Extracellular Vesicle microRNAs Contribute to the Osteogenic Inhibition of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Multiple Myeloma.
ABSTRACT: Osteolytic bone disease is the major complication associated with the progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as mediators of MM-associated bone disease by inhibiting the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Here, we investigated a correlation between the EV-mediated osteogenic inhibition and MM vesicle content, focusing on miRNAs. By the use of a MicroRNA Card, we identified a pool of miRNAs, highly expressed in EVs, from MM cell line (MM1.S EVs), expression of which was confirmed in EVs from bone marrow (BM) plasma of patients affected by smoldering myeloma (SMM) and MM. Notably,we found that miR-129-5p, which targets different osteoblast (OBs) differentiation markers, is enriched in MM-EVs compared to SMM-EVs, thus suggesting a selective packaging correlated with pathological grade. We found that miR-129-5p can be transported to hMSCs by MM-EVs and, by the use of miRNA mimics, we investigated its role in recipient cells. Our data demonstrated that the increase of miR-129-5p levels in hMSCs under osteoblastic differentiation stimuli inhibited the expression of the transcription factor Sp1, previously described as a positive modulator of osteoblastic differentiation, and of its target the Alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), thus identifying miR-129-5p among the players of vesicle-mediated bone disease.
Project description:Osteoporosis is a frequently occurring bone disease in middle-aged and aged men and women. However, current therapies on this disease are still not ideal. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-protein-coding RNA with a length of 18-25 nucleotides. miRNAs have been identified as important regulators for development, metabolism, carcinogenesis, and bone formation. miR-129-5p has been reported as a regulator of cancer and neuroscience, whereas studies about its function on bone formation is still limited. In this study, we investigated the function and mechanism of miR-129-5p on osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. We have assessed the expression of miRNAs in bone mesenchymal stem cells from aging and menopause osteoporosis C57BL6 mice. The expression of miR-129-5p was altered in all osteoporosis models. Besides, the expression of miR-129-5p was negatively correlated with osteoblastic differentiation markers in the femur tissues of C57BL/6 mice of different ages. We further demonstrated that overexpression of miR-129-5p inhibited osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cell line, as well as bone formation of C57BL/6 mice. On the other hand, down-regulation of miR-129-5p enhanced osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. We also found that miR-129-5p inhibited Wnt/?-catenin pathway in osteoblast. The target gene of miR-129-5p has been forecasted and proved as Tcf4. We further found that plasmid containing Tcf4-3' UTR sequence enhanced osteoblast differentiation, as well as Wnt/?-catenin pathway in MC3T3-E1 cells. To further investigate the rescue effect of miR-129-5p inhibitor, we manufactured bioengineered novel recombinant miR-129-5p inhibitor through Escherichia coli system and then tested its function. The results showed that the novel recombinant miR-129-5p inhibitor promoted osteoblast differentiation and greatly ameliorated menopause osteoporosis in C57BL6 mice. In conclusion, we have discovered miR-129-5p as an inhibitor of bone formation. miR-129-5p inhibited downstream transcription factors of Wnt/?-catenin pathway through targeting Tcf4. Moreover, novel recombinant miR-129-5p inhibitor showed rescue effect on osteoporosis. This study has revealed a new mechanism of osteogenic differentiation and provided novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of skeletal disorders.
Project description:Abstract Implantation of stem cells for tissue regeneration faces significant challenges such as immune rejection and teratoma formation. Cell?free tissue regeneration thus has a potential to avoid these problems. Stem cell derived exosomes do not cause immune rejection or generate malignant tumors. Here, exosomes that can induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are identified and used to decorate 3D?printed titanium alloy scaffolds to achieve cell?free bone regeneration. Specifically, the exosomes secreted by hMSCs osteogenically pre?differentiated for different times are used to induce the osteogenesis of hMSCs. It is discovered that pre?differentiation for 10 and 15 days leads to the production of osteogenic exosomes. The purified exosomes are then loaded into the scaffolds. It is found that the cell?free exosome?coated scaffolds regenerate bone tissue as efficiently as hMSC?seeded exosome?free scaffolds within 12 weeks. RNA?sequencing suggests that the osteogenic exosomes induce the osteogenic differentiation by using their cargos, including upregulated osteogenic miRNAs (Hsa?miR?146a?5p, Hsa?miR?503?5p, Hsa?miR?483?3p, and Hsa?miR?129?5p) or downregulated anti?osteogenic miRNAs (Hsa?miR?32?5p, Hsa?miR?133a?3p, and Hsa?miR?204?5p), to activate the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. Consequently, identification of osteogenic exosomes secreted by pre?differentiated stem cells and the use of them to replace stem cells represent a novel cell?free bone regeneration strategy. Exosomes secreted from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) pre?differentiated for a certain period of time can serve as inducers to induce osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro. They can decorate 3D printed titanium alloy scaffolds, which are further implanted into radial bone defect. They are found to enable the scaffolds to achieve efficient cell?free bone regeneration in vivo.
