Major glucuronide metabolites of testosterone are primarily transported by MRP2 and MRP3 in human liver, intestine and kidney.
ABSTRACT: Testosterone glucuronide (TG), androsterone glucuronide (AG), etiocholanolone glucuronide (EtioG) and dihydrotestosterone glucuronide (DHTG) are the major metabolites of testosterone (T), which are excreted in urine and bile. Glucuronides can be deconjugated to active androgen in gut lumen after biliary excretion, which in turn can affect physiological levels of androgens. The goal of this study was to quantitatively characterize the mechanisms by which TG, AG, EtioG and DHTG are eliminated from liver, intestine, and kidney utilizing relative expression factor (REF) approach. Using vesicular transport assay with recombinant human MRP2, MRP3, MRP4, MDR1 and BCRP, we first identified that TG, AG, EtioG, and DHTG were primarily substrates of MRP2 and MRP3, although lower levels of transport were also observed with MDR1 and BCRP vesicles. The transport kinetic analyses revealed higher intrinsic clearances of TG by MRP2 and MRP3 as compared to that of DHTG, AG, and EtioG. MRP3 exhibited higher affinity for the transport of the studied glucuronides than MRP2. We next quantified the protein abundances of these efflux transporters in vesicles and compared the same with pooled total membrane fractions isolated from human tissues by quantitative LC-MS/MS proteomics. The fractional contribution of individual transporters (ft) was estimated by proteomics-based physiological scaling factors, i.e., transporter abundance in whole tissue versus vesicles, and corrected for inside-out vesicles (determined by 5'-nucleotidase assay). The glucuronides of inactive androgens, AG and EtioG were preferentially transported by MRP3, whereas the glucuronides of active androgens, TG and DHTG were mainly transported by MRP2 in liver. Efflux by bile canalicular transport may indicate the potential role of enterohepatic recirculation in regulating the circulating active androgens after deconjugation in the gut. In intestine, MRP3 possibly contributes most to the efflux of these glucuronides. In kidney, all studied glucuronides seemed to be preferentially effluxed by MRP2 and MDR1 (for EtioG). These REF based analysis need to be confirmed with in vivo findings. Overall, characterization of the efflux mechanisms of T glucuronide metabolites is important for predicting the androgen disposition and interindividual variability, including drug-androgen interaction in humans. The mechanistic data can be extrapolated to other androgen relevant organs (e.g. prostate, testis and placenta) by integrating these data with quantitative tissue proteomics data.
Project description:Diclofenac (DCF) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly prescribed to reduce pain in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. One of the main DCF metabolites is a reactive diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DCF-AG) that covalently binds to biologic targets and may contribute to adverse drug reactions arising from DCF use. Cellular efflux of DCF-AG is partially mediated by multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp). The importance of Mrp2 during DCF-induced toxicity has been established, yet the role of Mrp3 remains largely unexplored. In the present work, Mrp3-null (KO) mice were used to study the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of DCF and its metabolites. DCF-AG plasma concentrations were 90% lower in KO mice than in wild-type (WT) mice, indicating that Mrp3 mediates DCF-AG basolateral efflux. In contrast, there were no differences in DCF-AG biliary excretion between WT and KO, suggesting that only DCF-AG basolateral efflux is compromised by Mrp3 deletion. Susceptibility to toxicity was also evaluated after a single high DCF dose. No signs of injury were detected in livers and kidneys; however, ulcers were found in the small intestines. Furthermore, the observed intestinal injuries were consistently more severe in KO compared with WT. DCF covalent adducts were observed in liver and small intestines; however, staining intensity did not correlate with the severity of injuries, implying that tissues respond differently to covalent modification. Overall, the data provide strong evidence that (1) in vivo Mrp3 plays an important role in DCF-AG disposition and (2) compromised Mrp3 function can enhance injury in the gastrointestinal tract after DCF treatment.
