Effects of Salicylic Acid on the Metabolism of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in Plants.
ABSTRACT: Different abiotic and biotic stresses lead to the production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various cell organelles such as in mitochondria, resulting in oxidative stress, inducing defense responses or programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. In response to oxidative stress, cells activate various cytoprotective responses, enhancing the antioxidant system, increasing the activity of alternative oxidase and degrading the oxidized proteins. Oxidative stress responses are orchestrated by several phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The biomolecule SA is a key regulator in mitochondria-mediated defense signaling and PCD, but the mode of its action is not known in full detail. In this review, the current knowledge on the multifaceted role of SA in mitochondrial ROS metabolism is summarized to gain a better understanding of SA-regulated processes at the subcellular level in plant defense responses.
Project description:Salicylic acid (SA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be key modulators of plant defense. However, mechanisms of molecular signal perception and appropriate physiological responses to SA and ROS during biotic or abiotic stress are poorly understood. Here we report characterization of SMALL DEFENSE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 1 (SDA1), which modulates defense against bacterial pathogens and tolerance to oxidative stress. sda1 mutants are compromised in defense gene expression, SA accumulation, and defense against bacterial pathogens. External application of SA rescues compromised defense in sda1 mutants. sda1 mutants are also compromised in tolerance to ROS-generating chemicals. Overexpression of SDA1 leads to enhanced resistance against bacterial pathogens and tolerance to oxidative stress. These results suggest that SDA1 regulates plant immunity via the SA-mediated defense pathway and tolerance to oxidative stress. SDA1 encodes a novel small plant-specific protein containing a highly conserved seven amino acid (S/G)WA(D/E)QWD domain at the N-terminus that is critical for SDA1 function in pathogen defense and tolerance to oxidative stress. Taken together, our studies suggest that SDA1 plays a critical role in modulating both biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and appears to be a plant-specific stress responsive protein.
Project description:Plant mitochondria constitute a major source of ROS and are proposed to act as signaling organelles in the orchestration of defense response. At present, the signals generated and then integrated by mitochondria are still limited. Here, fluorescence techniques were used to monitor the events of mitochondria in vivo, as well as the induction of mitochondrial signaling by a natural defensive signal chemical salicylic acid (SA). An inhibition of respiration was observed in isolated mitochondria subjected to SA. The cytochrome reductase activity analysis in isolated mitochondria demonstrated that SA might act directly on the complex III in the respiration chain by inhibiting the activity. With this alteration, a quick burst of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) was stimulated. SA-induced mtROS caused mitochondrial morphology transition in leaf tissue or protoplasts expressing mitochondria-GFP (43C5) and depolarization of membrane potential. However, the application of AsA, an H2O2 scavenger, significantly prevented both events, indicating that both of them are attributable to ROS accumulation. In parallel, SA-induced mtROS up-regulated AOX1a transcript abundance and this induction was correlated with the disease resistance, whereas AsA-pretreatment interdicted this effect. It is concluded that mitochondria play an essential role in the signaling pathway of SA-induced ROS generation, which possibly provided new insight into the SA-mediated biological processes, including plant defense response.
Project description:Plants are exposed to abiotic and biotic stress conditions throughout their lifespans that activates various defense programs. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an extreme defense strategy the plant uses to manage unfavorable environments as well as during developmentally induced senescence. Here we investigated the role of leaf age on the regulation of defense gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two lesion mimic mutants with misregulated cell death, catalase2 (cat2) and defense no death1 (dnd1) were used together with several double mutants to dissect signaling pathways regulating defense gene expression associated with cell death and leaf age. PCD marker genes showed leaf age dependent expression, with the highest expression in old leaves. The salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis mutant salicylic acid induction deficient2 (sid2) had reduced expression of PCD marker genes in the cat2 sid2 double mutant demonstrating the importance of SA biosynthesis in regulation of defense gene expression. While the auxin- and jasmonic acid (JA)- insensitive auxin resistant1 (axr1) double mutant cat2 axr1 also led to decreased expression of PCD markers; the expression of several marker genes for SA signaling (ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1, PR1 and PR2) were additionally decreased in cat2 axr1 compared to cat2. The reduced expression of these SA markers genes in cat2 axr1 implicates AXR1 as a regulator of SA signaling in addition to its known role in auxin and JA signaling. Overall, the current study reinforces the important role of SA signaling in regulation of leaf age-related transcript signatures.