The Evaluation and Use of a Food Frequency Questionnaire Among the Population in Trivandrum, South Kerala, India.
ABSTRACT: Dietary record tools such as food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and food diaries (FD) are the most commonly used choices for assessing dietary intakes in most large-scale epidemiological studies. The authors developed a self-administered 360-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess dietary intakes amongst a population-based cohort in South Kerala. In the validation study (n = 460), the data were collected using FFQs that were administered on three different occasions which were then compared to 7-day food records. The intake of foods and nutrients was higher as determined by the FFQ than that assessed using food records. Spearman correlations for macro-nutrients ranged from 0.72 for protein to 0.61 for carbohydrates and for micronutrients, from 0.71 for vitamin B6 to 0.34 for magnesium. The correlation was improved with energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. On average, the exact agreement for the macronutrients ranged from 48.2% to 57.1%, and that for micronutrients ranged from 66.7% to 41.9%, with the median percentage of 49.58%. The authors conclude that the FFQ has an acceptable reproducibility, however, there was a systematic trend towards higher estimates with the FFQ for most nutrients compared to the FD records.
Project description:A locally validated tool was needed to evaluate long-term dietary intake in rural Bangladesh. We assessed the validity of a 42-item dish-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) using two 3-day food diaries (FDs). We selected a random subset of 47 families (190 participants) from a longitudinal arsenic biomonitoring study in Bangladesh to administer the FFQ. Two 3-day FDs were completed by the female head of the households and we used an adult male equivalent method to estimate the FD for the other participants. Food and nutrient intakes measured by FFQ and FD were compared using Pearson's and Spearman's correlation, paired <i>t</i>-test, percent difference, cross-classification, weighted Kappa, and Bland-Altman analysis. Results showed good validity for total energy intake (paired <i>t</i>-test, <i>p</i> < 0.05; percent difference <10%), with no presence of proportional bias (Bland-Altman correlation, <i>p</i> > 0.05). After energy-adjustment and de-attenuation for within-person variation, macronutrient intakes had excellent correlations ranging from 0.55 to 0.70. Validity for micronutrients was mixed. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were found for most nutrients between the two seasons, except vitamin A. This dish-based FFQ provided adequate validity to assess and rank long-term dietary intake in rural Bangladesh for most food groups and nutrients, and should be useful for studying dietary-disease relationships.
Project description:Accuracy of dietary assessment instruments such as food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is crucial in the evaluation of diet-disease relationships. Test-retest reliability and concurrent and construct validity of a FFQ were evaluated in 150 pregnant women at high risk to develop fetal growth restriction randomly selected from those included in the improving mothers for better prenatal care trial Barcelona (IMPACT BCN). The FFQ and dietary records were performed at baseline and 34-36 weeks of gestation. Test-retest reliability of the FFQ for 12 food groups and 17 nutrients was moderate (ICC = 0.55) and good (ICC = 0.60), respectively. Concurrent validity between food, nutrients and a composite Mediterranean diet score (MedDiet score) and food records was fair for foods and nutrients (ρ average = 0.38 and 0.32, respectively) and moderate (r = 0.46) for the MedDiet score. Validation with biological markers ranged from poor (r = 0.07) for olives to moderate (r = 0.41) for nuts. A fair concordance between methods were found for nutrients (weighted κ = 0.22) and foods (weighted κ = 0.27). The FFQ-derived MedDiet score correlated in anticipated directions with intakes of nutrients and foods derived by food records. The FFQ showed a moderate test-retest reliability and reasonable validity to rank women according to their food and nutrient consumption and adherence to the Mediterranean diet.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) must be validated among the population of interest due to the specificities in dietary habits, culture and food in each country of the Mediterranean region. The objective of this study was to determine the relative validity and reproducibility of a 157 item semi-quantitative FFQ among Lebanese adult population.<h4>Material and methods</h4>Dietary intake was assessed through dietary recalls, a FFQ with food items, and traditional recipes from the Mediterranean cuisine. Validity of the FFQ was measured by comparing the intake of calories, macro and micronutrients to the mean values derived from three dietary recalls (DR). Reproducibility of the FFQ was evaluated after repeating the same FFQ among the participant after a four-month period.<h4>Results</h4>114 healthy adults aged between 18 and 60 years of which 52.6% are men participated in this study. 53 of these adults participated in the reproducibility study. Intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) between the two FFQ measurements ranged from 0.822 for sodium to 0.998 for energy indicating excellent reproducibility. The FFQ showed slightly higher intakes than the dietary recalls for most of the nutrients and foods reaching 2.1% for nutrients (polyunsaturated fatty acids) and 18% for food groups (olive oil). Correlation coefficients ranged between 0.783 (sodium) and 0.996 (carbs) for nutrients and between 0.906 (fish) and 1 (fruits and nuts) for food groups, with a significant p value (p = 0.038 for folate). Cross-classification of nutrients into quartiles showed that more than 81% of the participants were classified in the same quartile. Misclassifications were low for most nutrients with one to three persons misclassified at the extreme quartiles.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The FFQ used in this research contained western and Mediterranean type of dishes and foods. Statistical analysis showed good reproducibility and validity of the tested tool in a heterogeneous sample of adults living in a Mediterranean country. It is a useful tool for future investigations and strategies promoting the comeback of this traditional diet.