Project description:The purpose of this study is to characterize how overexpression of an efflux transporter and an UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) affects the cellular kinetics of glucuronidation processes.A new MDCK II cell line overexpressing both MRP2 and UGT1A1 (MDCKII-UGT1A1/MRP2 cells) was developed and used to determine how overexpression of an efflux transporter affects the kinetics of cellular flavonoid glucuronide production. The results showed that most model flavonoids (from a total of 13) were mainly metabolized into glucuronides in the MDCKII-UGT1A1/MRP2 cells and the glucuronides were rapidly excreted. Flavonoids with three or fewer hydroxyl group at 7, 3' or 6 hydroxyl group were also metabolized into sulfates. Mechanistic studies using 7-hydroxylflavone showed that its glucuronide was mainly (90%) effluxed by BCRP with a small (10%) but significant contribution from MRP2. Maximal velocity of glucuronide production MDCK-MRP2/UGT1A1 cells showed a fairly good correlation (R(2) >0.8) with those derived using UGT1A1 microsomes, but other kinetic parameters (e.g., Km ) did not correlate.Overexpression of a second efficient efflux transporter did not significantly change the fact that BCRP is the dominant transporter for flavonoid glucuronide nor did it diminish the influence of the efflux transporter as the "gate keeper" of glucuronidation process.
Project description:Glucuronidation is a major detoxification pathway for endogenous and exogenous compounds in mammals that results in the intracellular formation of polar metabolites, requiring specialized transporters to cross biological membranes. By using morphine as a model aglycone, we demonstrate that multidrug resistance protein 3 (MRP3/ABCC3), a protein present in the basolateral membrane of polarized cells, transports morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide in vitro. Mrp3(-/-) mice are unable to excrete M3G from the liver into the bloodstream, the major hepatic elimination route for this drug. This results in increased levels of M3G in liver and bile, a 50-fold reduction in the plasma levels of M3G, and in a major shift in the main disposition route for morphine and M3G, predominantly via the urine in WT mice but via the feces in Mrp3(-/-) mice. The pharamacokinetics of injected morphine-glucuronides are altered as well in the absence of Mrp3, and this results in a decreased antinociceptive potency of injected morphine-6-glucuronide.
Project description:The interplay between phase II enzymes and efflux transporters leads to extensive metabolism and low bioavailability for flavonoids. To investigate the simplest interplay between one UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoform and one efflux transporter in flavonoid disposition, engineered HeLa cells stably overexpressing UGT1A9 were developed, characterized, and further applied to investigate the metabolism of two model flavonoids (genistein and apigenin) and excretion of their glucuronides. The results indicated that the engineered HeLa cells overexpressing UGT1A9 rapidly excreted the glucuronides of genistein and apigenin. The kinetic characteristics of genistein or apigenin glucuronidation were similar with the use of UGT1A9 overexpressed in HeLa cells or the commercially available UGT1A9. Small interfering (siRNA)-mediated UGT1A9 silencing resulted in a substantial decrease in glucuronide excretion (>75%, p < 0.01). Furthermore, a potent inhibitor of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), 3-(6-isobutyl-9-methoxy-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12a-octahydropyrazino[1',2':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)-propionic acid tert-butyl ester (Ko143), caused, in a dose-dependent manner, a substantial and marked reduction of the clearance (74-94%, p < 0.01), and a substantial increase in the intracellular glucuronide levels (4-8-fold, p < 0.01), resulting in a moderate decrease in glucuronide excretion (19-59%, p < 0.01). In addition, a significant, albeit moderate, reduction in the fraction of genistein metabolized (f(met)) in the presence of Ko143 was observed. In contrast, leukotriene C? and siRNA against multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2 and MRP3 did not affect excretion of flavonoid glucuronides. In conclusion, the engineered HeLa cells overexpressing UGT1A9 is an appropriate model to study the kinetic interplay between UGT1A9 and BCRP in the phase II disposition of flavonoids. This simple cell model should also be very useful to rapidly identify whether a phase II metabolite is the substrate of BCRP.
Project description:UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) is a highly variable androgen-metabolizing and drug-metabolizing enzyme. UGT2B17 exhibits a unique ontogeny profile characterized by a dramatic increase in hepatic protein expression from prepubertal age to adulthood. Age, sex, copy number variation (CNV), and single nucleotide polymorphisms only explain 26% of variability in protein expression, highlighting the need for a phenotypic biomarker for predicting interindividual variability in glucuronidation of UGT2B17 substrates. Here, we propose testosterone glucuronide (TG) normalized by androsterone glucuronide (TG/AG) as a urinary UGT2B17 biomarker, and examine the associations among urinary TG/AG and age, sex, and CNV. We performed targeted metabolomics of 12 androgen conjugates with liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in 63 pediatric subjects ages 7-18 years followed over 7 visits in 3 years. Consistent with the reported developmental trajectory of UGT2B17 protein expression, urinary TG/AG is significantly associated with age, sex, and CNV. In conclusion, TG/AG shows promise as a phenotypic urinary UGT2B17 biomarker.
