An organoid biobank for childhood kidney cancers that captures disease and tissue heterogeneity.
ABSTRACT: Kidney tumours are among the most common solid tumours in children, comprising distinct subtypes differing in many aspects, including cell-of-origin, genetics, and pathology. Pre-clinical cell models capturing the disease heterogeneity are currently lacking. Here, we describe the first paediatric cancer organoid biobank. It contains tumour and matching normal kidney organoids from over 50 children with different subtypes of kidney cancer, including Wilms tumours, malignant rhabdoid tumours, renal cell carcinomas, and congenital mesoblastic nephromas. Paediatric kidney tumour organoids retain key properties of native tumours, useful for revealing patient-specific drug sensitivities. Using single cell RNA-sequencing and high resolution 3D imaging, we further demonstrate that organoid cultures derived from Wilms tumours consist of multiple different cell types, including epithelial, stromal and blastemal-like cells. Our organoid biobank captures the heterogeneity of paediatric kidney tumours, providing a representative collection of well-characterised models for basic cancer research, drug-screening and personalised medicine.
Project description:Kidney tumours are among the most common solid tumours in children, comprising several distinct subtypes differing in many aspects, including cell-of-origin, genetics, and pathology. Pre-clinical cell models capturing the disease heterogeneity are currently lacking. Here, we describe the first paediatric cancer organoid biobank. It contains tumour and matching normal kidney organoids from over 50 children with different subtypes of kidney cancer, including Wilms tumours, malignant rhabdoid tumours, renal cell carcinomas, and congenital mesoblastic nephromas. The malignant rhabdoid tumour organoids represent the first organoid model for tumours of non-epithelial origin. The tumour organoids retain key properties of native tumours, useful for revealing patient-specific drug vulnerabilities. We further demonstrate that organoid cultures derived from Wilms tumours consist of multiple different cell types, including epithelial, stromal and blastemal-like. Our organoid biobank captures the cellular heterogeneity of paediatric kidney tumours, providing a representative collection of well-characterized models for basic cancer research, drug-screening, and personalized medicine. Overall design: 45 unique samples of human kidney tumors and tumor organoid cultures derived thereof were profiled using Illumina EPIC arrays.
Project description:Kidney tumors are among the most common solid tumors in children, comprising several distinct subtypes differing in many aspects, including cell-of-origin, genetics, and pathology. Pre-clinical cell models capturing the disease heterogeneity are currently lacking. Here, we describe the first pediatric cancer organoid biobank. It contains tumor and matching normal organoids from over 50 children with different subtypes of kidney cancer, including Wilms tumors, malignant rhabdoid tumors, renal cell carcinomas, and congenital mesoblastic nephromas. The malignant rhabdoid tumor organoids represent the first organoid model for tumors of non-epithelial origin. The tumor organoids retain key properties of native tumors, useful for revealing patient specific drug vulnerabilities. We further demonstrate that organoid cultures derived from Wilms tumors consist of multiple different cell types, including epithelial, stromal and blastemal-like. Our organoid biobank captures the cellular heterogeneity of pediatric kidney tumors, providing a representative collection of well-characterized models for basic cancer research, drug-screening, and personalized medicine.
Project description:On the basis of the results of previous national and international trials and studies, the Renal Tumour Study Group of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP-RTSG) has developed a new study protocol for paediatric renal tumours: the UMBRELLA SIOP-RTSG 2016 protocol (the UMBRELLA protocol). Currently, the overall outcomes of patients with Wilms tumour are excellent, but subgroups with poor prognosis and increased relapse rates still exist. The identification of these subgroups is of utmost importance to improve treatment stratification, which might lead to reduction of the direct and late effects of chemotherapy. The UMBRELLA protocol aims to validate new prognostic factors, such as blastemal tumour volume and molecular markers, to further improve outcome. To achieve this aim, large, international, high-quality databases are needed, which dictate optimization and international harmonization of specimen handling and comprehensive sampling of biological material, refine definitions and improve logistics for expert review. To promote broad implementation of the UMBRELLA protocol, the updated SIOP-RTSG pathology and molecular biology protocol for Wilms tumours has been outlined, which is a consensus from the SIOP-RTSG pathology panel.
Project description:The use of primary patient-derived organoids for drug sensitivity and resistance testing could play an important role in precision cancer medicine. We developed expandable ovarian cancer organoids in?<?3 weeks; these organoids captured the characteristics of histological cancer subtypes and replicated the mutational landscape of the primary tumours. Seven pairs of organoids (3 high-grade serous, 1 clear cell, 3 endometrioid) and original tumours shared 59.5% (36.1-73.1%) of the variants identified. Copy number variations were also similar among organoids and primary tumours. The organoid that harboured the BRCA1 pathogenic variant (p.L63*) showed a higher sensitivity to PARP inhibitor, olaparib, as well as to platinum drugs compared to the other organoids, whereas an organoid derived from clear cell ovarian cancer was resistant to conventional drugs for ovarian cancer, namely platinum drugs, paclitaxel, and olaparib. The overall success rate of primary organoid culture, including those of various histological subtypes, was 80% (28/35). Our data show that patient-derived organoids are suitable physiological ex vivo cancer models that can be used to screen effective personalised ovarian cancer drugs.