Project description:This study aimed at developing a valid culture-sensitive quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for Qatari adults. A convenient sample of healthy Qataris (<i>n</i> = 107) were recruited from family members of Qatar University students. The Diet History Questionnaire II of the US National Cancer Institute was translated to Arabic language, back-translated to English, pilot tested, and then modified accordingly to be used in Qatari setting. Participants were asked to complete the translated version of the FFQ. This FFQ was then validated against three 24 h diet recall (24 hDR) including a weekend day. Participants were asked to complete the FFQ again after one-month period to measure its repeatability. Dietary data were analyzed using the dietary analysis software ESHA. The validity and reliability of FFQ were assessed by comparing the median intake of nutrients and foods and by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficients. The median nutrient intakes assessed by the second FFQ were higher than that reported in the baseline FFQ1 except for fat. The percentage of increase varies between 1.5% and 96%. Results of the second FFQ indicated an overestimation of intake for most nutrients (macro and micro). Macronutrient intakes assessed by the two FFQ and 24 hDR were strongly correlated. The correlation coefficients for micronutrient intakes between FFQ2 and 24hDR were lower than that of the two FFQs except for calcium (r = 0.55) and sodium (r = 0.643). They ranged from (-0.17) for fluorine to (0.643) for sodium. The agreement rates for classifying macronutrient intakes into same or adjacent quartile were between 79.4% and 100% for the two FFQs and between 71% and 100% for the second FFQ and 24hDR. The reported consumption of food groups estimated by FFQ2 was significantly higher than that reported by FFQ1. In conclusion, the developed FFQ was sufficiently valid to assess energy and macronutrients but not micronutrients. The reliability was adequate for most nutrients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a major public health concern in Bangladesh. Diet is an established risk factor for CVD but a tool to assess dietary intake in Bangladesh is lacking. This study aimed to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) using the 24-h dietary recall method and corresponding nutritional biological markers among rural and urban populations of Bangladesh. METHOD:Participants of both genders aged 18-60?years were included in the analysis (total n?=?146, rural n?=?94 and urban n?=?52). Two FFQs of 166 items were administered three-months apart, during which time three 24-h dietary recalls were also completed. Participants were asked to recall their frequency of consumption over the preceding 3 months. Urine and blood samples were collected for comparison between FFQ-estimates of nutrients and their corresponding biomarkers. Methods were compared using unadjusted, energy-adjusted, de-attenuated correlation coefficients, 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and quartile classification. RESULTS:Fair to moderate agreement for ranking energy, macro and micronutrients into quartiles was observed (weighted k value ranged from 0.22 to 0.58; p?<?0.001 for unadjusted data) except for vitamin D (weighted k?- 0.05) and zinc (weighted k 0.09). Correlation coefficients of crude energy, macronutrients and common micronutrients including vitamin E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium were moderately good, ranging from 0.42 to 0.78; p?<?0.001 but only fair for vitamin A, ? carotene and calcium (0.31 to 0.38; p?<?0.001) and poor for vitamin D and zinc (0.02 and 0.16; p?=?ns, respectively). Energy-adjusted correlations were generally lower except for fat and vitamin E, and in range of -?0.017 (for calcium) to 0.686 (for fat). De-attenuated correlations were higher than unadjusted and energy- adjusted, and significant for all nutrients except for vitamin D (0.017) to 0.801 (for carbohydrate). The Bland Altman tests demonstrated that most of the coefficients were positive which indicated that FFQ provided a greater overestimation at higher intakes. More than one in three participants appeared to overestimate their food consumption based on the ratio of energy intake to basal metabolic rate cut points suggested by Goldberg. Absolute intake of macronutrients was 1.5 times higher and for micronutrients it ranged from 1.07 (sodium) to 26 times (Zinc). FFQ estimates correlated well for sodium (0.32; p?<?0.001), and vitamin D (0.20; p?= 0.017) with their corresponding biomarkers and iron (0.25; p?=?0.003) with serum ferritin for unadjusted data. Folate, iron (with haemoglobin) and total protein showed inverse association; and fat and potassium showed poor correlation with their corresponding biomarkers for unadjusted data. However, folate showed significant positive correlation (0.189; p?=?0.025) with biomarker after energy adjustment. CONCLUSION:Although FFQ showed overestimation for absolute intake in comparison with 24-h recalls, the validation study demonstrated acceptable agreement for ranking dietary intakes from FFQ with 24-h recall methods and some biomarkers and therefore could be considered as a tool to measure dietary intake for research and CVD risk factors surveillance in Bangladesh. The instrument may not be appropriate for monitoring population adherence to recommended intakes because of the overestimation.
