Comparison of relationships among French adult siblings with or without schizophrenia using the ASRQ-S: mediating effect on emotional distress.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Good sibling relationships in adulthood are known to be a protective factor for mental health. The present study examined and compared the relationships of siblings with either a healthy brother or sister or one experiencing schizophrenia. METHODS:In the first phase, we ran a statistical comparison of the two sibling groups on the quality of their sibling relationships (warmth, conflict, and rivalry), emotional distress, and self-esteem. In the second phase, we looked at whether the quality of the sibling relationship modifies the impact of having a brother or sister with schizophrenia on emotional distress and self-esteem. RESULTS:Results showed that sibling relationships in schizophrenia are less warm and are characterized by heightened rivalry and conflict. In addition, analysis revealed a mediating effect of sibling relationship on the emotional distress of siblings with a brother/sister diagnosed with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION:More needs to be done to enhance the mental health of adults who have a brother or sister with schizophrenia, notably via their sibling relationships.
Project description:Background:Good sibling relationships in adulthood are known to be a protective factor for mental health. The quality of these relationships is influence by the sibship's inherent characteristics (e.g., birth order, number of brothers and sisters, sex composition, age gaps). The present study explored whether these same determinants can help to explain how individuals experience their relationship with a sibling who has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Method:A total of 374 adults completed the Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire, a scale that probes the quality of these relationships on three dimensions: warmth, conflict, and rivalry. We also collected sociodemographic data and information about family structure from each of the participants. Participants were divided into two matched groups: nonclinical sibling group (n = 187) or schizophrenia sibling group (n = 187). Regression analyses were conducted to extract possible predictors of sibling relationship quality for each group. Further regression analyses then focused exclusively on relationships with an ill sibling, in order to study the role of disease-related variables in explaining each of the three dimensions. Results:Results showed that sociodemographic and family structure data explained a significant proportion of variance in the sibling relationship, but solely for nonclinical siblings. When participants had a sibling with schizophrenia, we found that disease-related variables (symptom severity, frequency of treatment) also had to be included to predict the conflict dimension. Conclusions:Our results suggest that feelings of conflict experienced by the schizophrenia sibling group were fueled by the symptoms the ill person displayed. Healthy brothers and sisters probably have only a poor understanding of these symptoms. This could be improved by supporting them and helping them learn more about the disease. Future research will have to prove that providing such support for siblings does indeed improve the quality of their sibling relationships and, by so doing, enhance the wellbeing of both members of a sibling dyad.
Project description:Although sibling interactions play an important role in children's early development, they are rarely studied in very young children with an older brother or sister with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a naturalistic, observational method to compare interactions between 18-month-old infants and their older sibling with ASD (n = 22) with a control group of 18-month-old infants and their typically developing (TD) older sibling (n = 29). In addition, role (a)symmetry and the influence of gender were evaluated. Sibling interactions in ASD-dyads were characterized by higher levels of negativity. Although somewhat less pronounced in ASD-dyads, role asymmetry was present in both groups, with the older child taking the dominant position. Finally, siblings pairs with an older sister were characterized by more positive behaviours. Since differences in sibling interactions may alter the developmental trajectories of both siblings, these early relationships should be taken into account in future ASD research and interventions.
Project description:Background/Objectives:Obesity markers evolve over time and these changes are shared within the family orbit and governed by individual and environmental characteristics. Available reports often lack an integrated approach, in contrast to a multilevel framework that considers their concurrent influence. Hence, this study aims to (1) describe mean changes in obesity markers (body fat (%BF), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC)) across sib-ships; (2) analyze tracking of individuals within their sib-ship in these markers during 2 years of follow-up; (3) probe consistency in sibling resemblance in these markers; and (4) analyze the joint influence of individual and familial characteristics in these markers. Subjects/Methods:The sample comprises 168 biological Portuguese siblings (brother-brother (BB), sister-sister (SS), and brother-sister (BS)) aged 9-17 years. %BF, BMI, and WC were measured using standardized protocols, and biological maturation was assessed. Physical activity, diet, screen time, and familial characteristics were obtained by questionnaires. Multilevel models were used to analyze the clustered longitudinal data. Sibling resemblance was estimated with the intraclass correlation. Results:On average, all sib types increased in BMI and WC over 2 years of follow-up, and SS pairs increased in %BF. Individuals within sib-ships track high in all obesity markers across time. Consistency in siblings' resemblance was also noted, except for BB pairs in %BF which decreased at follow-up. More maturing siblings tend to have higher values in all markers. Greater screen time was associated with higher %BF, whereas those consuming more sugary drinks had lower %BF and BMI values. Siblings whose mothers had less qualified occupations tended to have lower BMI values. Conclusions:Longitudinal individual tracking and sibling resemblance for obesity markers were found. Yet, different trajectories were also identified depending on the marker and sib type. Individual and familial characteristics exert different influences on each obesity marker.
