Resveratrol Delivery from Porous Poly(lactide- co-glycolide) Scaffolds Promotes an Anti-Inflammatory Environment within Visceral Adipose Tissue.
ABSTRACT: As biomaterial therapies emerge to address adipose tissue dysfunction that underlies metabolic disease, the immune response to these systems must be established. As a potential therapy, we are investigating resveratrol delivery from porous poly(lactide- co-glycolide) scaffolds designed to integrate with adipose tissue. Resveratrol was selected for its ability to protect mice and primates from high fat diet and broad anti-inflammatory properties. Herein, we report fabrication of scaffolds with high resveratrol loading that are stable and active for up to one year. In vitro release profiles indicate that drug release is biphasic with a burst release over 3 days followed by a plateau. Surprisingly, we find that PLG scaffolds implanted into adipose tissue of mice promote an anti-inflammatory environment characterized by high arginase-1 and low TNF-? and IL-6 compared to naïve unmanipulated fat. Resveratrol delivery from the scaffold augments this anti-inflammatory environment by decreasing monocyte and lymphocyte numbers at the implant site and increasing expression of IL-10 and IL-13, cytokines that promote healthy adipose tissue. In terms of therapeutic applications, implant of scaffolds designed to release resveratrol into the visceral fat decreases MCP-1 expression in mice fed a high fat diet, a molecule that drives both local and systemic inflammation during obesity. Taken together, resveratrol delivery to adipose tissue using poly(lactide- co-glycolide) scaffolds is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of adipose tissue inflammation that drives metabolic disease.
Project description:Resveratrol is a small molecule produced by various plants with a remarkable range of beneficial functions in animals. One of these is stimulating signaling pathways in adipose tissue that protect against obesity. Unfortunately, resveratrol suffers from poor bioavailability that inhibits its accumulation in target tissues, including fat, thus hindering the realization of its therapeutic potential. To address this, we are developing biodegradable microparticles as drug depots for controlled release of resveratrol within fat. In this study, resveratrol was encapsulated into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles using an oil-in-water emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The oil phase consisted of resveratrol and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) dissolved in a mixture of dichloromethane and ethanol; meanwhile, the aqueous phase contained poly(vinyl alcohol) as the emulsifier. Increasing ethanol's volume ratio increased resveratrol's solubility in the oil phase and particle drug loading. The maximal loading achieved was 65?µg/mg (6.5%) and occurred when the ethanol to dichloromethane ratio was 1:3. Under these conditions, particles exhibited ruffled surfaces, which resulted in variable drug release over the first three days of a six-week release assay. By decreasing resveratrol and ethanol in the oil phase and increasing poly(vinyl alcohol) in the aqueous phase, smooth particles were achieved, but they suffered a 15-25-fold decrease in drug loading depending on size. Small particles exhibited higher drug loading and burst drug release compared to larger particles because of their higher specific surface area. Utilizing mild chemistry, we functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol) with fluorescein isothiocyanate and demonstrated that encapsulation of resveratrol in the particle decreases the amount of fluorescent polymer on the particle surface, suggesting resveratrol displaces the emulsifier during particle formation. Taken together, resveratrol can be encapsulated into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles, but it accumulates at the particle surface impacting drug loading, surface roughness, and drug release.
Project description:Introduction:The development of novel immunomodulatory strategies that might decrease the need for systemic immune suppression would greatly enable the utility of cell-based therapies. Cell transplantation on biomaterial scaffolds offers a unique opportunity to engineer a site to locally polarize immunogenic antigen generation. Herein, we investigated the localized delivery of IL-33, which is a novel cytokine that has been shown to have beneficial immunomodulatory effects in certain transplant models as mediating anti-inflammatory properties in the adipose tissue, to determine its feasibility for use as an immunomodulatory agent. Results:Localized IL-33 delivery from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) scaffolds implanted into the epididymal fat specifically increased the Foxp3+ population of CD4+ T cells in both blank scaffold implants and scaffolds seeded with allogeneic islets. In allogeneic islet transplantation, we found IL-33 delivery results in a local upregulation of graft-protective T cells where 80% of the local CD4+ population is Foxp3+ and overall numbers of graft destructive CD8+ T cells are decreased, resulting in a prolonged graft survival. Interestingly, local IL-33 also delayed islet engraftment by primarily inducing a local upregulation of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-5, leading to increased populations of ST2+ Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and Siglec F+ eosinophils. Conclusions:These results suggest that local IL-33 delivery from biomaterial scaffolds can be used to increase Tregs enriched in adipose tissue and reduce graft-destructive T cell populations but may also promote innate cell populations that can delay cell engraftment.
