A Redox-Sensitive Thiol in Wis1 Modulates the Fission Yeast Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Response to H2O2 and Is the Target of a Small Molecule.
ABSTRACT: Oxidation of a highly conserved cysteine (Cys) residue located in the kinase activation loop of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK) inactivates mammalian MKK6. This residue is conserved in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe MAPKK Wis1, which belongs to the H2O2-responsive MAPK Sty1 pathway. Here, we show that H2O2 reversibly inactivates Wis1 through this residue (C458) in vitro We found that C458 is oxidized in vivo and that serine replacement of this residue significantly enhances Wis1 activation upon addition of H2O2 The allosteric MAPKK inhibitor INR119, which binds in a pocket next to the activation loop and C458, prevented the inhibition of Wis1 by H2O2 in vitro and significantly increased Wis1 activation by low levels of H2O2 in vivo We propose that oxidation of C458 inhibits Wis1 and that INR119 cancels out this inhibitory effect by binding close to this residue. Kinase inhibition through the oxidation of a conserved Cys residue in MKK6 (C196) is thus conserved in the S. pombe MAPKK Wis1.
Project description:The Schizosaccharomyces pombe wis1(+) gene is essential for cell survival under stress conditions. The MAPKK homologue Wis1 is required for activation of the MAPK homologue Spc1, and integrity of the Wis1-Spc1 pathway is required for survival in extreme conditions of heat, osmolarity, oxidation or limited nutrition. We show here that Wis4, a protein kinase of a new MAPKKK class, phosphorylates Wis1 in vitro and activates it in vivo. Win1 is also required for full activation of Wis1, and Win1 rather than Wis4 mediates the osmotic stress signal. Surprisingly, the pathway can still be activated by heat or oxidative stress independently of the phosphorylation of two conserved Wis1 residues. Evidence is presented that the Pyp1 protein tyrosine phosphatase, which dephosphorylates Spc1, is central to this alternative activation mechanism.
Project description:Spc1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a member of the stress-activated protein kinase family, an evolutionary conserved subfamily of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Spc1 is activated by a MAPK kinase homologue, Wis1, and negatively regulated by Pyp1 and Pyp2 tyrosine phosphatases. Mutations in the spc1+ and wis1+ genes cause a G2 cell cycle delay that is exacerbated during stress. Herein, we describe two upstream regulators of the Wis1-Spc1 cascade. wik1+ (Wis1 kinase) was identified from its homology to budding yeast SSK2, which encodes a MAPKK kinase that regulates the HOG1 osmosensing pathway. Delta wik1 cells are impaired in stress-induced activation of Spc1 and show a G2 cell cycle delay and osmosensitive growth. Moreover, overproduction of a constitutively active form of Wik1 induces hyperactivation of Spc1 in wis1(+)-dependent manner, suggesting that Wik1 regulates Spc1 through activation of Wis1. A mutation of mcs4+ (mitotic catastrophe suppressor) was originally isolated as a suppressor of the mitotic catastrophe phenotype of a cdc2-3w wee1-50 double mutant. We have found that mcs4- cells are defective at activation of Spc1 in response to various forms of stress. Epistasis analysis has placed Mcs4-upstream of Wik1 in the Spc1 activation cascade. These results indicate that Mcs4 is part of a sensor system for multiple environmental signals that modulates the timing of entry into mitosis by regulating the Wik1-Wis1-Spc1 kinase cascade. Inactivation of the sensor system delays the onset of mitosis and rescues lethal premature mitosis in cdc2-3w wee1-50 cells.
