Ethnic Differences Shape the Alpha but Not Beta Diversity of Gut Microbiota from School Children in the Absence of Environmental Differences.
ABSTRACT: Although the human gut microbiome is shaped by factors such as diet, environment, and genetic background, most studies investigating the relationship between ethnicity and microbiota have compared groups living in separate geographical locations. To isolate the effects of ethnicity on microbial diversity by minimizing environmental differences, we selected 143 school children from Han, Tibetan, and Hui populations from the same town on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for fecal microbiome 16S rDNA sequencing. We characterized the diversity, identified signature taxa, and performed correlation analysis between diet and community composition. Firmicutes (47.61%) and Bacteroidetes (38.05%) were dominant phyla among the three ethnic groups; seven genera showed significant differences in relative abundance. Tibetan populations had a higher relative abundance of Oscillibacter and Barnesiella, compared with Han and Hui populations. Alpha diversity analyses (observed species, ACE, and Shannon indices) showed that the Tibetan population had the highest diversity compared to the Hui and Han groups, whereas beta diversity analysis revealed no significant differences between groups. The consumption of grains, milk, eggs, and fruits were positively correlated with specific taxa. Under similar environments and diet, ethnic background significantly contributed to differences in alpha diversity but not beta diversity of gut microbiota.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Given their geographical proximity but differences in cultural and religious dietary customs, we hypothesize that children from the three main ethnic populations (Han, Hui, and Tibetan) residing in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region differs in their non-iatrogenic antibiotic loads. METHODS:To determine the antibiotic burden of the school children unrelated to medical treatment, we quantified the antibiotic residues in morning urine samples from 92 Han, 72 Tibetan, and 85 Muslim Hui primary school children aged 8 to 12 years using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and performed correlation analysis between these data and concurrent dietary nutrition assessments. RESULTS:Sixteen of the 18 targeted antibiotics (4 macrolides, 3 ?-lactams, 2 tetracyclines, 4 quinolones, 3 sulfonamides, and 2 aminoanols) were identified in the urine samples with an overall detection frequency of 58.63%. The detection frequency of the six antibiotic classes ranged from 1.61% to 32.53% with ofloxacin showing the single highest frequency (18.47%). Paired comparison analysis revealed significant differences in antibiotic distribution frequency among groups, with Tibetans having higher enrofloxacin (P = 0.015) and oxytetracycline (P = 0.021) than Han children. Norfloxacin (a human/veterinary antibiotic) was significantly higher in the Hui children than in the Han children (P = 0.024). Dietary nutrient intake assessments were comparable among participants, showing adequate levels of essential vitamins and minerals across all three ethnic groups. However, significant differences in specific foods were observed among groups, notably in lower fat consumption in the Hui group. CONCLUSIONS:The introduction and accumulation of antibiotic residues in school children through non-iatrogenic routes (food or environmental sources) poses a serious potential health risk and merits closer scrutiny to determine the sources. While the exact sources of misused or overused antibiotics remains unclear, further study can potentially correlate ethnicity-specific dietary practices with the sources of contamination.
Project description:As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were all observed for the 3 parameters of heterozygosity (Ho, He and UHe) among the 5 ethnic groups. Highest values of Nei genetic distance were always observed at HUI-Uygur pairwise when analyzed with X-STRs or X-Indels separately and combined. Phylogenetic tree and PCA analyses revealed a clear pattern of population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups.
Project description:There are 56 officially-recognized ethnic groups in China. However, the distinct geographic patterns of various ethnic groups in relation to the physical environment in China have rarely been investigated. Based on the geo-referenced physical environmental parameters of 455 Han, Tu, Hui, Salar, Mongolian, and Tibetan communities in Qinghai, we found that the communities could be statistically demarcated by temperature and aridity threshold according to their ethnicity, implying that the geographic distribution of each ethnic group is mediated by the physical environment. We also observed that the habitat of each ethnic group is ecologically compatible with current subsistence strategies. Tibetans settle in cold and humid high-altitude regions owing to the cultivation of highland barley and the breeding of yak, dzo, Tibetan sheep and Tibetan goat. Mongolians survive by animal husbandry in cold and dry grassland areas. Han and Tu people settle in the Huangshui River Valley, which offers relatively humid climate and flat land for agriculture. Hui and Salar people occupy the Yellow River Valley with its relatively arid environment and grassland vegetation suitable for animal breeding. Our findings offer a new perspective in explaining the geographic patterns and the varieties of ethnic groups in China and elsewhere.
