Project description:This study examined alterations in the functions and proteome of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions (HDL2 and HDL3) isolated from patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared with control subjects.We measured HDL subfraction cholesterol efflux capacity, inflammatory index (HII), paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels in both male age-matched controls and the ACS group (n?=?40/group). Additionally, proteomic analysis was used to monitor changes in the HDL subfraction proteome between controls and ACS subjects.Both HDL2 and HDL3 from ACS patients had greater HII and LOOH levels compared with controls (P<0.001); PON1 activity and cholesterol efflux capacity in both HDL2 and HDL3 from the ACS group were significantly less than those of controls (P<0.001). Using proteomic analysis, we demonstrated that, compared with the control group, nine proteins were selectively enriched in HDL3 from subjects with ACS, and ras-related protein Rab-7b was decreased in HDL3. Additionally, in the ACS subjects, 12 proteins were decreased in HDL2 and 4 proteins were increased in HDL2.Functional HDL subfractions shifted to dysfunctional HDL subfractions during ACS, and the functional impairment was linked to remodeled protein cargo in HDL subfractions from ACS patients.
Project description:High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is regarded as atheroprotective because it provides antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits and plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport. In this paper, we outline a novel methodology for studying the heterogeneity of HDL. Using anion-exchange chromatography, we separated HDL from 6 healthy individuals into five subfractions (H1 through H5) with increasing charge and evaluated the composition and biologic activities of each subfraction. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that apolipoprotein (apo) AI and apoAII were present in all 5 subfractions; apoCI was present only in H1, and apoCIII and apoE were most abundantly present in H4 and H5. HDL-associated antioxidant enzymes such as lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, and paraoxonase 1 were most abundant in H4 and H5. Lipoprotein isoforms were analyzed in each subfraction by using matrix-assisted laser desorption-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. To quantify other proteins in the HDL subfractions, we used the isobaric tags for the relative and absolute quantitation approach followed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Most antioxidant proteins detected were found in H4 and H5. The ability of each subfraction to induce cholesterol efflux from macrophages increased with increasing HDL electronegativity, with the exception of H5, which promoted the least efflux activity. In conclusion, anion-exchange chromatography is an attractive method for separating HDL into subfractions with distinct lipoprotein compositions and biologic activities. By comparing the properties of these subfractions, it may be possible to uncover HDL-specific proteins that play a role in disease.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Whereas epidemiological studies show that levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) predict incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), there is limited evidence relating lipoprotein subfractions and composite measures of subfractions to risk for CVD in prospective cohort studies. METHODS AND RESULTS:We tested whether combinations of lipoprotein subfractions independently predict CVD in a prospective cohort of 4594 initially healthy men and women (the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, mean follow-up 12.2 years, 377 incident cardiovascular events). Plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein subfractions were measured at baseline with a novel high-resolution ion mobility technique. Principal component analysis (PCA) of subfraction concentrations identified 3 major independent (ie, zero correlation) components of CVD risk, one representing LDL-associated risk, a second representing HDL-associated protection, and the third representing a pattern of decreased large HDL, increased small/medium LDL, and increased triglycerides. The last corresponds to the previously described "atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype." Several genes that may underlie this phenotype-CETP, LIPC, GALNT2, MLXIPL, APOA1/A5, LPL-are suggested by SNPs associated with the combination of small/medium LDL and large HDL. CONCLUSIONS:PCA on lipoprotein subfractions yielded three independent components of CVD risk. Genetic analyses suggest these components represent independent mechanistic pathways for development of CVD.
Project description:1. Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was separated by heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography into a non-bound, apolipoprotein E-poor, and a bound, apolipoprotein E-rich, fraction through the binding effect of Mn2+ in the column buffer. 2. The application of a series of elution buffers in which the concentration of Mn2+ was progressively replaced by Mg2+ resulted in the separation of the bound HDL into five subfractions. 3. Each subfraction migrated a different distance on gradient-gel electrophoresis. Three of the subfractions had RF (relative migration compared with BSA) values within the range of HDL2b. One subfraction contained largely HDL2a, with some material in the regions of HDL2b and HDL3a, and one subfraction spanned the RF regions of HDL2a, HDL3a and HDL3b. 4. The number of molecules, per HDL particle, of cholesteryl ester, non-esterified cholesterol and phospholipid increased with particle size, whereas triacylglycerol passed through a maximum and the number of amino acid residues remained approximately the same. 5. Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was the major apoprotein in all five subfractions, but the latter differed appreciably in their contents of apo A-II and apo E. 6. The major fatty acid component of each subfraction was linoleic acid, with moderate amounts of C16:0 and C18:1 fatty acids and a smaller content of C18:0, C20:4,n-6 and C22:6,n-3, with no significant difference in composition between the subfractions. 7. This paper provides the first description of a method for the isolation of three subfractions of HDL2b together with other subfractions in quantities that are sufficient for further analytical or metabolic studies.
