furthermore, a misalignment of the probe may lead to a wrong estimation of the peak velocity with an error up to 10 % depending on the probe orientation angle.The Doppler probe does affect the maximum velocity and its position during intravascular Doppler measurements. Moreover, the Doppler-probe-wire sampling volume at 5.2 and 10 mm far from the probe tip is not sufficient to prevent its influence on the measurement. This should be taken into account in clinical practice by physicians during intravascular Doppler quantification. The new numerical approach used in this work could potentially be helpful in future numerical simulations to set plausible inlet boundary conditions.
Project description:Pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis is a rare and serious complication of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for atrial fibrillation. However, it can be asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic depending on the severity of the stenosis and the development of compensatory mechanisms. This study provides a detailed description and visualization of a unique type of venous collaterals that bypass the PV stenosis and drain directly in the left atrium alleviating PV stenosis sequelae. This study reports a case of a 61-year-old male who presented with mild dyspnea and fatigue 3 years post atrial fibrillation RFCA. After a thorough evaluation of the case, a redo-ablation was planned. As a part of the preablation workup, a transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), a ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan of the lungs, and a chest computed tomography angiogram (CTA) were performed. The TEE revealed total obstruction of the left superior PV, with no color Doppler flow detected. It also showed evidence of multiple collateral flows at the os of the left superior PV. The V/Q scan showed a large perfusion defect involving the entire left upper lobe consistent with a compromised left upper PV flow. The CTA with 3D volume rendering revealed the total occlusion of the left superior PV at its ostium. Moreover, the scan confirmed the pulmonary venous drainage via small collateral channels that was suggested by the TEE.
Project description:Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) was implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS).We evaluated neurosonography (NS), magnetic resonance venography (MRV), and transluminal venography (TLV) in subsets of MS patients drawn from a single-center, prospective, case-control study of 206 MS and 70 non-MS volunteers.As previously reported, findings on high-resolution B-mode NS imaging with color and spectral Doppler of the extracranial and intracranial venous drainage consistent with CCSVI were similar among MS and non-MS volunteers (3.88% vs 7.14%; p = 0.266). Ninety-nine MS participants consented to intravascular contrast-enhanced 3D MRV to assess their major systemic and intracranial venous circulation, and 40 advanced to TLV that included pressure measurements of the superior vena cava, internal jugular, brachiocephalic, and azygous veins.NS findings and MRV patterns were discrepant for 26/98 evaluable subjects, including four with abnormal findings on NS that had normal venous anatomy by MRV. In no instance were TLV pressure gradients indicative of clinically significant functional stenosis encountered. The three imaging approaches provided generally consistent data with discrepancies referable to inherent technique properties.Our findings lend no support for altered venous outflow dynamics as common among MS patients, nor do they likely contribute to the disease process.
Project description:<b>Purpose:</b> Medically recommended training often faces the dilemma that necessary mechanical intensities for muscle adaptations exceed patients' physical capacity. In this regard, blood flow restriction (BFR) training is becoming increasingly popular because it enables gains in muscle mass and strength despite using low-mechanical loads combined with external venous occlusion. Since the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, we applied invasive measurements during exercise with and without BFR to promote physiological understanding and safety of this popular training technique. <b>Methods:</b> In a randomized cross-over design, ten healthy men (28.1 ± 6.5 years) underwent two trials of unilateral biceps curls either with (BFR) and without BFR (CON). For analysis of changes in intravascular pressures, blood gases, oximetry and electrolytes, an arterial and a venous catheter were placed at the exercising arm before exercise. Arterial and venous blood gases and intravascular pressures were analyzed before, during and 5 min after exercise. <b>Results:</b> Intravascular pressures in the arterial and venous system were more increased during exercise with BFR compared to CON (<i>p</i> < 0.001). Furthermore, arterial and venous blood gas analyses revealed a BFR-induced metabolic acidosis (<i>p</i> < 0.05) with increased lactate production (<i>p</i> < 0.05) and associated elevations in [K<sup>+</sup>], [Ca<sup>2+</sup>] and [Na<sup>+</sup>] (<i>p</i> < 0.001). <b>Conclusion:</b> The present study describes for the first time the local physiological changes during BFR training. While BFR causes greater hypertension in the arterial and venous system of the exercising extremity, observed electrolyte shifts corroborate a local metabolic acidosis with concurrent rises in [K<sup>+</sup>] and [Na<sup>+</sup>]. Although BFR could be a promising new training concept for medical application, its execution is associated with comprehensive physiological challenges.