Project description:Underlying metabolic disease is poor adipose tissue function characterized by impaired glucose tolerance and low expression of health promoting adipokines. Currently, no treatments specifically target the adipose tissue and we are investigating polymer scaffolds for localized drug delivery as a therapeutic platform. In this work we implanted porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) scaffolds into the epididymal fat of mice. Surprisingly, "empty" scaffolds decreased blood glucose levels in healthy mice as well as epididymal fat pad size. By injecting a fluorescent glucose tracer into mice, we determined that glucose uptake increases by 60% in epididymal fat pads with scaffolds; in contrast, glucose uptake was not elevated in other major metabolic organs, suggesting the enhanced glucose uptake at the scaffold implant site was responsible for decreased blood glucose levels. Histology indicated increased cellularity and tissue remodeling around the scaffold and we found increased expression of glucose transporter 1 and insulin-like growth factor 1, which are proteins involved in wound healing that can also modulate blood glucose levels through their promotion of glucose uptake. Regarding clinical translation, "empty" scaffolds decreased obesity and improved glucose tolerance in mice fed a high fat diet. These findings demonstrate increased cellular activity in the adipose tissue, such as that associated with the host response to biomaterial implant, is beneficial in mice suffering from metabolic complications of over nutrition, possibly because it mitigates the positive energy balance that leads to the obese, diabetic state. More broadly, this work reaffirms that in addition to the local host response typically investigated, biomaterial implant has systemic physiological effects and suggests that there may be implications for therapy.
Project description:Controlled molecule release from scaffolds can dramatically increase the scaffold ability of directing tissue regeneration in vitro and in vivo. Crucial to the regeneration is precise regulation over release direction and kinetics of multiple molecules (small genes, peptides, or larger proteins). To this end, we developed gradient micropatterns of electrospun nanofibers along the scaffold thickness through programming the deposition of heterogeneous nanofibers of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA). Confocal images of the scaffolds containing fluorophore-impregnated nanofibers demonstrated close matching of actual and designed gradient fiber patterns; thermal analyses further showed their matching in the composition. Using acid-terminated PLGA (PLGAac) and ester-terminated PLGA (PLGAes) to impregnate molecules in the PCL-PLGA scaffolds, we demonstrated for the first time their differences in nanofiber degeneration and molecular weight change during degradation. PLGAac nanofibers were more stable with gradual and steady increase in the fiber diameter during degradation, resulting in more spatially confined molecule delivery from PCL-PLGA scaffolds. Thus, patterns of PCL-PLGAac nanofibers were used to design versatile controlled delivery scaffolds. To test the hypothesis that molecule-impregnated PLGAac in the gradient-patterned PCL-PLGAac scaffolds can program various modalities of molecule release, model molecules, including small fluorophores and larger proteins, were respectively used for time-lapse release studies. Gradient-patterns were used as building blocks in the scaffolds to program simultaneous release of one or multiple proteins to one side or, respectively, to the opposite sides of scaffolds for up to 50 days. Results showed that the separation efficiency of molecule delivery from all the scaffolds with a thickness of 200 ?m achieved >88% for proteins and >82% for small molecules. In addition to versatile spatially controlled delivery, micropatterns were designed to program sequential release of proteins. The hierarchically structured materials presented here may enable development of novel multifunctional scaffolds with defined 3D dynamic microenvironments for tissue regeneration.