Project description:Although intensive lifestyle change (ILS) and metformin reduce diabetes incidence in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), their effects on lipoprotein subfractions have not been studied.The objective of the study was to characterize the effects of ILS and metformin vs placebo interventions on lipoprotein subfractions in the Diabetes Prevention Program.This was a randomized clinical trial, testing the effects of ILS, metformin, and placebo on diabetes development in subjects with IGT.Selected individuals with IGT randomized in the Diabetes Prevention Program participated in the study.Interventions included randomization to metformin 850 mg or placebo twice daily or ILS aimed at a 7% weight loss using a low-fat diet with increased physical activity.Lipoprotein subfraction size, density, and concentration measured by magnetic resonance and density gradient ultracentrifugation at baseline and 1 year were measured.ILS decreased large and buoyant very low-density lipoprotein, small and dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and small high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and raised large HDL. Metformin modestly reduced small and dense LDL and raised small and large HDL. Change in insulin resistance largely accounted for the intervention-associated decreases in large very low-density lipoprotein, whereas changes in body mass index (BMI) and adiponectin were strongly associated with changes in LDL. Baseline and a change in adiponectin were related to change in large HDL, and BMI change associated with small HDL change. The effect of metformin to increase small HDL was independent of adiponectin, BMI, and insulin resistance.ILS and metformin treatment have favorable effects on lipoprotein subfractions that are primarily mediated by intervention-related changes in insulin resistance, BMI, and adiponectin. Interventions that slow the development of diabetes may also retard the progression of atherosclerosis.
Project description:We aimed to comprehensively evaluate lipoprotein profile including lipid particle size following a lifestyle intervention in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers and to assess the associations between lipoprotein subfractions and carotid-intima-media-thickness (CIMT) - a surrogate indicator of atherogenesis.100 participants (50-70 years) from the RESOLVE trial, underwent a one-year follow-up beginning with a three-week residential program combining high exercise volume (15-20 h/week), restrictive diet (-500 kcal/day), and education. For baseline references, 40 aged-matched healthy controls were recruited. Independent associations between subfractions of lipoproteins and CIMT were evaluated using a generalized estimating equations model accounting for variation in correlations between repeated measures. The lipoprotein subfractions profile was assessed using Lipoprint® electrophoresis allowing to separate: the very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fraction, then the intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) C, B and A, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) with subfractions 1 and 2 as large LDL and subfractions 3 to 7 as small dense LDL (sdLDL), and the high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions categorized into large, intermediate, and small HDL. Apolipoproteins A1 and B were also measured.78 participants completed the program. At baseline, apolipoproteins B/A1, VLDL, sdLDL and small HDL were higher in MetS than in healthy controls; IDL, LDL size, large and intermediate HDL were lower. Despite time-related regains during the follow-up, lipoprotein subfractions traditionally involved in cardiovascular risk, such as sdLDL, improved immediately after the residential program with values closest to those of healthy controls. CIMT improved throughout the lifestyle intervention. Using a generalized estimating equations model, none of the subfractions of lipoproteins nor apolipoproteins were linked to CIMT.Lipoprotein subfractions traditionally involved in CVR, decreased after the 3-week residential program. During a 12 month follow-up, the time-related regains remained closer to the values of healthy controls than they were at baseline. CIMT improved throughout the lifestyle intervention. However, we failed to demonstrate a link between some lipoprotein subfractions and the atherogenicity directly measured from the wall thickness of arteries (CIMT). Further investigations are required to explore the atherogenicity of lipoprotein subfractions.NCT00917917.