Project description:The oral microbiota can be affected by several factors; however, little is known about the relationship between diet, ethnicity and commensal oral microbiota among school children living in close geographic proximity. In addition, the relationship between the oral and gut microbiota remains unclear. We collected saliva from 60 school children from the Tibetan, Han and Hui ethnicities for a 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and comparison with previously collected fecal samples. The study revealed that <i>Bacteroidetes</i> and <i>Proteobacteria</i> were the dominant phyla in the oral microbiota. The Shannon diversity was lowest in the Tibetan group. A PCA showed a substantial overlap in the distribution of the taxa, indicating a high degree of conservation among the oral microbiota across ethnic groups while the enrichment of a few specific taxa was observed across different ethnic groups. The consumption of seafood, poultry, sweets and vegetables was significantly correlated with multiple oral microbiotas. Furthermore, 123 oral genera were significantly associated with 191 gut genera. A principal coordinate analysis revealed that the oral microbiota clustered separately from the gut microbiota. This work extends the findings of previous studies comparing microbiota from human populations and provides a basis for the exploration of the interactions governing the tri-partite relationship between diet, oral microbiota and gut microbiota.
Project description:In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391) to 0.9617 (DYS385). Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338) to 0.8177 (TPOX), with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51) to 0.2988 (TH01). A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is common in China, which has a multi-ethnic population of 1·3 billion. We set out to determine the prevalence of MetS and its components in different ethnic groups. METHODS:This nationwide cross-sectional survey involved 24,796 participants from eight ethnicities in six provinces in China from 2008 to 2011. MetS was defined using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results were analysed using SPSS version 22·0 in 2018. Logistic regression was used for deriving odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of risk factors for the MetS. RESULTS:The prevalence of MetS increased with age from 3·60% to 21·68%. After age standardization, the prevalence of MetS, in descending order, was 35·42% (Korean), 22·82% (Hui), 19·80% (Han), 13·72% (Miao), 12·90% (Tujia), 12·04% (Li), 11·61% (Mongolian), 6·17% (Tibetan). Korean ethnicity was associated with a higher prevalence in five components of MetS, while Tibetan ethnicity was associated with lower prevalence except decreased HDL cholesterol. Logistic regression analyses showed that age, drinking and being non-Tibetan were associated with a higher risk of MetS. CONCLUSIONS:Within one country, albeit a large one, the prevalence of MetS can vary greatly. Chinese of Korean ethnicity had a much higher prevalence than Tibetan ethnicity. Measures to tackle MetS should be tailored to the ethnic groups within a population.
Project description:The goal of this research was to investigate the linkage disequilibrium between rs9263726 and HLA-B*58:01 in different Chinese ethnic groups (Han, Tibet, and Hui) and to study the feasibility of rs9263726 replacing HLA-B*58:01 as an efficient indicator of potential allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome. In this study, rs9263726 and HLA-B*58:01 were detected in all samples. For samples of individuals whose rs9263726 genotypes were not consistent with HLA-B*58:01, we did high-resolution typing of HLA-B gene to further confirm the correlation of rs9263726 genotype and special HLA-B alleles. We confirmed that the linkage disequilibrium between rs9263726 and HLA-B*58:01 was more significant in the Han ethnic group (r2=0.886, D'=1.0) than in the Tibet and Hui ethnic groups (for Tibetan, r2=0.606, D'=0.866; for Hui, r2=0.622, D'=0.924). For Han Chinese, samples with the GG genotype of rs9263726 did not carry HLA-B*58:01, while AA genotype samples were homozygous carriers of HLA-B*58:01. However, GA genotype samples of rs9263726 required a more sophisticated HLA-B genotyping assay before it was possible to identify whether they were HLA-B*58:01 carriers or not. For Tibetan and Hui, the linkage disequilibrium between rs9263726 and HLA-B*58:01 was not significant. Therefore, rs9263726 cannot replace HLA-B*58:01 in these two groups.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Relatively few studies have compared posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following a disaster among children of different ethnicities. We sought to investigate the differences in PTSD symptoms between the ethnic Hui and Han child survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China.<h4>Methods</h4>This study collected data from 1,951 Han and 247 Hui child survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. The children ranged from 7 to 15 years of age. Earthquake-related exposures were measured using a modified version of the PsySTART Rapid Triage System. PTSD symptoms were evaluated using the University of California, Los Angeles PTSD-Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD-RI). Personality characteristics were assessed using the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (JEPQ). Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association between the ethnicity and the severity of PTSD symptoms. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the association between the ethnicity and the percentage of screening positive for PTSD symptoms.<h4>Results</h4>The average UCLA PTSD-RI total score of the ethnic Hui group (27.01 ± 9.24) was significantly higher than that of the ethnic Han group (25.12 ± 9.17) (t = -3.05, <i>p</i> = 0.002), as were the avoidance/numbness (Hui: 10.02 ± 4.82; Han: 9.04 ± 4.60, t = -3.12, <i>p</i> = 0.002) and arousal scores (Hui: 9.36 ± 3.64; Han: 8.79 ± 3.42, t = -2.44, <i>p</i> = 0.015). The percentage of screening positive for D criteria (arousal symptoms) also differed significantly between the ethnic Han (41.9%, 95% CI [39.7-44.1%]) and Hui (48.6%, 95% CI [42.3-54.9%]) groups (χ<sup>2</sup> = 3.97, <i>p</i> = 0.046). Ethnicity was associated with the avoidance/numbness symptom score following adjustments for sex, age, personality traits and earthquake exposure experiences by multiple linear regression (B: 0.61, 95% CI [0.04-1.17], <i>p</i> = 0.035). The initial significant associations between the ethnicity and the arousal symptoms score and the PTSD total score disappeared while adjusting for the subjective earthquake exposure experiences (Model 5: arousal symptoms, B = 0.41, 95% CI [-0.01 to 0.83], <i>p</i> = 0.056; PTSD, B = 1.00, 95% CI [-0.07 to 2.07], <i>p</i> = 0.066). The initial significant association between the ethnicity and the percentage of screening positive for D criteria disappeared while adjusting for the objective earthquake exposure experiences (Model 4: OR = 1.32, 95% CI [1.00-1.75], <i>p</i> = 0.052).<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study is the first to report the relationship between the ethnicity and PTSD symptoms among child survivors following a disaster. The findings of this study suggest that the trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy could also be an effective treatment for Chinese ethnic Hui and Han children who are suffering from PTSD. Future research could be designed to examine whether cultural differences in perceptions and interpretations may account for the variations in subjective experiences. More attention should be paid to the ethnic minority children with PTSD in the future.
Project description:The present study aims to examine the association between religious involvement and mental disorder (anxiety disorder, mood disorder, alcohol use disorder) in a general Chinese population, and explore connections between religious belief and mental disorders in the Hui and Han ethnic groups.Data were examined from a representative sample of 2,770 community-dwelling adults in the province of Ningxia located in western China. Self-reported religious attendance and the importance of religious in daily life were measured. The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose mental disorders.In the overall sample, the importance of religious affiliation was positively associated with mental disorders (especially anxiety) (p<0.01). No association was found between any religious characteristic and mood disorders or alcohol use disorders. With regard to analyses within different ethnic groups, religious affiliation was positively associated with mental disorder in Han ethnicity (p<0.01), but not in Hui ethnicity. When stratified by age and ethnic group, religious affiliation was associated positively with mental disorder in younger Han (p<0.01); whereas high religiosity was associated positively with mental disorder in older Hui (p<0.05). Among older Hui, however, religious affiliation was inversely associated with mood disorder (p<0.05).In contrast to most previous studies in Western populations, religious involvement is less likely to be inversely related to mental disorder in Mainland China, although this association varies by age and ethnic group.
Project description:The Chinese Hui population, as the second largest minority ethnic group in China, may have a different genetic background from Han people because of its unique demographic history. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic differences between Han and Hui Chinese from the Ningxia region of China by comparing eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms in cancer-related genes.DNA samples were collected from 99 Hui and 145 Han people from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China, and SNPs were detected using an improved multiplex ligase detection reaction method. Genotyping data from six 1000 Genomes Project population samples (99 Utah residents with northern and western European ancestry (CEU), 107 Toscani in Italy (TSI), 108 Yoruba in Ibadan (YRI), 61 of African ancestry in the southwestern US (ASW), 103 Han Chinese in Beijing (CHB), and 104 Japanese in Tokyo (JPT)) were also included in this study. Differences in the distribution of alleles among the populations were assessed using ?2 tests, and FST was used to measure the degree of population differentiation.We found that the genetic diversity of many SNPs in cancer-related genes in the Hui Chinese in Ningxia was different from that in the Han Chinese in Ningxia. For example, the allele frequencies of four SNPs (rs13361707, rs2274223, rs465498, and rs753955) showed different genetic distributions (p<0.05) between Chinese Ningxia Han and Chinese Ningxia Hui. Five SNPs (rs730506, rs13361707, rs2274223, rs465498 and rs753955) had different FST values (FST>0.000) between the Hui and Han populations.These results suggest that some SNPs associated with cancer-related genes vary among different Chinese ethnic groups. We suggest that population differences should be carefully considered in evaluating cancer risk and prognosis as well as the efficacy of cancer therapy.