Project description:Mycoplasma pneumoniae continues to be a significant cause of community-acquired pneumonia and, on rare occasions, manifests as fulminant disease that leads to mortality, even in healthy individuals.We conducted a retrospective study on members of a family who were quarantined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2002 for respiratory failure and death of a 15-year-old brother (sibling 1) and a 13-year-old sister (sibling 2). Collected airway, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and serum samples from both deceased siblings and serum samples from both parents and the remaining 3 ill siblings (sibling 3-5) were tested using a range of diagnostic assays. Autopsy lung tissue samples from sibling 2 were also assessed using immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic methods.Autopsy evaluation of sibling 1 revealed cerebral edema consistent with hypoxic ischemic encepatholopathy and pulmonary findings of bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Postmortem lung examination of sibling 2 revealed lymphoplasmacytic bronchiolitis with intraluminal purulent exudate, BOOP, and pulmonary edema. Results of diagnostic assays implicated the household transmission of M. pneumoniae among all 5 siblings and both parents. Further analysis of lung tissue from sibling 2 demonstrated the presence of M. pneumoniae organisms and community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome toxin. M. pneumoniae was cultured directly from sibling 2 autopsy lung tissue.Evidence is provided that M. pneumoniae was readily transmitted to all members of the household and that the resulting infections led to a spectrum of individual responses with variation in disease progression, including lymphoplasmacytic bronchiolitis, BOOP, and death.
Project description:This study asks brothers and sisters about their feelings and perceptions toward their sibling with Down syndrome (DS). We analyzed valid and reliable surveys from 822 brothers and sisters whose families were on the mailing lists of six non-profit DS organizations around the country. More than 96% of brothers/sisters that responded to the survey indicated that they had affection toward their sibling with DS; and 94% of older siblings expressed feelings of pride. Less than 10% felt embarrassed, and less than 5% expressed a desire to trade their sibling in for another brother or sister without DS. Among older siblings, 88% felt that they were better people because of their siblings with DS, and more than 90% plan to remain involved in their sibling's lives as they become adults. The vast majority of brothers and sisters describe their relationship with their sibling with DS as positive and enhancing.
Project description:Adolescents' reports of parental differential treatment have been linked to increased externalizing behaviors. The current study investigated whether adolescent self-esteem and sibling relationship characteristics (age-spacing and sibling relationship quality) moderated associations between parental differential treatment and later externalizing behavior. Data was gathered at two assessments from 708 sibling pairs (94% White; 51% male; same-gender pairs <4 years apart in age). Older/younger siblings were aged MAssessment1?=?13.5/12.1 and MAssessment2?=?16.2/14.7 years. We found that higher levels of maternal differential treatment predicted greater residualized gains in externalizing behavior among older siblings who were (a) the same age as their sibling or near-to and had low self-esteem or (b) three years older than their sibling and had higher self-esteem. Higher levels of paternal differential treatment predicted greater residual gains in externalizing for older siblings with wider age ranges (regardless of self-esteem), and among older siblings with high levels of self-esteem (regardless of age difference). Surprisingly, maternal differential treatment was protective in one case: for adolescents with low self-esteem who were at least three years older than their siblings, maternal differential treatment predicted reduced externalizing behaviors. Paternal differential treatment was protective for more youth than maternal differential treatment: older siblings with low self-esteem who experienced paternal differential treatment exhibited decreased externalizing behaviors across adolescence, regardless of age difference. The findings highlight the importance of self-esteem and sibling age-spacing as particularly salient contextual influences in older siblings' perceptions of maternal and paternal differential treatment, and that maternal and especially paternal differential treatment does not always serve as a risk factor for externalizing problems.
Project description:There is a lack of theoretical framework supporting stem cell transplant nurses in their assessment, judgment and caring interventions of sibling stem cell donors.The purpose of this study was to explore sibling stem cell donors' main concerns and how they deal with them before and after donation.Ten healthy sibling donors, 5 men and 5 women, with a median age of 54 years were included in this study when they were due to donate stem cells to a brother or sister. Data were collected prospectively on three occasions (before the donation and three and twelve months after it) through in-depth interviews, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis by the Grounded Theory method according to Charmaz.This study describes the efforts of the ten donors to fulfil their duty as a sibling by doing what they considered necessary in order to help. Their efforts were summarised in a process wherein the grounded theory generated three main categories; Prepare, Promote and Preserve. A clear path of transition leading to fulfilment is evident, starting before the donation and continuing for one year afterwards.Being a sibling stem cell donor means doing what you have to do to fulfil your duty and if possible, saving the life of a seriously ill brother or sister. The relationship between the siblings is strengthened by the donation process. Sibling stem cell donation appears to be about fulfilment and the theoretical framework may support clinicians in their evaluation and support of donors.