Project description:The objectives were to develop a Mediterranean oriented semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and evaluate its validity in measuring energy and nutrient intakes. For FFQ development, the main challenge was to merge food items and practices reflecting cultural Mediterranean preferences with other food choices ensuing from diet transition to more westernized dietary patterns. FFQ validity was evaluated by comparing nutrient intakes against the average of two 24-h dietary recalls for 179 pregnant women. Although the mean intake values for most nutrients and energy tended to be higher when determined by the FFQ, the Cohen's d was below 0.3. Bland-Altman plots confirmed the agreement between the two methods. Positive significant correlations ranged from 0.35 to 0.77. The proportion of women classified correctly was between 73.2% and 92.2%, whereas gross misclassification was low. Weighted kappa values were between 0.31 and 0.78, while intraclass correlation coefficients were between 0.49 and 0.89. Our methodological approach for the development and validation of this FFQ provides reliable measurements of energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes. Overall, our culture-specific FFQ could serve as a useful assessment tool in studies aiming at monitoring dietary intakes, especially in the Mediterranean region, where countries share common cultural dietary habits.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) experience cardiometabolic and bone complications after treatments. This study aimed at developing and validating an interview-administrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that will serve to estimate the impact of nutrition in the development of long-term sequalea of French-Canadian cALL survivors.<h4>Methods</h4>The FFQ was developed to assess habitual diet, Mediterranean diet score, nutrients promoting bone health and antioxidants. It was validated using a 3-day food record (3-DFR) in 80 cALL survivors (50% male) aged between 11.4 and 40.1 years (median of 18.0 years). Reproducibility was evaluated by comparing FFQs from visit 1 and 2 in 29 cALL survivors.<h4>Results</h4>When compared to 3-DFR, the mean values for macro- and micronutrient intake were overestimated by our FFQ with the exception of lipid-related nutrients. Correlations between nutrient intakes derived from the FFQs and the 3-DFRs showed moderate to very good correlations (0.46-0.74). Intraclass correlation coefficients assessing FFQ reproducibility ranged from 0.62 to 0.92, indicating moderate to good reliability. Furthermore, classification into quartiles showed more than 75% of macro- and micronutrients derived from FFQs 1 and 2 classified into the same or adjacent quartile.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Overall, our results support the reproducibility and accuracy of the developed FFQ to appropriately classify individuals according to their dietary intake. This validated tool will be valuable for future studies analyzing the impact of nutrition on cardiometabolic and bone complications in French-speaking populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are often used to assess dietary intakes due to their ability to assess intake over extended periods, their low respondent burden, and their cost-effectiveness. A quantitative FFQ that includes locally appropriate food items for 5-year-old children in a multiethnic Asian population was developed, but its validity has not previously been evaluated. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the relative validity of a newly developed FFQ as a dietary assessment tool for 5-year-old children in a multiethnic Asian population. DESIGN:The 112 -food item FFQ was administered by trained interviewers to caregivers of children. Frequency of food items consumed in the previous month and portion size information were collected. The FFQs were evaluated against 3-day nonweighed diet records (DRs) completed by caregivers. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING:The dietary data of 361 children aged 5 years from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort were collected in 2015-2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Nutrients of interest included energy, macronutrients, fiber, cholesterol, vitamin A, beta carotene, calcium, and iron, calculated from the FFQs and DRs. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED:Nutrient intakes according to FFQs in relation to DRs were assessed using Pearson's correlation, Lin's concordance, Bland-Altman plots, quintile joint classification, and Cohen's ? statistics. RESULTS:The highest energy-adjusted correlation (Pearson's r=0.71) and concordance (Lin's concordance=0.69) were observed for calcium. Fiber, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), cholesterol, and iron also showed correlation coefficients and concordance of at least 0.40. Bland-Altman plots suggested no substantial bias across ranges of intakes for the nutrients with correlations and concordance of 0.40 or above. Quintiles joint classification showed substantial agreement for calcium (?