Project description:Previous studies demonstrated that perinatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a major class of brominated flame retardants, may affect thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations by inducing hepatic uridinediphosphate-glucoronosyltransferases (UGTs). This study further examines effects of the commercial penta mixture, DE-71, on genes related to TH metabolism at different developmental time points in male rats. DE-71 is predominately composed of PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 with low levels of brominated dioxin and dibenzofuran contaminants. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were orally administered 1.7 (low), 10.2 (mid), or 30.6 (high) mg/kg/day of DE-71 in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21. Serum and liver were collected from male pups at PND 4, 21, and 60. Total serum thyroxine (T(4)) decreased to 57% (mid) and 51% (high) on PND 4, and 46% (mid) dose and 25% (high) on PND 21. Cyp1a1, Cyp2b1/2, and Cyp3a1 enzyme and mRNA expression, regulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and pregnane xenobiotic receptor, respectively, increased in a dose-dependent manner. UGT-T(4) enzymatic activity significantly increased, whereas age and dose-dependent effects were observed for Ugt1a6, 1a7, and 2b mRNA. Sult1b1 mRNA expression increased, whereas that of transthyretin (Ttr) decreased as did both the deiodinase I (D1) enzyme activity and mRNA expression. Hepatic efflux transporters Mdr1 (multidrug resistance), Mrp2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein), and Mrp3 and influx transporter Oatp1a4 mRNA expression increased. In this study the most sensitive responses to PBDEs following DE-71 exposure were CYP2B and D1 activities and Cyb2b1/2, d1, Mdr1, Mrp2, and Mrp3 gene expression. All responses were reversible by PND 60. In conclusion, deiodination, active transport, and sulfation, in addition to glucuronidation, may be involved in disruption of TH homeostasis due to perinatal exposure to DE-71 in male rat offspring.
Project description:Bilirubin is secreted from the liver into bile mainly as monoglucuronosyl and bisglucuronosyl conjugates. We demonstrate for the first time that ATP-dependent transport of both bilirubin glucuronides is mediated by the multidrug resistance protein (MRP1) as well as by the distinct canalicular (apical) isoform MRP2, also termed cMRP or cMOAT (canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter). In membrane vesicles from MRP1-transfected HeLa cells mono[3H]glucuronosylbilirubin and bis[3H]glucuronosylbilirubin (each at 0.5 microM) were transported with rates of 5.3 and 3.1 pmol/min per mg of protein respectively. Rat hepatocyte canalicular membrane vesicles, which contain Mrp2 (the rat equivalent of MRP2), transported mono[3H]glucuronosylbilirubin and bis[3H]glucuronosylbilirubin at rates of 8.9 and 8.5 pmol/min per mg of protein, whereas membrane vesicles from mutant liver lacking Mrp2 showed no transport of the conjugates. In membrane vesicles from human hepatoma Hep G2 cells, which predominantly expressed MRP2, transport rates were 8.3 and 4.4 pmol/min per mg of protein for monoglucuronosylbilirubin and bisglucuronosylbilirubin respectively. ATP-dependent transport of the glutathione S-conjugate -3H-leukotriene C4, an established high-affinity substrate for MRP1 and MRP2, was inhibited by both bilirubin glucuronides with IC50 values between 0.10 and 0.75 microM. The ratios of leukotriene C4 transport and bilirubin glucuronide transport, determined in the same membrane vesicle preparation, indicated substrate specificity differences between MRP1 and MRP2 with a preference of MRP2 for the glucuronides.