Project description:Wilms tumour (WT) is the most common renal tumour in children. Most WT patients respond to chemotherapy, but subsets of tumours develop resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, which is a major obstacle in their successful treatment. Multidrug resistance transporters play a crucial role in the development of resistance in cancer due to the efflux of anticancer agents out of cells. The aim of this study was to explore several human multidrug resistance transporters in 46 WT and 40 non-neoplastic control tissues (normal kidney) from patients selected after chemotherapy treatment SIOP 93-01, SIOP 2001. Our data showed that the majority of the studied multidrug resistance transporters were downregulated or unchanged between tumours and control tissues. However, BCRP1, MDR3 and MRP1 were upregulated in tumours versus control tissues. MDR3 and MRP1 overexpression correlated with high-risk tumours (SIOP classification) (p = 0.0022 and p < 0.0001, respectively) and the time of disease-free survival was significantly shorter in patients with high transcript levels of MDR3 (p = 0.0359). MDR3 and MRP1 play a role in drug resistance in WT treatment, probably by alteration of an unspecific drug excretion system. Besides, within the blastemal subtype, we observed patients with low MDR3 expression were significantly associated with a better outcome than patients with high MDR3 expression. We could define two types of blastemal WT associated with different disease outcomes, enabling the stratification of blastemal WT patients based on the expression levels of the multidrug resistance transporter MDR3.
Project description:In the past five years, pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived kidney organoids and adult stem or progenitor cell (ASC)-based kidney tubuloids have emerged as advanced in vitro models of kidney development, physiology, and disease. PSC-derived organoids mimic nephrogenesis. After differentiation towards the kidney precursor tissues ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme, their reciprocal interaction causes self-organization and patterning in vitro to generate nephron structures that resemble the fetal kidney. ASC tubuloids on the other hand recapitulate renewal and repair in the adult kidney tubule and give rise to long-term expandable and genetically stable cultures that consist of adult proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting duct epithelium. Both organoid types hold great potential for: (1) studies of kidney physiology, (2) disease modeling, (3) high-throughput screening for drug efficacy and toxicity, and (4) regenerative medicine. Currently, organoids and tubuloids are successfully used to model hereditary, infectious, toxic, metabolic, and malignant kidney diseases and to screen for effective therapies. Furthermore, a tumor tubuloid biobank was established, which allows studies of pathogenic mutations and novel drug targets in a large group of patients. In this review, we discuss the nature of kidney organoids and tubuloids and their current and future applications in science and medicine.
Project description:Although tumour suppressor gene hypermethylation is a universal feature of cancer cells, little is known about the necessary molecular triggers. Here, we show that Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1), a developmental master regulator that can also act as a tumour suppressor or oncoprotein, transcriptionally regulates the de novo DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) and that cellular WT1 levels can influence DNA methylation of gene promoters genome-wide. Specifically, we demonstrate that depletion of WT1 by short-interfering RNAs leads to reduced DNMT3A in Wilms' tumour cells and human embryonal kidney-derived cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate WT1 recruitment to the DNMT3A promoter region and reporter assays confirm that WT1 directly transactivates DNMT3A expression. Consistent with this regulatory role, immunohistochemical analysis shows co-expression of WT1 and DNMT3A proteins in nuclei of blastemal cells in human fetal kidney and Wilms' tumours. Using genome-wide promoter methylation arrays, we show that human embryonal kidney cells over-expressing WT1 acquire DNA methylation changes at specific gene promoters where DNMT3A recruitment is increased, with hypermethylation being associated with silencing of gene expression. Elevated DNMT3A is also demonstrated at hypermethylated genes in Wilms' tumour cells, including a region of long-range epigenetic silencing. Finally, we show that depletion of WT1 in Wilms' tumour cells can lead to reactivation of gene expression from methylated promoters, such as TGFB2, a key modulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions. Collectively, our work defines a new regulatory modality for WT1 involving elicitation of epigenetic alterations which is most likely crucial to its functions in development and disease.
Project description:Wilms' tumours, paediatric kidney cancers, are the archetypal example of tumours caused through the disruption of normal development. The genetically best-defined subgroup of Wilms' tumours is the group caused by biallelic loss of the WT1 tumour suppressor gene. Here, we describe a developmental series of mouse models with conditional loss of Wt1 in different stages of nephron development before and after the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). We demonstrate that Wt1 is essential for normal development at all kidney developmental stages under study. Comparison of genome-wide expression data from the mutant mouse models with human tumour material of mutant or wild-type WT1 datasets identified the stage of origin of human WT1-mutant tumours, and emphasizes fundamental differences between the two human tumour groups due to different developmental stages of origin.
Project description:Wilms' tumor is a pediatric malignancy that is thought to originate from faulty kidney development during the embryonic stage. However, there is a large variation between tumors from different patients in both histology and gene expression that is not well characterized. Here we use a meta-analysis of published microarray datasets to show that Favorable Histology Wilms' Tumors (FHWT's) fill a triangle-shaped continuum in gene expression space of which the vertices represent three idealized "archetypes". We show that these archetypes have predominantly renal blastemal, stromal, and epithelial characteristics and that they correlate well with the three major lineages of the developing embryonic kidney. Moreover, we show that advanced stage tumors shift towards the renal blastemal archetype. These results illustrate the potential of this methodology for characterizing the cellular composition of Wilms' tumors and for assessing disease progression.
Project description:Kidney organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells have great utility for investigating organogenesis and disease mechanisms and, potentially, as a replacement tissue source, but how closely organoids derived from current protocols replicate adult human kidney is undefined. We compared two directed differentiation protocols by single-cell transcriptomics of 83,130 cells from 65 organoids with single-cell transcriptomes of fetal and adult kidney cells. Both protocols generate a diverse range of kidney cells with differing ratios, but organoid-derived cell types are immature, and 10%-20% of cells are non-renal. Reconstructing lineage relationships by pseudotemporal ordering identified ligands, receptors, and transcription factor networks associated with fate decisions. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate receptor NTRK2 were expressed in the neuronal lineage during organoid differentiation. Inhibiting this pathway improved organoid formation by reducing neurons by 90% without affecting kidney differentiation, highlighting the power of single-cell technologies to characterize and improve organoid differentiation.