Project description:Fluorescent biomaterials have attracted significant research efforts in the past decades. Herein, we report a new series of biodegradable, fluorescence imaging-enabled copolymers, biodegradable photoluminescent poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (BPLP-co-PLGA). Photoluminescence characterization shows that BPLP-co-PLGA solutions, films and nanoparticles all exhibit strong, tunable and stable photoluminescence. By adjusting the molar ratios of L-lactide (LA)/glycolide (GA) and (LA+GA)/BPLP, full degradation of BPLP-co-PLGA can be achieved in 8-16 weeks. The fluorescence decay behavior of BPLP-co-PLGA can be used for non-invasive monitoring of material degradation. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo foreign body response evaluations demonstrate that BPLP-co-PLGA exhibits similar biocompatibility to poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). The imaging-enabled BPLP-co-PLGA was fabricated into porous scaffolds whose degradation can be monitored through non-invasive imaging and nanoparticles that show theranostic potential demonstrated by fluorescent cellular labeling, imaging and sustained 5-fluorouracil delivery. The development of inherently fluorescent PLGA copolymers is expected to impact the use of already widely accepted PLGA polymers for applications where fluorescent properties are highly desired but limited by the conventional use of cytotoxic quantum dots and photobleaching organic dyes.This manuscript describes a novel strategy of conferring intrinsic photoluminescence to the widely used biodegradable polymers, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) without introducing any cytotoxic quantum dots or photo-bleaching organic dyes, which may greatly expand the applications of these polymers in where fluorescent properties are highly desired. Given the already significant impact generated by the use of PLGA and alike, this work contributes to fluorescence chemistry and new functional biomaterial design and will potentially generate significant impact on many fields of applications such as tissue engineering, molecular imaging and labeling, and drug delivery.
Project description:Aquaglyceroporins (AQPs) are transmembrane channels that mediate glycerol release and glycerol uptake. They are involved in fat metabolism, with implications in obesity. The aim was to determine whether the administration of resveratrol and pterostilbene during the six weeks of the experimental period would modify AQPs expression in white and brown adipose tissues from Wistar rats fed an obesogenic diet, and to establish a potential relationship with the delipidating properties of these compounds. Consequently, thirty-six rats were divided into four groups: (a) group fed a standard diet; and three more groups fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet: (b) high-fat high-sucrose group: (c) pterostilbene-treated group (30 mg/kg/d): (d) resveratrol-treated group (30 mg/kg/d). Epididymal, subcutaneous white adipose tissues and interscapular brown adipose tissue were dissected. AQPs gene expression (RT-PCR) and protein expression (western-blot) were measured. In white adipose tissue, pterostilbene reduced subcutaneous adipose tissue weight and prevented the decrease in AQP9 induced by obesogenic feeding, and thus glycerol uptake for triglyceride accumulation. Resveratrol reduced epididymal adipose tissue weight and avoided the decrease in AQPs related to glycerol release induced by high-fat high-sucrose feeding, suggesting the involvement of lipolysis in its body-fat lowering effect. Regarding brown adipose tissue, AQP7 seemed not to be involved in the previously reported thermogenic activity of both phenolic compounds.
Project description:Tissue engineering technologies involving growth factors have produced one of the most advanced generations of diabetic wound healing solutions. Using this approach, a nanocomposite carrier was designed using Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/Gelatin polymer solutions for the simultaneous release of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) and gentamicin sulfate at the wound site to hasten the process of diabetic wound healing and inactivation of bacterial growth. The physicochemical characterization of the fabricated scaffolds was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ay diffraction (XRD). The scaffolds were analyzed for thermal stability using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The porosity, biodegradability, and swelling behavior of the scaffolds was also evaluated. Encapsulation efficiency, drug loading capacity, and in vitro drug release were also investigated. Further, the bacterial inhibition percentage and detailed in vivo biocompatibility for wound healing efficiency was performed on diabetic C57BL6 mice with dorsal wounds. The scaffolds exhibited excellent wound healing and continuous proliferation of cells for 12 days. These results support the applicability of such systems in rapid healing of diabetic wounds and ulcers.