Project description:Eukaryotic cells utilize multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) to transmit various extracellular stimuli to the nucleus. A subfamily of MAPKs that mediates environmental stress stimuli is also called stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), which has crucial roles in cellular survival under stress conditions as well as inflammatory responses. Here we report that Cdc37, an evolutionarily conserved kinase-specific chaperone, is a positive regulator of Spc1 SAPK in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Through a genetic screen, we have identified cdc37 as a mutation that compromises signaling through Spc1 SAPK. The Cdc37 protein physically interacts with Spc1, and the cdc37 mutation affects both the cellular level of the Spc1 protein and stress-induced Spc1 phosphorylation by Wis1 MAPK kinase (MAPKK). Consistently, expression of the stress response genes regulated by the Spc1 pathway is compromised in cdc37 mutant cells. On the other hand, a mutation in Hsp90, which often cooperates with Cdc37 in chaperoning protein kinases, does not affect Spc1 SAPK. These results suggest that Spc1 SAPK is a novel client protein for the Cdc37 chaperone, and the Cdc37 function is important to maintain the stability of the Spc1 protein and to facilitate stress signaling from Wis1 MAPKK to Spc1 SAPK.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS), in particular H2O2, regulate intracellular signaling through reversible oxidation of reactive protein thiols present in a number of kinases and phosphatases. H2O2 has been shown to regulate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling depending on the cellular context. We report here that in human articular chondrocytes, the MAPK family member c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is activated by fibronectin fragments and low physiological levels of H2O2 and inhibited by oxidation due to elevated levels of H2O2 The kinase activity of affinity-purified, phosphorylated JNK2 from cultured chondrocytes was reversibly inhibited by 5-20 ?m H2O2 Using dimedone-based chemical probes that react specifically with sulfenylated cysteines (RSOH), we identified Cys-222 in JNK2, a residue not conserved in JNK1 or JNK3, as a redox-reactive site. MS analysis of human recombinant JNK2 also detected further oxidation at Cys-222 and other cysteines to sulfinic (RSO2H) or sulfonic (RSO3H) acid. H2O2 treatment of JNK2 resulted in detectable levels of peptides containing intramolecular disulfides between Cys-222 and either Cys-213 or Cys-177, without evidence of dimer formation. Substitution of Cys-222 to alanine rendered JNK2 insensitive to H2O2 inhibition, unlike C177A and C213A variants. Two other JNK2 variants, C116A and C163A, were also resistant to oxidative inhibition. Cumulatively, these findings indicate differential regulation of JNK2 signaling dependent on H2O2 levels and point to key cysteine residues regulating JNK2 activity. As levels of intracellular H2O2 rise, a switch occurs from activation to inhibition of JNK2 activity, linking JNK2 regulation to the redox status of the cell.
Project description:Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TR) is a selenocysteine (Sec)-containing homodimeric pyridine nucleotide oxidoreductase which catalyzes the reduction of oxidized thioredoxin. We have previously demonstrated the full-length mitochondrial mammalian TR (mTR3) enzyme to be resistant to inactivation from exposure to 50 mM H2O2. Because a Sec residue oxidizes more rapidly than a cysteine (Cys) residue, it has been previously thought that Sec-containing enzymes are "sensitive to oxidation" compared to Cys-orthologues. Here we show for the first time a direct comparison of the abilities of Sec-containing mTR3 and the Cys-orthologue from D. melanogaster (DmTR) to resist inactivation by oxidation from a variety of oxidants including H2O2, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, hypobromous acid, and hypothiocyanous acid. The results show that the Sec-containing TR is far superior to the Cys-orthologue TR in resisting inactivation by oxidation. To further test our hypothesis that the use of Sec confers strong resistance to inactivation by oxidation, we constructed a chimeric enzyme in which we replaced the active site Cys nucleophile of DmTR with a Sec residue using semisynthesis. The chimeric Sec-containing enzyme has similar ability to resist inactivation by oxidation as the wild type Sec-containing TR from mouse mitochondria. The use of Sec in the chimeric enzyme "rescued" the enzyme from oxidant-induced inactivation for all of the oxidants tested in this study, in direct contrast to previous understanding. We discuss two possibilities for this rescue effect from inactivation under identical conditions of oxidative stress: (i) Sec resists overoxidation and inactivation, whereas a Cys residue can be permanently overoxidized to the sulfinic acid form, and (ii) Sec protects the body of the enzyme from harmful oxidation by allowing the enzyme to metabolize (turnover) various oxidants much better than a Cys-containing TR.
Project description:Cytokinesis is regulated to ensure the precise partitioning of cytoplasm and duplicated chromosomes to daughter cells. The NACK-PQR pathway, which includes NACK1 kinesin-like protein (KLP) and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, plays a key role in cytokinesis in tobacco cells. Although HINKEL/AtNACK1 (HIK) KLP, ANP MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) and MKK6/ ANQ MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK) have been identified independently as regulators of cytokinesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, the involvement of HIK, ANPs and MKK6/ANQ in a regulatory cascade remains to be demonstrated. Here we provide details of the protein kinase pathway that controls cytokinesis in A. thaliana. Analysis of the subcellular distribution of six MAPKKs of A. thaliana that had been fused to green fluorescent protein revealed that only MKK6/ANQ protein was concentrated at the equatorial plane of the phragmoplast, at the site of localization of HIK. Expression of MKK6/ANQ in yeast cells replaced the growth-control function of the MAPKK encoded by yeast PBS2, provided that both ANP1 MAPKKK and HIK [or TETRASPORE/AtNACK2 (TES)] KLP were coexpressed, suggesting that ANP1 activates MKK6/ANQ in the presence of HIK (or TES). Coexpression of HIK and ANP3 (another member of the ANP MAPKKK family) weakly activated MKK6/ANQ but that of TES and ANP3 did not. MKK6/ANQ phosphorylated MPK4 MAPK in vitro to activate the latter kinase. Thus cytokinesis in A. thaliana is controlled by a pathway that consists of ANP MAPKKKs that can be activated by HIK and MKK6/ANQ MAPKK, with MPK4 MAPK being a probable target of MKK6/ANQ.
