Tspan8-Tumor Extracellular Vesicle-Induced Endothelial Cell and Fibroblast Remodeling Relies on the Target Cell-Selective Response.
ABSTRACT: Tumor cell-derived extracellular vesicles (TEX) expressing tetraspanin Tspan8-alpha4/beta1 support angiogenesis. Tspan8-alpha6/beta4 facilitates lung premetastatic niche establishment. TEX-promoted target reprogramming is still being disputed, we explored rat endothelial cell (EC) and lung fibroblast (Fb) mRNA and miRNA profile changes after coculture with TEX. TEX were derived from non-metastatic BSp73AS (AS) or metastatic BSp73ASML (ASML) rat tumor lines transfected with Tspan8 (AS-Tspan8) or Tspan8-shRNA (ASML-Tspan8kd). mRNA was analyzed by deep sequencing and miRNA by array analysis of EC and Fb before and after coculture with TEX. EC and Fb responded more vigorously to AS-Tspan8- than AS-TEX. Though EC and Fb responses differed, both cell lines predominantly responded to membrane receptor activation with upregulation and activation of signaling molecules and transcription factors. Minor TEX-initiated changes in the miRNA profile relied, at least partly, on long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that also affected chromosome organization and mRNA processing. These analyses uncovered three important points. TEX activate target cell autonomous programs. Responses are initiated by TEX targeting units and are target cell-specific. The strong TEX-promoted lncRNA impact reflects lncRNA shuttling and location-dependent distinct activities. These informations urge for an in depth exploration on the mode of TEX-initiated target cell-specific remodeling including, as a major factor, lncRNA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cancer-initiating cell (CIC) exosomes (CIC-TEX) are suggested reprogramming Non-CIC. Mode of message transfer and engagement of CIC-markers being disputed, we elaborated the impact of CD44v6 and Tspan8 on the response of Non-CIC. METHODS:Non-metastasizing CD44v6- and Tspan8-knockdown (kd) pancreatic cancer cells served as Non-CIC. CIC-TEX coculture-induced changes were evaluated by deep-sequencing and functional assays. Tumor progression was surveyed during in vivo CIC-TEX treatment. RESULTS:Deep-sequencing of CIC-TEX-cocultured CD44v6kd-Non-CIC revealed pronounced mRNA changes in signaling, transport, transcription and translation; altered miRNA affected metabolism, signaling and transcription. CIC-TEX coculture-induced changes in Tspan8kd-Non-CIC mostly relied on CIC-TEX-Tspan8 being required for targeting. CIC-TEX transfer supported apoptosis resistance and significantly promoted epithelial mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion and (lymph)angiogenesis of the kd Non-CIC in vitro and in vivo, deep-sequencing allowing individual mRNA and miRNA assignment to altered functions. Importantly, CIC-TEX act as a hub, initiated by CD44v6-dependent RTK, GPCR and integrin activation and involving CD44v6-assisted transcription and RNA processing. Accordingly, a kinase inhibitor hampered CIC-TEX-fostered tumor progression, which was backed by an anti-Tspan8 blockade of CIC-TEX binding. CONCLUSIONS:This in depth report on the in vitro and in vivo impact of CIC-TEX on CD44v6kd and Tspan8kd Non-CIC unravels hub CIC-TEX activity, highlighting a prominent contribution of the CIC-markers CD44v6 to signaling cascade activation, transcription, translation and miRNA processing in Non-CIC and of Tspan8 to CIC-TEX targeting. Blocking CIC-TEX binding/uptake and uptake-initiated target cell activation significantly mitigated the deleterious CIC-TEX impact on CD44v6kd and Tspan8kd Non-CIC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The tetraspanins Tspan8 and CD151 promote metastasis, exosomes (Exo) being suggested to be important in the crosstalk between tumor and host. The contribution of Tspan8 and CD151 to host versus tumor-derived exosome (TEX) activities being not defined, we approached the questions using 3-methylcholanthrene-induced (MCA) tumors from wt, Tspan8ko, CD151ko and Tspan8/CD151 (db)ko mice, implanted into tetraspanin-competent and deficient hosts. METHODS:Tumor growth and dissemination, hematopoiesis and angiogenesis were surveyed in wild type (wt), Tspan8ko, CD151ko and dbko mice bearing tetraspanin-competent and -deficient MCA tumors. In vitro studies using tumor cells, bone marrow cells (BMC) and endothelial cells (EC) elaborated the mechanism of serum (s)Exo- and TEX-induced target modulation. RESULTS:Tumors grew in autochthonous and syngeneic hosts differing in Tspan8- and/or CD151-competence. However, Tspan8ko- and/or CD151ko-tumor cell dissemination and settlement in metastatic organs was significantly reduced in the autochthonous host, and less severely in the wt-host. Impaired wt-MCA tumor dissemination in the ko-host confirmed a contribution of host- and tumor-Tspan8/-CD151 to tumor cell dissemination, delivery of sExo and TEX being severely impaired by a Tspan8ko/CD151ko. Coculturing tumor cells, BMC and EC with