Project description:Calcium phosphate materials are widely used as bone-like scaffolds or coating for metallic hip and knee implants due to their excellent biocompatibility, compositional similarity to natural bone and controllable bioresorbability. Local delivery of drugs or osteogenic factors from scaffolds and implants are required over a desired period of time for an effectual treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders. Curcumin, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule, enhances osteoblastc activity in addition to its anti-osteoclastic activity. However, due to its poor solubility and high intestinal liver metabolism, it showed limited oral efficacy in various preclinical and clinical studies. To enhance its bioavailability and to provide higher release, we have used poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL), poly ethylene glycol (PEG) and poly lactide co glycolide (PLGA) as the polymeric system to enable continuous release of curcumin from the hydroxyapatite matrix for 22 days. Additionally, curcumin was incorporated in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coated Ti6Al4V substrate to study in vitro cell material interaction using human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells for load bearing implants. MTT cell viability assay and morphological characterization by FESEM showed highest cell viability with samples coated with curcumin-PCL-PEG. Finally, 3D printed interconnected macro porous ?-TCP scaffolds were prepared and curcumin-PCL-PEG was loaded to assess the effects of curcumin on in vivo bone regeneration. The presence of curcumin in TCP results in enhanced bone formation after 6 weeks. Complete mineralized bone formation increased from 29.6 % to 44.9% in curcumin-coated scaffolds compared to pure TCP. Results show that local release of curcumin can be designed for both load bearing or non-load bearing implants with the aid of polymers, which can be considered an excellent candidate for wound healing and tissue regeneration applications in bone tissue engineering.
Project description:Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells are promising cell sources for vascular tissue engineering. However, conventional bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell expansion and induction strategies require plating on tissue culture plastic, a stiff substrate that may itself influence cell differentiation. Direct scaffold seeding avoids plating on plastic; to the best of our knowledge, there is no report of any scaffold that induces the differentiation of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) to vascular cells in vitro. In this study, we hypothesize that an elastomeric scaffold with adsorbed plasma proteins and platelets will induce differentiation of BMNCs to vascular cells and promote vascular tissue formation by combining soft tissue mechanical properties with platelet-mediated tissue repairing signals. To test our hypothesis, we directly seeded rat primary BMNCs in four types of scaffolds: poly(lactide-co-glycolide), elastomeric poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS), platelet-poor plasma-coated PGS, and PGS coated by plasma supplemented with platelets. After 21 days of culture, osteochondral differentiation of cells in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) was detected, but most of the adhered cells on the surface of all PGS scaffolds expressed calponin-I and ?-smooth muscle actin, suggesting smooth muscle differentiation. Cells in PGS scaffolds also produced significant amount of collagen and elastin. Further, plasma coating improves seeding efficiency, and platelet increases proliferation, the number of differentiated cells, and extracellular matrix content. Thus, the artificial niche composed of platelets, plasma, and PGS is promising for artery tissue engineering using BMNCs.
Project description:Hypoxic activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and fibrosis in adipose tissue contribute to adipose dysfunction. This study was designed to investigate the effects of metformin and resveratrol on the regulation of HIF-1? and fibrosis in hypoxic adipose tissue.Mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce hypoxia and fibrosis in adipose tissue; adipose tissue incubated in vitro in 1% O2 showed a similar change. The effects of metformin and resveratrol on hypoxia, HIF-1? accumulation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and gene expressions of extracellular matrix components and pro-inflammatory cytokines were examined.Oral administration of metformin or resveratrol prevented hypoxia and reduced HIF-1? accumulation with dephosphorylation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1? and eukaryotic initiation factor 2?, indicative of suppression of hypoxic HIF-1? activation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Metformin and resveratrol down-regulated gene expressions of Col3?, Col6?, elastin and lysyl oxidase and thereby reduced collagen deposition in adipose tissue. The increased gene expressions of TNF-?, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and F4/80 were also down-regulated by metformin and resveratrol. Metformin and resveratrol had similar effects in adipose tissue exposed to 1% O2 . Metformin reduced ATP production and prevented the reduction in oxygen tension in 3T3-L1 cells, suggesting that it prevented hypoxia by limiting oxygen consumption, whereas resveratrol reduced HIF-1? accumulation by promoting its proteasomal degradation via the regulation of AMPK/SIRT1.Hypoxia and fibrosis are early causes of adipose dysfunction in obesity. Both metformin and resveratrol effectively inhibited HIF-1? activation-induced fibrosis and inflammation in adipose tissue, although by different mechanisms.