=0.66), and moderate agreement for iron, fiber, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and beta carotene (?=0.59, 0.54, 0.49, 0.44, 0.43, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The newly developed FFQ is in reasonable agreement with DR for estimating intakes of calcium, fiber, saturated fat, PUFA, cholesterol, and iron. In addition, the FFQ is able to classify children according to quintiles of nutrient intakes, with moderate to substantial quintile agreements between FFQ and DR for calcium, iron, fiber, saturated fat, PUFA, and beta carotene. To assess the remaining nutrients, DR method is recommended instead of the FFQ.
Project description:Background:Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are used to estimate the usual food and nutrient intakes over a period of time. Such estimates can suffer from measurement errors, either due to bias induced by respondent's answers or to errors induced by the structure of the questionnaire (e.g., using a limited number of food items and an aggregated food database with average portion sizes). The "structural validation" presented in this study aims to isolate and quantify the impact of the inherent structure of a FFQ on the estimation of food and nutrient intakes, independently of respondent's perception of the questionnaire. Methods:A semi-quantitative FFQ (n?=?94 items, including 50 items with questions on portion sizes) and an associated aggregated food composition database (named the item-composition database) were developed, based on the self-reported weekly dietary records of 1918 adults (18-79 years-old) in the French Individual and National Dietary Survey 2 (INCA2), and the French CIQUAL 2013 food-composition database of all the foods (n?=?1342 foods) declared as consumed in the population. Reference intakes of foods ("REF_FOOD") and nutrients ("REF_NUT") were calculated for each adult using the food-composition database and the amounts of foods self-reported in his/her dietary record. Then, answers to the FFQ were simulated for each adult based on his/her self-reported dietary record. "FFQ_FOOD" and "FFQ_NUT" intakes were estimated using the simulated answers and the item-composition database. Measurement errors (in %), spearman correlations and cross-classification were used to compare "REF_FOOD" with "FFQ_FOOD" and "REF_NUT" with "FFQ_NUT". Results:Compared to "REF_NUT," "FFQ_NUT" total quantity and total energy intake were underestimated on average by 198?g/day and 666 kJ/day, respectively. "FFQ_FOOD" intakes were well estimated for starches, underestimated for most of the subgroups, and overestimated for some subgroups, in particular vegetables. Underestimation were mainly due to the use of portion sizes, leading to an underestimation of most of nutrients, except free sugars which were overestimated. Conclusion:The "structural validation" by simulating answers to a FFQ based on a reference dietary survey is innovative and pragmatic and allows quantifying the error induced by the simplification of the method of collection.
Project description:Measuring dietary intakes in a multi-ethnic and multicultural setting, such as Malaysia, remains a challenge due to its diversity. This study aims to develop and evaluate the relative validity of an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in assessing the habitual dietary exposure of The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) participants. We developed a nutrient database (with 203 items) based on various food consumption tables, and 803 participants were involved in this study. The output of the FFQ was then validated against three-day 24-h dietary recalls (n = 64). We assessed the relative validity and its agreement using various methods, such as Spearman's correlation, weighed Kappa, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman analysis. Spearman's correlation coefficient ranged from 0.24 (vitamin C) to 0.46 (carbohydrate), and almost all nutrients had correlation coefficients above 0.3, except for vitamin C and sodium. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from -0.01 (calcium) to 0.59 (carbohydrates), and weighted Kappa exceeded 0.4 for 50% of nutrients. In short, TMC's FFQ appears to have good relative validity for the assessment of nutrient intake among its participants, as compared to the three-day 24-h dietary recalls. However, estimates for iron, vitamin A, and vitamin C should be interpreted with caution.