Project description:From a place of "genealogical equivalence" as children of their parents, siblings spend a lifetime developing separate identities. As parents near the end of their lives, issues of sibling equivalence are renegotiated in the face of equal obligations to provide care and equal entitlement to parent assets. In this paper, we hypothesize how unresolved issues of rivalry for parent affection/attention among siblings may be reasserted when parents need care. Data are drawn from a project about how parent care and assets are shared. In-depth interviews with three sibling groups experiencing conflict over sharing parent care and assets along with six Canadian legal case portrayals of disputes among siblings over how parent care and assets were shared are examined. Findings are that disputes occur when siblings perceive others as dominating parent care and assets through tactics such as separating the parent from other siblings and preventing other siblings from being engaged in decisions about care and assets. Discussion is focused on paradoxes faced by siblings given expectations for equity in parent relationships alongside perceived pre-eminence in care and asset decisions.
Project description:Dubowitz syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, cognitive delay, growth failure, an immune defect, and an increased risk of blood dyscrasia and malignancy. There is considerable phenotypic variability, suggesting genetic heterogeneity. We clinically characterized and performed exome sequencing and high-density array SNP genotyping on three individuals with Dubowitz syndrome, including a pair of previously-described siblings (Patients 1 and 2, brother and sister) and an unpublished patient (Patient 3). Given the siblings' history of bone marrow abnormalities, we also evaluated telomere length and performed radiosensitivity assays. In the siblings, exome sequencing identified compound heterozygosity for a known rare nonsense substitution in the nuclear ligase gene LIG4 (rs104894419, NM_002312.3:c.2440C>T) that predicts p.Arg814X (MAF:0.0002) and an NM_002312.3:c.613delT variant that predicts a p.Ser205Leufs*29 frameshift. The frameshift mutation has not been reported in 1000 Genomes, ESP, or ClinSeq. These LIG4 mutations were previously reported in the sibling sister; her brother had not been previously tested. Western blotting showed an absence of a ligase IV band in both siblings. In the third patient, array SNP genotyping revealed a de novo ? 3.89 Mb interstitial deletion at chromosome 17q24.2 (chr 17:62,068,463-65,963,102, hg18), which spanned the known Carney complex gene PRKAR1A. In all three patients, a median lymphocyte telomere length of ? 1st centile was observed and radiosensitivity assays showed increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Our work suggests that, in addition to dyskeratosis congenita, LIG4 and 17q24.2 syndromes also feature shortened telomeres; to confirm this, telomere length testing should be considered in both disorders. Taken together, our work and other reports on Dubowitz syndrome, as currently recognized, suggest that it is not a unitary entity but instead a collection of phenotypically similar disorders. As a clinical entity, Dubowitz syndrome will need continual re-evaluation and re-definition as its constituent phenotypes are determined.
Project description:Intergenerational transfer of wealth has been proposed as playing a pivotal role in the evolution of human sibling relationships. Sibling rivalry is assumed to be more marked when offspring compete for limited heritable resources, which are crucial for reproductive success (e.g., land and livestock); whereas in the absence of heritable wealth, related siblings may cooperate. To date, comparative studies undertaken to support this evolutionary assumption have been confounded by other socioecological factors, which vary across populations, e.g., food sharing and intergroup conflict. In this article we explore effects of sibling competition and cooperation for agricultural resources, marriage, and reproduction in one contemporary Ethiopian agropastoralist society. Here recent changes in land tenure policy, altering transfers of land from parents to offspring, present a unique framework to test the importance of intergenerational transfers of wealth in driving sibling competition, while controlling for socioeconomic biases. In households where land is inherited, the number of elder brothers reduces a man's agricultural productivity, marriage, and reproductive success, as resources diminish and competition increases with each additional sibling. Where land is not inherited (for males receiving land directly from the government and all females) older siblings do not have a competitive effect and in some instances may be beneficial. This study has wider implications for the evolution of human family sizes. Recent changes in wealth transfers, which have driven sibling competition, may be contributing to an increased desire for smaller family sizes.