sExo and TEX revealed minor defects in epithelial mesenchymal transition and apoptosis resistance of ko tumors. Strongly reduced migratory and invasive capacity of Tspan8ko/CD151ko-MCA relies on distorted associations with integrins and CAM and missing Tspan8/CD151-promoted recruitment of proteases. The defects, differing between Tspan8ko- and CD151ko-MCA, were rescued by wt-TEX and, less efficiently Tspan8ko- and CD151ko-TEX. Minor defects in hematopoietic progenitor maturation were based on the missing association of hematopoietic growth factors /- receptors with CD151 and, less pronounced, Tspan8. Rescue of impaired angiogenesis in ko mice by wt-sExo and promotion of angiogenesis by TEX depended on the association of Tspan8 and CD151 with GPCR and RTK in EC and tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS:Tspan8-/CD151-TEX play central roles in tumor progression. Tspan8-/CD151-sExo and TEX contribute by stimulating angiogenesis. Tspan8 and CD151 fulfill these tasks by associating with function-relevant proteins, the additive impact of Tspan8 and CD151 relying on differences in preferred associations. The distinct Tspan8 and CD151 contributions suggest a blockade of TEX-Tspan8 and -CD151 promising for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer-initiating cells (PaCIC) express CD44v6 and Tspan8. A knockdown (kd) of these markers hinders the metastatic capacity, which can be rescued, if the cells are exposed to CIC-exosomes (TEX). Additional evidence that CD44v6 regulates Tspan8 expression prompted us to explore the impact of these PaCIC markers on nonmetastatic PaCa and PaCIC-TEX. We performed proteome, miRNA, and mRNA deep sequencing analyses on wild-type, CD44v6kd, and Tspan8kd human PaCIC and TEX. Database comparative analyses were controlled by qRT-PCR, Western blot, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. Transcriptome analysis of CD44 versus CD44v6 coimmunoprecipitating proteins in cells and TEX revealed that Tspan8, several signal-transducing molecules including RTK, EMT-related transcription factors, and proteins engaged in mRNA processing selectively associate with CD44v6 and that the membrane-attached CD44 intracytoplasmic tail supports Tspan8 and NOTCH transcription. Deep sequencing uncovered a CD44v6 contribution to miRNA processing. Due to the association of CD44v6 with Tspan8 in internalization prone tetraspanin-enriched membrane domains (TEM) and the engagement of Tspan8 in exosome biogenesis, most CD44v6-dependent changes were transferred into TEX such that the input of CD44v6 to TEX activities becomes largely waved in both a CD44v6kd and a Tspan8kd. Few differences between CD44v6kd- and Tspan8kd-TEX rely on CD44v6 being also recovered in non-TEM derived TEX, highlighting distinct TEX delivery from individual cells that jointly account for TEX-promoted target modulation. This leads us to propose a model in which CD44v6 strongly supports tumor progression by cooperating with signaling molecules, altering transcription of key molecules, and through its association with the mRNA processing machinery. The association of CD44v6 with Tspan8, which plays a crucial role in vesicle biogenesis, promotes metastases by transferring CD44v6 activities into TEM and TEM-independently derived TEX. Further investigations of the lead position of CD44v6 in shifting metastasis-promoting activities into CIC-TEX may offer a means of targeting TEX-CD44v6 in therapeutic applications.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>Transfer of exosomes (Exo) miRNA was described interfering with tumor progression. We here explored for claudin7 (cld7) and EpCAM (EpC), cancer-initiating-cell markers in colorectal and pancreatic cancer, the efficacy of Exo loading with miRNA and miRNA transfer.<h4>Methods</h4>Exo were collected from nontransformed mouse (NIH3T3) and rat lung fibroblasts (rFb), which were transfected with Tspan8 cDNA (NIH3T3-Tspan8, rFb-Tspan8). Exo were loaded by electroporation with miRNA. The transfer of Exo-miRNA was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in a rat pancreatic (ASML) and a human colon (SW948) cancer line.<h4>Results</h4>NIH3T3-Tspan8- or rFb-Tspan8-Exo were efficiently loaded with cld7- or EpC-miRNA. Exo targeting in vivo was strongly improved by tailoring with Tspan8. Exo-miRNA transfer into tumor targets promoted cld7, respectively, EpC downregulation by 33%-60%. Cld7 silencing was accompanied by reduced expression of additional cancer-initiating cell markers and NOTCH. EpC silencing reduced vimentin, N-cadherin, and Nanog expression. The Exo-miRNA transfer affected anchorage-independent growth, motility, and invasion.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Exo are efficiently loaded with miRNA, miRNA-delivery being supported by Exo tailoring. Partial cld7 and EpC silencing by Exo miRNA affects metastasis-promoting tumor cell activities. The findings suggest miRNA loading of tailored Exo as an easy approachable and efficient adjuvant therapy.