Project description:So far, little is known about the effect of nutrition and lifestyle on the composition of circulating lipoprotein subfractions. In the current study, we measured the correlations among physical activity, nutrient intake, smoking, body-mass index (BMI), and age with the concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins (ApoA1, ApoA2 and ApoB) in subfractions of LDL and HDL in 265 healthy working men. Concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoB in small, dense atherogenic LDL particles (sdLDL) correlated negatively (p<0.001) with those of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoA1 in HDL2, respectively. Age correlated positively with sdLDL while increasing BMI correlated with an atherogenic shift of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoB from large, buoyant LDL (lbLDL) to sdLDL and decreasing concentrations of HDL2 constituents. Physical activity and alcohol intake correlated negatively with sdLDL constituents and positively with HDL2 components. Consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) correlated with a lower ratio of sdLDL to HDL2 cholesterol. A favorable lipoprotein subfraction profile linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in men was associated with physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption, and dietary intake of MUFA, which might be exploited in future interventions for prevention of age- and BMI-associated atherogenic shifts of lipoprotein subfractions.
Project description:It is expected that the attendant structural heterogeneity of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) complexes is a determinant of its varied metabolic functions. To determine the structural heterogeneity of HDL, we determined major apolipoprotein stoichiometry profiles in human HDL. First, HDL was separated into two main populations, with and without apolipoprotein (apo) A-II, LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II, respectively. Each main population was further separated into six individual subfractions using size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Protein proximity profiles (PPPs) of major apolipoproteins in each individual subfraction was determined by optimally cross-linking apolipoproteins within individual particles with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS(3)), a bifunctional cross-linker, followed by molecular mass determination by MALDI-MS. The PPPs of LpA-I subfractions indicated that the number of apoA-I molecules increased from two to three to four with an increase in the LpA-I particle size. On the other hand, the entire population of LpA-I/A-II demonstrated the presence of only two proximal apoA-I molecules per particle, while the number of apoA-II molecules varied from one dimeric apoA-II to two and then to three. For most of the PPPs described above, an additional population that contained a single molecule of apoC-III in addition to apoA-I and/or apoA-II was detected. Upon composition analyses of individual subpopulations, LpA-I/A-II exhibited comparable proportions for total protein (?58%), phospholipids (?21%), total cholesterol (?16%), triglycerides (?5%), and free cholesterol (?4%) across subfractions. LpA-I components, on the other hand, showed significant variability. This novel information about HDL subfractions will form a basis for an improved understanding of particle-specific functions of HDL.
Project description:Apolipoprotein (apo) E plays an important role in mediating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol transport and uptake by the liver. Evidence for and against the existence of conventional liver receptors for HDL containing apoE have been reported, although the selective uptake of the cholesterol moiety of HDL has been demonstrated. The present study investigated the hepatic uptake of subfractions of HDL separated on the basis of their apoE content. Rabbit HDL and its apoE-rich and apoE-poor subfractions, separated by heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography, were labelled in their apoprotein moieties with [14C]sucrose and in their cholesteryl ester moiety with 3H. No binding of either subfraction to rabbit liver membranes could be detected. With cultured HepG2 cells, however, there was a high uptake of 3H but a very low uptake of 14C from both HDL subfractions, demonstrating that selective uptake was operating. Addition of unlabelled apoE-poor HDL inhibited the uptake of both labels from the two subfractions to the same extent. These studies, which differed from previously reported investigations by employing native homologous HDL subfractions of known apolipoprotein composition, demonstrated that apoE is not directly involved in the selective uptake of HDL cholesterol by the liver. In the absence of specific binding sites on liver membranes, it is suggested that an alternative mechanism might exist for the clearance of HDL cholesterol from the plasma.
Project description:We investigated the effects of the cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer protein inhibitor anacetrapib (ANA) on plasma lipids, lipoprotein subfraction concentrations, and lipoprotein composition in 30 healthy individuals. Participants (n = 30) were randomized to ANA 20 mg/day, 150 mg/day, or placebo for 2 weeks. Changes in concentration of lipoprotein subfractions were assessed using ion mobility, and compositional analyses were performed on fractions separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation. ANA 150 mg/day versus placebo resulted in significant decreases in LDL-cholesterol (26%) and apo B (29%) and increases in HDL-cholesterol (82%). Concentrations of medium and small VLDL, large intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and medium and small LDL (LDL2a, 2b, and 3a) decreased whereas levels of very small and dense LDL4b were increased. There was enrichment of triglycerides and reduction of CE in VLDL, IDL, and the densest LDL fraction. Levels of large buoyant HDL particles were substantially increased, and there was enrichment of CE, apo AI, and apoCIII, but not apoAII or apoE, in the mid-HDL density range. Changes in lipoprotein subfraction concentrations and composition with ANA 20 mg/day were similar to those for ANA 150 mg/day but were generally smaller in magnitude. The impact of these changes on cardiovascular risk remains to be determined.