Project description:The wis1+ gene encodes a newly identified mitotic control element in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. It was isolated by virtue of its interaction with the mitotic control genes cdc25, wee1 and win1. The wis1+ gene potentially encodes a 66 kDa protein with homology to the serine/threonine family of protein kinases. wis1+ plays an important role in the regulation of entry into mitosis, as it shares with cdc25+ and nim1+/cdr1+ the property of inducing mitosis in a dosage-dependent manner. Increased levels of wis1+ expression cause mitotic initiation to occur at a reduced cell size. Loss of wis1+ function does not prevent vegetative growth and division, though wis1- cells show an elongated morphology, indicating that their entry into mitosis and cell division is delayed relative to wild type cells. wis1- cells undergo a rapid reduction of viability upon entry into stationary phase, suggesting a role for wis1+ in the integration of nutritional sensing with the control over entry into mitosis.
Project description:Manganese contributes to anti-oxidative stress particularly in catalase-devoid bacteria, and DtxR family metalloregulators, through sensing cellular Mn2+ content, regulate its homeostasis. Here, we show that metalloregulator MntR (So-MntR) functions dually as Mn2+ and H2O2 sensors in mediating H2O2 resistance by an oral streptococcus. H2O2 disrupted So-MntR binding to Mn2+ transporter mntABC promoter and induced disulfide-linked dimerization of the protein. Mass spectrometry identified Cys-11/Cys-156 and Cys-11/Cys-11 disulfide-linked peptides in H2O2-treated So-MntR. Site mutagenesis of Cys-11 and Cys-156 and particularly Cys-11 abolished H2O2-induced disulfide-linked dimers and weakened H2O2 damage on So-MntR binding, indicating that H2O2 inactivates So-MntR via disulfide-linked dimerization. So-MntR C123S mutant was extremely sensitive to H2O2 oxidization in dimerization/oligomerization, probably because the mutagenesis caused a conformational change that facilitates Cys-11/Cys-156 disulfide linkage. Intermolecular Cys-11/Cys-11 disulfide was detected in C123S/C156S double mutant. Redox Western blot detected So-MntR oligomers in air-exposed cells but remarkably decreased upon H2O2 pulsing, suggesting a proteolysis of the disulfide-linked So-MntR oligomers. Remarkably, elevated C11S and C156S but much lower C123S proteins were detected in H2O2-pulsed cells, confirming Cys-11 and Cys-156 contributed to H2O2-induced oligomerization and degradation. Accordingly, in the C11S and C156S mutants, expression of mntABC and cellular Mn2+ decreased, but H2O2 susceptibility increased. In the C123S mutant, increased mntABC expression, cellular Mn2+ content, and manganese-mediated H2O2 survival were determined. Given the wide distribution of Cys-11 in streptococcal DtxR-like metalloregulators, the disclosed redox regulatory function and mechanism of So-MntR can be employed by the DtxR family proteins in bacterial resistance to oxidative stress.
Project description:The O2-binding carboxylate-bridged diiron site in DcrH-Hr was engineered in an effort to perform the H2O2-dependent oxidation of external substrates. A His residue was introduced near the diiron site in place of a conserved residue, Ile119. The I119H variant promotes the oxidation of guaiacol and 1,4-cyclohexadiene upon addition of H2O2.
Project description:Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 (MKK6) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MAP2K) subfamily that specifically phosphorylates and activates the p38 MAPKs. Based on both biochemical and cellular assays, we found that MKK6 was extremely sensitive to oxidation: It was inactivated by oxidation and its kinase activity was fully restored upon treatment with a reducing agent. Detailed mechanistic studies showed that cysteines 109 and 196, two of the six cysteines in MKK6, formed an intramolecular disulfide bond upon oxidation that inactivated MKK6 by inhibiting its ATP binding. This mechanism is distinct from that seen in other redox-sensitive kinases. The two cysteines involved in intramolecular disulfide formation are conserved in all seven members of the MAP2K family. Consistently, we confirmed that other MAP2Ks were also sensitive to oxidation. Our work reveals that MKK6 and other MAP2Ks are a distinct class of cellular redox sensors.