Project description:Tspan8 and CD151 are metastasis-promoting tetraspanins and a knockdown (kd) of Tspan8 or CD151 and most pronounced of both tetraspanins affects the metastatic potential of the rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma line ASML. Approaching to elaborate the underlying mechanism, we compared ASMLwt, -CD151kd and/or Tspan8kd clones. We focused on tumor exosomes, as exosomes play a major role in tumor progression and tetraspanins are suggested to be engaged in exosome targeting. ASML-CD151/Tspan8kd cells poorly metastasize, but regain metastatic capacity, when rats are pretreated with ASMLwt, but not ASML-CD151kd and/or -Tspan8kd exosomes. Both exosomal CD151 and Tspan8 contribute to host matrix remodelling due to exosomal tetraspanin-integrin and tetraspanin-protease associations. ASMLwt exosomes also support stroma cell activation with upregulation of cytokines, cytokine receptors and proteases and promote inflammatory cytokine expression in hematopoietic cells. Finally, CD151-/Tspan8-competent exosomes support EMT gene expression in poorly-metastatic ASML-CD151/Tspan8kd cells. These effects are not seen or are weakened using ASML-CD151kd or -Tspan8kd exosomes, which is at least partly due to reduced binding/uptake of CD151- and/or Tspan8-deficient exosomes. Thus, CD151- and Tspan8-competent tumor exosomes support matrix degradation, reprogram stroma and hematopoietic cells and drive non-metastatic ASML-CD151/Tspan8kd cells towards a motile phenotype.
Project description:Cancer-initiating cells (CIC) account for metastatic spread, which may rely mostly on CIC exosomes (TEX) that affect host cells and can transfer CIC features into Non-CIC. The CIC marker CD44 variant isoform v6 (CD44v6) being known for metastasis-promotion, we elaborated in cells its contribution to migration and invasion and in TEX the tranfer of migratory and invasive capacity to Non-CIC, using a CD44v6 knockdown (CD44v6kd) as Non-CIC model.A CD44v6kd in human pancreatic and colorectal cancer (PaCa, CoCa) lines led to loss of CIC characteristics including downregulation of additional CIC markers, particularly Tspan8. This aggravated the loss of CD44v6-promoted motility and invasion. Loss of motility relies on the distorted cooperation of CD44v6 and Tspan8 with associated integrins and loss of invasiveness on reduced protease expression. These deficits, transferred into TEX, severely altered the CD44v6kd-TEX composition. As a consequence, unlike the CIC-TEX, CD44v6kd TEX were not taken up by CD44v6kd cells and CIC. The uptake of CIC-TEX was accompanied by partial correction of CIC marker and protease expression in CD44v6kd cells, which regained migratory, invasive and metastatic competence. CIC-TEX also fostered angiogenesis and expansion of myeloid cells, likely due to a direct impact of CIC-TEX on the host, which could be supported by reprogrammed CD44v6kd cells.Taken together, the striking loss of tumor progression by a CD44v6kd relies on the capacity of CD44v6 to cooperate with associating integrins and proteases and its promotion of additional CIC marker expression. The defects by a CD44v6kd are efficiently corrected upon CIC-TEX uptake.
