Double burden of malnutrition in children aged 24 to 59 months by socioeconomic status in five South Asian countries: evidence from demographic and health surveys.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:We aimed to investigate the socioeconomic inequalities in the burden of underweight and overweight among children in South Asia. We also examined other factors that were associated with these outcomes independently of household's socioeconomic status. DESIGN:Nationally-representative surveys. SETTINGS:Demographic and Health Surveys from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Maldives and Nepal, which were conducted between 2009 and 2016. PARTICIPANTS:Children aged 24 to 59 months with valid measurement for height and weight (n=146?996). PRIMARY EXPOSURE AND OUTCOME MEASURES:Primary exposures were household's wealth index and level of education. Underweight and overweight were defined according to the WHO and International Obesity Task Force definitions, respectively. RESULTS:Underweight prevalence was 37% in Bangladesh, 38% in India, 19% in Maldives, 29% in Nepal and 28% in Pakistan. Bangladesh, India and Nepal had similar overweight prevalence (between 2% and 4%) whereas Pakistan (7%) and Maldives (9%) had higher prevalence. Households with higher wealth index or education had lower odds of having underweight children. Adjusted ORs of underweight for richest versus poorest households were 0.4 (95% CI: 0.3 to 0.5), 0.5 (95% CI: 0.5 to 0.6), 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2 to 1.4), 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3 to 0.8) and 0.7 (95% CI: 0.5 to 1.1) for Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal and Pakistan, respectively. Compared with poorest households, richest households were more likely to have overweight children in all countries except Pakistan, but such associations were not significant after adjustment for other factors. There were higher odds of having overweight children in households with higher education in Bangladesh (OR 2.1 (95% CI: 1.3 to 3.5)), India (OR 1.2 (95% CI: 1.2 to 1.3)) and Pakistan (OR 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.9)) when compared with households with no education. Maternal nutritional status was consistently associated with children's nutritional outcomes after adjustments for socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS:Our study provides evidence for socioeconomic inequalities for childhood underweight and overweight in South Asian countries, although the directions of associations for underweight and overweight might be different.
Project description:Achieving universal health coverage is one of the key targets in the newly adopted Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations.To investigate progress toward universal health coverage in 5 South Asian countries and assess inequalities in health services and financial risk protection indicators.In a population-based study, nationally representative household (335?373 households) survey data from Afghanistan (2014 and 2015), Bangladesh (2010 and 2014), India (2012 and 2014), Nepal (2014 and 2015), and Pakistan (2014) were used to calculate relative indices of health coverage, financial risk protection, and inequality in coverage among wealth quintiles. The study was conducted from June 2012 to February 2016.Three dimensions of universal health coverage were assessed: access to basic services, financial risk protection, and equity. Composite and indicator-specific coverage rates, stratified by wealth quintiles, were then estimated. Slope and relative index of inequality were used to assess inequalities in service and financial indicators.Access to basic care varied substantially across all South Asian countries, with mean rates of overall prevention coverage and treatment coverage of 53.0% (95% CI, 42.2%-63.6%) and 51.2% (95% CI, 45.2%-57.1%) in Afghanistan, 76.5% (95% CI, 61.0%-89.0%) and 44.8% (95% CI, 37.1%-52.5%) in Bangladesh, 74.2% (95% CI, 57.0%-88.1%) and 83.5% (95% CI, 54.4%-99.1%) in India, 76.8% (95% CI, 66.5%-85.7%) and 57.8% (95% CI, 50.1%-65.4%) in Nepal, and 69.8% (95% CI, 58.3%-80.2%) and 50.4% (95% CI, 37.1%-63.6%) in Pakistan. Financial risk protection was generally low, with 15.3% (95% CI, 14.7%-16.0%) of respondents in Afghanistan, 15.8% (95% CI, 14.9%-16.8%) in Bangladesh, 17.9% (95% CI, 17.7%-18.2%) in India, 11.8% (95% CI, 11.8%-11.9%) in Nepal, and 4.4% (95% CI, 4.0%-4.9%) in Pakistan reporting incurred catastrophic payments due to health care costs. Access to at least 4 antenatal care visits, institutional delivery, and presence of skilled attendant during delivery were at least 3 times higher among the wealthiest mothers in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan compared with the rates among poor mothers. Access to institutional delivery was 60 to 65 percentage points higher among wealthy than poor mothers in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan compared with 21 percentage points higher in India. Coverage was least equitable among the countries for adequate sanitation, institutional delivery, and the presence of skilled birth attendants.Health coverage and financial risk protection was low, and inequality in access to health care remains a serious issue for these South Asian countries. Greater progress is needed to improve treatment and preventive services and financial security.