Project description:Glioma stem cell (GSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) can mediate the communication between GSCs and microglia. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) expression in GSCs, EVs, and supernatant was detected by real-time PCR. The direct targeting between MALAT1 and miR-129-5p, miR-129-5p, and HMGB1 were tested with luciferase reporter analysis. The expression and secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were determined in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia or miR-129-5p inhibitor transferred to microglia exposed to GSC EVs or EVs derived from siMALAT1 pre-transferred GSCs. MALAT1 was enriched in GSC EVs compared with GSCs, and up-regulated MALAT1 was also observed in microglia upon GSC EVs incubation. The relative expression and secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia were up-regulated in the GSC supernatant group, which could be reversed by dimethyl amiloride (DMA) (EV secretion inhibitor) co-administration or si-MALAT1 pre-transfection of GSCs. Luciferase reporter assay testified the direct binding of MALAT1 and miR-129-5p, miR-129-5p, and HMGB1, and si-MALAT1 could up-regulate miR-129-5p expression and down-regulate HMGB1 expression in microglia cells. The concentration of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia exposed to EVs from siMALAT1 transfected GSCs could be up-regulated by miR-129-5p inhibition. EVs lncRNA MALAT1 released from GSCs could modulate the inflammatory response of microglia after lipopolysaccharide stimulation through regulating the miR-129-5p/HMGB1 axis.
Project description:The alteration of age-related molecules in the bone marrow microenvironment is one of the driving forces in osteoporosis. These molecules inhibit bone formation and promote bone resorption by regulating osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, contributing to age-related bone loss. Here, we observed that the level of microRNA-31a-5p (miR-31a-5p) was significantly increased in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from aged rats, and these BMSCs demonstrated increased adipogenesis and aging phenotypes as well as decreased osteogenesis and stemness. We used the gain-of-function and knockdown approach to delineate the roles of miR-31a-5p in osteogenic differentiation by assessing the decrease of special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) levels and the aging of BMSCs by regulating the decline of E2F2 and recruiting senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF). Notably, expression of miR-31a-5p, which promotes osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, was markedly higher in BMSCs-derived exosomes from aged rats compared to those from young rats, and suppression of exosomal miR-31a-5p inhibited the differentiation and function of osteoclasts, as shown by elevated RhoA activity. Moreover, using antagomiR-31a-5p, we observed that, in the bone marrow microenvironment, inhibition of miR-31a-5p prevented bone loss and decreased the osteoclastic activity of aged rats. Collectively, our results reveal that miR-31a-5p acts as a key modulator in the age-related bone marrow microenvironment by influencing osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation and that it may be a potential therapeutic target for age-related osteoporosis.