Project description:Tumor exosomes educate selected host tissues toward a prometastatic phenotype. We demonstrated this for exosomes of the metastatic rat adenocarcinoma BSp73ASML (ASML), which modulate draining lymph nodes and lung tissue to support settlement of poorly metastatic BSp73ASML-CD44v4-v7 knockdown (ASML-CD44v(kd)) cells. Now, we profiled mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) of ASML(wt) and ASML-CD44v(kd) exosomes to define the pathway(s), whereby exosomes prepare the premetastatic niche. ASML exosomes, recovered in draining lymph nodes after subcutaneous injection, preferentially are taken up by lymph node stroma cells (LnStr) and lung fibroblasts (LuFb) that were chosen as exosome targets. ASML(wt) and ASML-CD44v(kd) exosomes contain a restricted mRNA and miRNA repertoire that differs significantly between the two lines and exosomes thereof due to CD44v6 influencing gene and miRNA transcription/posttranscriptional regulation. Exosomal mRNA and miRNA are recovered in target cells, where transferred miRNA significantly affected mRNA translation. Besides others, this was exemplified for abundant ASML(wt)-exosomal miR-494 and miR-542-3p, which target cadherin-17 (cdh17). Concomitantly, matrix metalloproteinase transcription, accompanying cdh17 down-regulation, was upregulated in LnStr transfected with miR-494 or miR-542-3p or co-cultured with tumor exosomes. Thus, tumor exosomes target non-transformed cells in premetastatic organs and modulate premetastatic organ cells predominantly through transferred miRNA, where miRNA from a metastasizing tumor prepares premetastatic organ stroma cells for tumor cell hosting. Fitting the demands of metastasizing tumor cells, transferred exosomal miRNA mostly affected proteases, adhesion molecules, chemokine ligands, cell cycle- and angiogenesis-promoting genes, and genes engaged in oxidative stress response. The demonstration of function-competent exosomal miRNA in host target cells encourages exploiting exosomes as a therapeutic gene delivery system.
Project description:Tumor progression requires a crosstalk with the tumor surrounding, where the tumor matrix plays an essential role. We recently reported that only the matrix delivered by a CD44v6-competent (ASML(wt)), but not that of a CD44v6-deficient (ASML-CD44v(kd)) rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma line supports metastasis formation. We here describe that this matrix provides an important feedback toward the tumor cell and that CD44v6 accounts for orchestrating signals received from the matrix. ASML(wt) cells contain more hyaluronan synthase-3 and secrete higher amounts of >50 kDa HA than ASML-CD44v(kd) cells, which secrete more hyaluronidase. Only the ASML(wt)-matrix supports migration and apoptosis resistance, which both can be initiated via CD44v6, c-Met, and ?6?4 ligand binding and proceed via FAK, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK activation, respectively. However, c-Met- and ?6?4-initiated signaling are strongly augmented by the association with CD44v6 as only very weak effects are observed in CD44v6-deficient cells. The same CD44v6-dependent convergence of motility- and apoptosis resistance-related signals also accounts for human tumor lines. Thus, CD44v6 promotes motility and apoptosis resistance via its involvement in assembling a matrix that, in turn, triggers activation of signaling cascades, which proceeds, independent of the initiating receptor-ligand interaction, in a concerted action via CD44v6.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE34737: Comparative analysis of mRNA expression in untreated lymph node stroma cells and upon treatment with exosomes derived from ASMLwt, ASML cd44v knockdown cells. GSE34738: Characterization of exosomes from highly metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma line: ASML and a CD44v kd of ASML based on their miRNA content Refer to individual Series
Project description:Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is involved in normal skin wound healing and also has anti-inflammatory properties. The association of α-MSH to polyelectrolyte layers with various supports has been shown to improve these anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nanofibrous membrane functionalized with α-MSH linked to polyelectrolyte layers on gingival cell inflammatory response. Human oral epithelial cells (EC) and fibroblasts (FB) were cultured on plastic or electrospun Poly-#-caprolactone (PCL) membranes with α-MSH covalently coupled to Poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA-α-MSH), for 6 to 24 h. Cells were incubated with or without Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS). Cell proliferation and migration were determined using AlamarBlue test and scratch assay. Expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) was evaluated using RT-qPCR method. Cell cultures on plastic showed that PGA-α-MSH reduced EC and FB migration and decreased IL-6 and TGF-β expression in Pg-LPS stimulated EC. PGA-α-MSH functionalized PCL membranes reduced proliferation of Pg-LPS stimulated EC and FB. A significant decrease of IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β expression was also observed in Pg-LPS stimulated EC and FB. This study showed that the functionalization of nanofibrous PCL membranes efficiently amplified the anti-inflammatory effect of PGA-α-MSH on gingival cells.