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are used by plants as signaling molecules during stress and development. Given the amount of possible challenges a plant face from their environment, plants need to activate and prioritize between potentially conflicting defense signaling pathways. Until recently, most studies on signal interactions have focused on phytohormone interaction, such as the antagonistic relationship between salicylic acid (SA)-jasmonic acid and cytokinin-auxin. RESULTS: In this study, we report an antagonistic interaction between SA signaling and apoplastic ROS signaling. Treatment with ozone (O3) leads to a ROS burst in the apoplast and induces extensive changes in gene expression and elevation of defense hormones. However, Arabidopsis thaliana dnd1 (defense no death1) exhibited an attenuated response to O3. In addition, the dnd1 mutant displayed constitutive expression of defense genes and spontaneous cell death. To determine the exact process which blocks the apoplastic ROS signaling, double and triple mutants involved in various signaling pathway were generated in dnd1 background. Simultaneous elimination of SA-dependent and SA-independent signaling components from dnd1 restored its responsiveness to O3. Conversely, pre-treatment of plants with SA or using mutants that constitutively activate SA signaling led to an attenuation of changes in gene expression elicited by O3. CONCLUSIONS: Based upon these findings, we conclude that plants are able to prioritize the response between ROS and SA via an antagonistic action of SA and SA signaling on apoplastic ROS signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Extremely high temperatures are becoming an increasingly severe threat to crop yields. It is well documented that salicylic acid (SA) can enhance the stress tolerance of plants; however, its effect on the reproductive organs of rice plants has not been described before. To investigate the mechanism underlying the SA-mediated alleviation of the heat stress damage to rice pollen viability, a susceptible cultivar (Changyou1) was treated with SA at the pollen mother cell (PMC) meiosis stage and then subjected to heat stress of 40 °C for 10 d until 1d before flowering. RESULTS:Under control conditions, no significant difference was found in pollen viability and seed-setting rate in SA treatments. However, under heat stress conditions, SA decreased the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in anthers to prevent tapetum programmed cell death (PCD) and degradation. The genes related to tapetum development, such as EAT1 (Eternal Tapetum 1), MIL2 (Microsporeless 2), and DTM1 (Defective Tapetum and Meiocytese 1), were found to be involved in this process. When rice plants were exogenously sprayed with SA or paclobutrazol (PAC, a SA inhibitor)?+?H2O2 under heat stress, a significantly higher pollen viability was found compared to plants sprayed with H2O, PAC, or SA?+?dimethylthiourea (DMTU, an H2O2 and OH· scavenger). Additionally, a sharp increase in H2O2 was observed in the SA or PAC+ H2O2 treatment groups compared to other treatments. CONCLUSION:We suggest that H2O2 may play an important role in mediating SA to prevent pollen abortion caused by heat stress through inhibiting the tapetum PCD.
Project description:Mitochondria are both a source of ATP and a site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, there is little information on the sites of mitochondrial ROS (mROS) production or the biological role of such mROS in plants. We provide genetic proof that mitochondrial complex II (Complex II) of the electron transport chain contributes to localized mROS that regulates plant stress and defense responses. We identify an Arabidopsis mutant in the Complex II subunit, SDH1-1, through a screen for mutants lacking GSTF8 gene expression in response to salicylic acid (SA). GSTF8 is an early stress-responsive gene whose transcription is induced by biotic and abiotic stresses, and its expression is commonly used as a marker of early stress and defense responses. Transcriptional analysis of this mutant, disrupted in stress responses 1 (dsr1), showed that it had altered SA-mediated gene expression for specific downstream stress and defense genes, and it exhibited increased susceptibility to specific fungal and bacterial pathogens. The dsr1 mutant also showed significantly reduced succinate dehydrogenase activity. Using in vivo fluorescence assays, we demonstrated that root cell ROS production occurred primarily from mitochondria and was lower in the mutant in response to SA. In addition, leaf ROS production was lower in the mutant after avirulent bacterial infection. This mutation, in a conserved region of SDH1-1, is a unique plant mitochondrial mutant that exhibits phenotypes associated with lowered mROS production. It provides critical insights into Complex II function with implications for understanding Complex II's role in mitochondrial diseases across eukaryotes.
Project description:Pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) is an intermediate product of both proline biosynthesis and catabolism. Recent evidences indicate that proline-P5C metabolism is tightly regulated in plants, especially during pathogen infection and abiotic stress. However, role of P5C and its metabolism in plants has not yet been fully understood. Studies indicate that P5C synthesized in mitochondria has a role in both resistance (R)-gene-mediated and non-host resistance against invading pathogens. Proline dehydrogenase and delta-ornithine amino transferase-encoding genes, both involved in P5C synthesis in mitochondria are implicated in defense response of Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana against bacterial pathogens. Such defense response is proposed to involve salicylic acid-dependent pathway, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitive response (HR)-associated cell death. Recently HR, a form of programmed cell death (PCD), has been proposed to be induced by changes in mitochondrial P5C synthesis or the increase in P5C levels per se in plants inoculated with either a host pathogen carrying suitable avirulent (Avr) gene or a non-host pathogen. Consistently, A. thaliana mutant plants deficient in P5C catabolism showed HR like cell death when grown in external P5C or proline supplemented medium. Similarly, yeast and plant cells under oxidative stress were shown to increase ROS production and PCD due to increase in P5C levels. Similar mechanism has also been reported as one of the triggers for apoptosis in mammalian cells. This review critically analyzes results from various studies and enumerates the pathways for regulation of P5C levels in the plant cell, especially in mitochondria, during pathogen infection. Further, mechanisms regulating P5C- mediated defense responses, namely HR are outlined. This review also provides new insights into the differential role of proline-P5C metabolism in plants exposed to pathogen infection.