Project description:Objectives:Considering the dearth of literature on West syndrome (WS) from South Asian countries, this study aimed to evaluate the management practices in South Asia by an online survey and meta-analysis. Methods:An online questionnaire was sent to 223 pediatric neurologists/pediatricians in India, Pakistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal, and Bangladesh. Their responses were evaluated and supplemented by a meta-analysis. Results:Of 125 responses received (response rate: 56%), around 60% of responders observed male preponderance and an approximate lead-time-to-treatment (LTTT) of 4-12 weeks. The commonest etiology observed was a static structural insult (88.6% of responders). Most commonly used first-line drug (country-wise) was as follows: India-adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH, 50%); Pakistan-oral steroids (45.5%); Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Nepal-oral steroids (94.4%); Bangladesh-ACTH (2/2); Bhutan-vigabatrin (3/5). ACTH and vigabatrin are not available in Myanmar and Nepal. The most commonly used regime for ACTH was maximal-dose-at-initiation-regime in India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh and gradually escalating-regime in Pakistan. Maximum dose of prednisolone was variable-most common response from India: 3-4 mg/kg/d; Pakistan, Bhutan, and Bangladesh: 2 mg/kg/d; Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Myanmar: 5-8 mg/kg/d or 60 mg/d. The total duration of hormonal therapy (including tapering) ranged from 4 to 12 weeks (67/91). Most responders considered cessation of spasms for four weeks as complete response (54/111) and advised electroencephalography (EEG; 104/123) to check for hypsarrhythmia resolution. Difficult access to pediatric EEG in Bhutan and Nepal is concerning. More than 95% of responders felt a need for more awareness. The meta-analysis supported the preponderance of male gender (68%; confidence interval [CI]: 64%-73%), structural etiology(80%; CI 73%-86%), longer LTTT (2.4 months; CI 2.1-2.6 months), and low response rate to hormonal therapy(18% and 28% for ACTH and oral steroids respectively) in WS in South Asia. Significance:This study highlights the practices and challenges in the management of WS in South Asia. These include a preponderance of male gender and structural etiology, a longer LTTT, difficult access to pediatric EEG, nonavailability of ACTH and vigabatrin in some countries, and low effectiveness of hormonal therapy in this region.
Project description:Background:Although there has been a well-established association between overweight-obesity and hypertension, whether such associations are heterogeneous for South Asian populations, or for different socioeconomic groups is not well-known. We explored the associations of overweight and obesity using South Asian cut-offs with hypertension, and also examined the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and hypertension in various socioeconomic subgroups. Methods:We analysed the recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Bangladesh, India, and Nepal, with a total of 821,040 men and women. Hypertension was defined by 2017 ACC/AHA cut-offs and by Joint National Committee 7 (JNC7) cut-offs for measured blood pressure and overweight and obesity were defined by measured height and weight. We used multiple logistic regressions to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of hypertension for overweight and obesity as well as for each 5-unit increase in BMI. Results:The prevalence of hypertension using JNC7 cut-offs among participants increased by age in all three countries. The prevalence ranged from 17.4% in 35-44?years to 34.9% in ?55?years in Bangladesh, from 4.6% in 18-24?years to 28.6% in 45-54?years in India, and from 3.8% in 18-24?years to 39.2% in ?55?years in Nepal. Men were more likely to be hypertensive than women in India and Nepal, but not in Bangladesh. Overweight and obesity using both WHO and South Asian cut-offs were associated with higher odds of hypertension in all countries. For each 5?kg/m2 increase in BMI, the ORs for hypertension were 1.79 (95% CI: 1.65-1.93), 1.59 (95% CI: 1.58-1.61), and 2.03 (95% CI: 1.90-2.16) in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal, respectively. The associations between BMI and hypertension were consistent across various subgroups defined by sex, age, urbanicity, educational attainment and household's wealth index. Conclusions:Our study shows that the association of BMI with hypertension is stronger for South Asian populations at even lower cut-offs points for overweight and obesity. Therefore, public health measures to reduce population-level reduction in BMI in all population groups would also help in lowering the burden of hypertension.