Project description:Previous studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells from multiple myeloma (MM) patients (MM-hMSCs) display a distinctive gene expression profile, an enhanced production of cytokines and an impaired osteogenic differentiation ability compared to normal donors (ND-hMSCs). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we observed that MM-hMSCs exhibited an abnormal upregulation of miR-135b, showing meanwhile an impaired osteogenic differentiation and a decrease of SMAD5 expression, which is the target of miR-135b involved in osteogenesis. By gain and loss of function studies we confirmed that miR-135b negatively regulated hMSCs osteogenesis. We also found that MM cell-produced factors stimulated ND-hMSCs to upregulate the expression of miR-135b. Importantly, treatment with a miR-135b inhibitor promoted osteogenic differentiation in MM-hMSCs. Finally, we observed that MM cell-derived soluble factors could induce an upregulation of miR-135b expression in ND-hMSCs in an indirect coculture system and the miR-135b expression turned to normal level after the removal of MM cells. Collectively, we provide evidence that miR-135b is involved in the impaired osteogenic differentiation of MSCs derived from MM patients and might therefore be a promising target for controlling bone disease.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted by diverse tissues and play important roles in cell-cell communication, organ interactions and tissue homeostasis. Studies have reported the use of EVs to stimulate tissue regeneration, such as hepatic cell regeneration, and to treat diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension. However, little is known about the osteogenic effect of EVs. In this study, we explore the role of bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs in the regulation of osteoblast activity and bone regeneration. We isolated bone marrow stromal/stem cell (BMSC)-derived EVs through gradient ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration, and tested the influence of the EVs on osteogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. The results indicated that EVs positively regulated osteogenic genes and osteoblastic differentiation but did not inhibit proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, we constructed an EVs delivery system to stimulate bone formation in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with calvarial defects. We found that BMSC-derived EVs led to more bone formation in the critical-size calvarial bone defects. Moreover, we found that miR-196a plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblastic differentiation and the expression of osteogenic genes. We anticipate that our assay using bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs will become a valuable tool for promoting bone regeneration.
Project description:Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor during childhood and adolescence. Several reports have presented data on serum biomarkers for osteosarcoma, but few reports have analyzed circulating microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we used next generation miRNA sequencing to examine miRNAs isolated from microvesicle-depleted extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from six different human osteosarcoma or osteoblastic cell lines with different degrees of metastatic potential (i.e., SAOS2, MG63, HOS, 143B, U2OS and hFOB1.19). EVs from each cell line contain on average ~300 miRNAs, and ~70 of these miRNAs are present at very high levels (i.e., >1000 reads per million). The most prominent miRNAs are miR-21-5p, miR-143-3p, miR-148a-3p and 181a-5p, which are enriched between 3 and 100 fold and relatively abundant in EVs derived from metastatic SAOS2 cells compared to non-metastatic MG63 cells. Gene ontology analysis of predicted targets reveals that miRNAs present in EVs may regulate the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma cell lines by potentially inhibiting a network of genes (e.g., MAPK1, NRAS, FRS2, PRCKE, BCL2 and QKI) involved in apoptosis and/or cell adhesion. Our data indicate that osteosarcoma cell lines may selectively package miRNAs as molecular cargo of EVs that could function as paracrine agents to modulate the tumor micro-environment.
Project description:Mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) display a pleiotropic function in bone regeneration. The signaling involved in osteoblast commitment is still not completely understood, and that determines the failure of current therapies being used. In our recent studies, we identified two miRNAs as regulators of hMSCs osteoblast differentiation driving hypoxia signaling and cytoskeletal reorganization. Other signalings involved in this process are epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalings through the regulation of Yes-associated protein (YAP)/PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) expression. In the current study, we investigated the role of miR-33a family as a (i) modulator of YAP/TAZ expression and (ii) a regulator of EGFR signaling during osteoblast commitments. Starting from the observation on hMSCs and primary osteoblast cell lines (Nh-Ost) in which EMT genes and miR-33a displayed a specific expression, we performed a gain and loss of function study with miR-33a-5p and 3p on hMSCs cells and Nh-Ost. After 24 h of transfections, we evaluated the modulation of EMT and osteoblast genes expression by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and Osteoimage assays. Through bioinformatic analysis, we identified YAP as the putative target of miR-33a-3p. Its role was investigated by gain and loss of function studies with miR-33a-3p on hMSCs; qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses were also carried out. Finally, the possible role of EGFR signaling in YAP/TAZ modulation by miR-33a-3p expression was evaluated. Human MSCs were treated with EGF-2 and EGFR inhibitor for different time points, and qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses were performed. The above-mentioned methods revealed a balance between miR-33a-5p and miR-33a-3p expression during hMSCs osteoblast differentiation. The human MSCs phenotype was maintained by miR-33a-5p, while the maintenance of the osteoblast phenotype in the Nh-Ost cell model was permitted by miR-33a-3p expression, which regulated YAP/TAZ through the modulation of EGFR signaling. The inhibition of EGFR blocked the effects of miR-33a-3p on YAP/TAZ modulation, favoring the maintenance of hMSCs in a committed phenotype. A new possible personalized therapeutic approach to bone regeneration was discussed, which might be mediated by customizing delivery of miR-33a in simultaneously targeting EGFR and YAP signaling with combined use of drugs.