Project description:P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux assays are widely used to identify Pgp substrates. The kidney cell lines Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-II and LLC-PK1, transfected with human MDR1 (ABCB1) are used to provide recombinant models of drug transport. Endogenous transporters in these cells may contribute to the activities of recombinant transporters, so that drug transport in MDR1-transfected cells is often corrected for the transport obtained in parental (wildtype) cells. However, expression of endogenous transporters may vary between transfected and wildtype cells, so that this correction may cause erroneous data. Here, we have measured the expression of endogenous efflux transporters in transfected and wildtype MDCK-II or LLC cells and the consequences for Pgp-mediated drug transport.Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we determined the expression of endogenous Mdr1 mRNA and other efflux transporters in wildtype and MDR1-transfected MDCK-II and LLC cells. Transcellular transport was measured with the test substrate vinblastine.In MDR1-transfected MDCK cells, expression of endogenous (canine) Mdr1 and Mrp2 (Abcc2) mRNA was markedly lower than in wildtype cells, whereas MDR1-transfected LLC cells exhibited comparable Mdr1 but strikingly higher Mrp2 mRNA levels than wildtype cells. As a consequence, transport of vinblastine by human Pgp in efflux experiments was markedly underestimated when transport in MDR1-transfected MDCK cells was corrected for transport obtained in wildtype cells. This problem did not occur in LLC cells.Differences in the expression of endogenous efflux transporters between transfected and wildtype MDCK cells provide a potential bias for in vitro studies on Pgp-mediated drug transport.
Project description:The mechanism of resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to sorafenib is unknown and no useful predictive biomarker for sorafenib treatment has been reported. Accordingly, we established sorafenib-resistant HCC cells and investigated the underlying mechanism of resistance to sorafenib. Sorafenib-resistant cell lines were established from the HCC cell line PLC/PRF5 by cultivation under continuous exposure to increasing concentration of sorafenib. The IC50 values of the 2 resistant clones PLC/PRF5-R1 and PLC-PRF5-R2 were 9.2±0.47 ?M (1.8-fold) and 25±5.1 ?M (4.6-fold) respectively, which were significantly higher than that of parental PLC/PRF5 cells (5.4±0.17 ?M) (p < 0.01 respectively), as determined by MTT assay. Western blot analysis of signal transduction-related proteins showed no significant differences in expression of AKT/pAKT, mTOR/pmTOR, or ERK/pERK between the 2 resistant clones versus parent cells, suggesting no activation of an alternative signal transduction pathway. Likewise, when expression of membrane transporter proteins was determined, there were no significant differences in expression levels of BSEP, MDR1, MRP2, BCRP, MRP4 and OCT1 between resistant clones and parent cells. However, the expression levels of MRP3 in the 2 resistant clones were significantly higher than that of parent cells. When MRP3 gene was knocked down by siRNA in PLC-PRF5-R2 cells, the sensitivity of the cells to sorafenib was restored. In the analysis of gene mutation, there was no mutation in the activation segment of Raf1 kinase in the resistant clones. Our data clearly demonstrate that the efflux transporter MRP3 plays an important role in resistance to sorafenib in HCC cells.
Project description:We have previously reported that mice lacking the efflux transporter Mrp3 had significant intestinal injury after toxic diclofenac (DCF) challenge, and proposed that diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DCF-AG), as a substrate of Mrp3, played a part in mediating injury. Since both humans and mice express the uptake transporter OATP2B1 in the intestines, OATP2B1 was characterized for DCF-AG uptake. In vitro assays using human embryonic kidney (HEK)-OATP2B1 cells demonstrated that DCF-AG was a substrate with a maximal velocity (Vmax) and Km of 17.6 ± 1.5 pmol/min per milligram and 14.3 ± 0.1 ?M, respectively. Another key finding from our in vitro assays was that DCF-AG was more cytotoxic compared with DCF, and toxicity occurred within 1-3 hours of exposure. We also report that 1 mM DCF-AG caused a 6-fold increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 3 hours. Investigation of oxidative stress through inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) revealed that DCF-AG had 100% inhibition of SOD at the highest tested dose of 1 mM. The SOD and ROS results strongly suggest DCF-AG induced oxidative stress in vitro. Lastly, DCF-AG was screened for pharmacologic activity against COX-1 and COX-2 and was found to have IC50 values of 0.620 ± 0.105 and 2.91 ± 0.36 ?M, respectively, which represents a novel finding. Since cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition can lead to intestinal ulceration, it is plausible that DCF-AG can also contribute to enteropathy via COX inhibition. Taken in context, the work presented herein demonstrated the multifactorial pathways by which DCF-AG can act as a direct contributor to toxicity following DCF administration.