Project description:Nepal's dual burden of undernutrition and over nutrition warrants further exploration of the population level differences in nutritional status. The study aimed to explore, for the first time in Nepal, potential geographic and socioeconomic variation in underweight and overweight and/or obesity prevalence in the country, adjusted for cluster and sample weight. Data came from 14,937 participants, including 6,172 men and 8,765 women, 15 years or older who participated in the 2016 Nepal Demography and Health Survey (NDHS). Single-level and multilevel multi-nominal logistic regression models and Lorenz curves were used to explore the inequalities in weight status. Urban residents had higher odds of being overweight and/or obese (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.62-2.20) and lower odds of being underweight (OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.93) than rural residents. Participants from Provinces 2, and 7 were less likely to be overweight/obese and more likely to be underweight (referent: province-1). Participants from higher wealth quintile households were associated with higher odds of being overweight and/or obese (P-trend?<?0.001) and lower odds of being underweight (P-trend?<?0.001). Urban females at the highest wealth quintile were more vulnerable to overweight and/or obesity as 49% of them were overweight and/or obese and nearly 39% at the lowest wealth quintile were underweight.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a major public health problem around the world. But the prevalence has not been reported in South Asian region as a whole. This study aimed to systematically review the existing data from population based studies in this region to bridge this gap.<h4>Methods</h4>Articles published and reported prevalence of CKD according to K/DOQI practice guideline in eight South Asian countries between December 1955 and April 2017 were searched, screened and evaluated from seven electronic databases using the PRISMA checklist. CKD was defined as creatinine clearance (CrCl) or GFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>.<h4>Results</h4>Sixteen population-based studies were found from four South Asian countries (India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal) that used eGFR to measure CKD. No study was available from Sri Lanka, Maldives, Bhutan and Afghanistan. Number of participants ranged from 301 in Pakistan to 12,271 in India. Majority of the studies focused solely on urban population. Different studies used different equations for measuring eGFR. The prevalence of CKD ranged from 10.6% in Nepal to 23.3% in Pakistan using MDRD equation. This prevalence was higher among older age group people. Equal number of studies reported high prevalence among male and female each.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This systematic review reported high prevalence of CKD in South Asian countries. The findings of this study will help pertinent stakeholders to prepare suitable policy and effective public health intervention in order to reduce the burden of this deadly disease in the most densely populated share of the globe.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. South Asians are known to have an increased predisposition for diabetes which has become an important health concern in the region. We discuss the prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes in South Asia and explore the differential risk factors reported. METHODS: Prevalence data were obtained by searching the Medline® database with; 'prediabetes' and 'diabetes mellitus' (MeSH major topic) and 'Epidemology/EP' (MeSH subheading). Search limits were articles in English, between 01/01/1980-31/12/2011, on human adults (?19 years). The conjunction of the above results was narrowed down with country names. RESULTS: The most recent reported prevalence of pre-diabetes:diabetes in regional countries were; Bangladesh-4.7%:8.5% (2004-2005;Rural), India-4.6%:12.5% (2007;Rural); Maldives-3.0%:3.7% (2004;National), Nepal-19.5%:9.5% (2007;Urban), Pakistan-3.0%:7.2% (2002;Rural), Sri Lanka-11.5%:10.3% (2005-2006;National). Urban populations demonstrated a higher prevalence of diabetes. An increasing trend in prevalence of diabetes was observed in urban/rural India and rural Sri Lanka. The diabetes epidemicity index decreased with the increasing prevalence of diabetes in respective countries. A high epidemicity index was seen in Sri Lanka (2005/2006-52.8%), while for other countries, the epidemicity index was comparatively low (rural India 2007-26.9%; urban India 2002/2005-31.3%, and urban Bangladesh-33.1%). Family history, urban residency, age, higher BMI, sedentary lifestyle, hypertension and waist-hip ratio were associated with an increased risks of diabetes. CONCLUSION: A significant epidemic of diabetes is present in the South Asian region with a rapid increase in prevalence over the last two decades. Hence there is a need for urgent preventive and curative strategies.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Understanding socio-economic correlates and inequality of underweight and overweight is crucial to develop interventions to prevent adverse health outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We analysed Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016 data from 6,069 women aged 15-49 years. WHO cut-offs for Body Mass Index categorised as: underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5kg/m2 to 24.9kg/m2) and overweight/ obesity (> = 25.0 kg/m2) were used. We used multinomial logistic regression to explore associations of factors with Body Mass Index and concentration indices to estimate socio-economic inequalities. RESULTS:Higher risk of underweight was found in age group 15-19 (RRR 3.08, 95% CI: 2.29-4.15), 20-29 (RRR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.29-2.08) and in lowest (RRR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03-2.47) and second wealth quintiles (RRR 1.77 (95% CI: 1.18-2.64). Education, occupation, urban/rural residence and food security were not associated with underweight (p>0.05). Lower risk of overweight/obesity was found in age group 15-19 (RRR 0.07, 95% CI: 0.05-0.10), 20-29 (RRR 0.40, 95% CI: 0.32-0.51), in manual occupation (RRR 0.58, 95% CI: 0.46-0.74) and in lower quintiles. Women with primary (RRR 1.91, 95% CI: 1.36-2.67), secondary education (RRR 1.42, 95% CI 1.00, 2.01) were at increased risk of overweight/obesity. Household food security and urban/rural residence were not associated with overweight/obesity (p>0.05). Socioeconomic inequalities were detected, with overweight/obesity strongly concentrated (concentration index: 0.380) amongst the higher quintiles and underweight concentrated (concentration index: -0.052) amongst the poorest. CONCLUSION:Nutrition programmes should target younger and poor women to address undernutrition and higher wealth group women to address overnutrition. Equity based nutrition interventions improving socio-economic status of poor households may benefit undernourished women. Interventions to encourage physical activity as women age and among wealthier women as well as healthy eating for prevention of under- and over-nutrition are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anemia remains a major public health challenge with high prevalence among women in South and Southeast Asian countries. Reductions in anemia rates have been stalled, despite the implementation of different maternal health and nutrition programs. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with anemia among women of reproductive age in seven selected South and Southeast Asian countries. METHODS:This cross-sectional analysis utilized data from the most recent demographic and health surveys from seven selected South and Southeast Asian countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, and Timor-Leste) between 2011 and 2016. This study included 726,164 women of reproductive age. Multiple logistic regression was performed to assess the factors associated with anemia among women for each country separately. RESULTS:The combined prevalence of anemia was 52.5%, ranged from 22.7% in Timor-Leste to 63% in the Maldives. Results from multiple logistic regression suggest that likelihood of anemia is significantly higher among younger women (15-24 years), women with primary or no education, women from the poorest wealth quintile, women without toilet facilities and improved water sources, underweight women, and women with more than one children born in last five years in most of the countries. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of anemia is high among women of reproductive age in the seven selected South and Southeast Asian countries. The results of this study suggest that various household, environmental and individual factors contribute to the increased likelihood of anemia. Evidence-based, multidisciplinary policies and programs targeting mothers' health and nutrition status, in addition to scaling-up women's education and socioeconomic status, are warranted to combat anemia.
Project description:Pakistan has one of the highest levels of child and maternal undernutrition worldwide, but little information about geographical and socioeconomic inequalities is available. We aimed to analyse anthropometric indicators for childhood and maternal nutrition at a district level in Pakistan and assess the association of nutritional status with food security and maternal and household socioeconomic factors.We used data from the 2011 Pakistan National Nutrition Survey, which included anthropometric measurements for 33?638 children younger than 5 years and 24?826 women of childbearing age. We estimated the prevalences of stunting, wasting, and underweight among children and of underweight, overweight, and obesity in women for all 143 districts of Pakistan using a Bayesian spatial technique. We used a mixed-effect linear model to analyse the association of nutritional status with individual and household sociodemographic factors and food security.Stunting prevalence in Pakistan's districts ranged between 22% (95% credible interval 19-26) and 76% (69-83); the lowest figures for wasting and underweight were both less than 2·5% and the highest were 42% (34-50) for wasting and 54% (49-59) for underweight. In 106 districts, more women were overweight than were underweight; in 49 of these districts more women were obese than were underweight. Children were better nourished if their mothers were taller or had higher weight, if they lived in wealthier households, and if their mothers had 10 or more years of education. Severe food insecurity was associated with worse nutritional outcomes for both children and women.We noted large social and geographical inequalities in child and maternal nutrition in Pakistan, masked by national and provincial averages. Pakistan is also beginning to face the concurrent challenge of high burden of childhood undernutrition and overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age. Planning, implementation, and evaluation of programmes for food and nutrition should be based on district-level needs and outcomes.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Grand Challenges Canada, UK Medical Research Council.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Global epidemiological transition across various countries have documented the coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition. South Asian countries are facing this public health hazard in remarkable manner. To enrich the evidence and relation with women's health in the Maldives, this study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and associated factors of underweight, overweight and obesity among reproductive age women. METHODS:This study was conducted utilizing data from the Maldives Demographic and Health Survey 2016-17. After presenting descriptive analyses, multivariable logistic regression analysis method was used to examine the prevalence and associations between different nutritional status categories. These were grouped based on the WHO recommended cut-off value and relevant socio-demographic determinants among reproductive age women. RESULTS:A total weighted sample of 6,634 reproductive age Maldivian women (15-49 years) were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 63%, while the underweight prevalence was 10%. The younger age group (15-24 years) had a higher prevalence of underweight (26%). On the other hand, an overweight and obesity prevalence of 82.6% was observed among the older age group (35-49 years). Regression analysis showed that residents of the North and Central Provinces, those in the higher quintiles of wealth index, married women and those with parity of more than two children, were all significantly negatively correlated to being underweight. Increased age, being married or separated/divorced/widowed and having more than three children was found to have a significant positive association with overweight and obesity. CONCLUSIONS:Maldives is facing nutritional transition and a major public health hazard demonstrated by the high burden of overweight and obesity and persistence of chronic problem of undernutrition. Surveillance of vulnerable individuals with identified socio-demographic factors and cost-effective interventions are highly recommended to address the persistent underweight status and the emerging problem of overweight/obesity.