Project description:The role of endogenous salicylic acid (SA) signalling cascades in plant responses to salt and oxidative stresses is unclear. Arabidopsis SA signalling mutants, namely npr1-5 (non-expresser of pathogenesis related gene1), which lacks NPR1-dependent SA signalling, and nudt7 (nudix hydrolase7), which has both constitutively expressed NPR1-dependent and NPR1-independent SA signalling pathways, were compared with the wild type (Col-0) during salt or oxidative stresses. Growth and viability staining showed that, compared with wild type, the npr1-5 mutant was sensitive to either salt or oxidative stress, whereas the nudt7 mutant was tolerant. Acute salt stress caused the strongest membrane potential depolarization, highest sodium and proton influx, and potassium loss from npr1-5 roots in comparison with the wild type and nudt7 mutant. Though salt stress-induced hydrogen peroxide production was lowest in the npr1-5 mutant, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress (induced by 1mM of hydroxyl-radical-generating copper-ascorbate mix, or either 1 or 10mM hydrogen peroxide) caused a higher potassium loss from the roots of the npr1-5 mutant than the wild type and nudt7 mutant. Long-term salt exposure resulted in the highest sodium and the lowest potassium concentration in the shoots of npr1-5 mutant in comparison with the wild type and nudt7 mutant. The above results demonstrate that NPR1-dependent SA signalling is pivotal to (i) controlling Na(+) entry into the root tissue and its subsequent long-distance transport into the shoot, and (ii) preventing a potassium loss through depolarization-activated outward-rectifying potassium and ROS-activated non-selective cation channels. In conclusion, NPR1-dependent SA signalling is central to the salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidases or apoplastic peroxidases play an important role in the plant defense response. Diminished expression of at least two Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase encoding genes, PRX33 (At3g49110) and PRX34 (At3g49120), as a consequence of anti-sense expression of a heterologous French bean peroxidase gene (asFBP1.1), were previously shown to result in reduced levels of ROS following pathogen attack, enhanced susceptibility to a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens, and reduced levels of callose production and defense-related gene expression in response to the microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules flg22 and elf26. These data demonstrated that the peroxidase-dependent oxidative burst plays an important role in the elicitation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Further work reported in this paper, however, shows that asFBP1.1 antisense plants are not impaired in all PTI-associated responses. For example, some but not all flg22-elicited genes are induced to lower levels by flg22 in asFPB1.1, and callose deposition in asFPB1.1 is similar to wild-type following infiltration with a Pseudomonas syringae hrcC mutant or with non-host P. syringae pathovars. Moreover, asFPB1.1 plants did not exhibit any apparent defect in their ability to mount a hypersensitive response (HR). On the other hand, salicylic acid (SA)-mediated activation of PR1 was dramatically impaired in asFPB1.1 plants. In addition, P. syringae-elicited expression of many genes known to be SA-dependent was significantly reduced in asFBP1.1 plants. Consistent with this latter result, in asFBP1.1 plants the key regulator of SA-mediated responses, NPR1, showed both dramatically decreased total protein abundance and a failure to monomerize, which is required for its translocation into the nucleus.
Project description:A long-term goal in plant research is to understand how plants integrate signals from multiple environmental stressors. The importance of salicylic acid (SA) in plant response to biotic and abiotic stress is known, yet the molecular details of the SA-mediated pathways are insufficiently understood. Our recent work identified the peptidases TOP1 and TOP2 as critical components in plant response to pathogens and programmed cell death (PCD). In this study, we investigated the characteristics of TOPs related to the regulation of their enzymatic activity and function in oxidative stress response. We determined that TOP1 and TOP2 interact with themselves and each other and their ability to associate in dimers is influenced by SA and the thiol-based reductant DTT. Biochemical characterization of TOP1 and TOP2 indicated distinct sensitivities to DTT and similarly robust activity under a range of pH values. Treatments of top mutants with Methyl Viologen (MV) revealed TOP1 and TOP2 as a modulators of the plant tolerance to MV, and that exogenous SA alleviates the toxicity of MV in top background. Finally, we generated a TOP-centered computational model of a plant cell whose simulation outputs replicate experimental findings and predict novel functions of TOP1 and TOP2. Altogether, our work indicates that TOP1 and TOP2 mediate plant responses to oxidative stress through spatially separated pathways and positions proteolysis in a network for plant response to diverse stressors.