Estimating the Risk of Human Herpesvirus 6 and Cytomegalovirus Transmission to Ugandan Infants from Viral Shedding in Saliva by Household Contacts.
ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are common in early childhood. In a prospective Ugandan birth cohort study, most infants acquired HHV-6 (24/31; 77%) and CMV (20/30; 67%) during follow-up. To assess the transmission risk, we modeled a dose-response relationship between infant HHV-6 and CMV infections and weekly oral viral shedding by mothers and all other ("secondary") children in the home. Oral viral loads that were shed by mothers and secondary children were significantly associated with HHV-6 but not CMV transmission. While secondary children had higher and more frequent HHV-6 shedding than their mothers, they had a lower per-exposure transmission risk, suggesting that transmission to maternal contacts may be more efficient. HHV-6 transmission was relatively inefficient, occurring after <25% of all weekly exposures. Although HHV-6 transmission often occurs following repeated, low dose exposures, we found a non-linear dose-response relationship in which infection risk markedly increases when exposures reached a threshold of > 5 log10 DNA copies/mL. The lack of association between oral CMV shedding and transmission is consistent with breastfeeding being the dominant route of infant infection for that virus. These affirm saliva as the route of HHV-6 transmission and provide benchmarks for developing strategies to reduce the risk of infection and its related morbidity.
Project description:Human herpesviruses (HHV) establish lifelong latent infection and are transmitted primarily via shedding at mucosal surfaces. Each HHV causes a unique spectrum of disease depending on the infected individual's age and immunity. We collected weekly oral swabs from young children and mothers in 32 Ugandan households for a median of one year. We characterized kinetics of oral shedding during primary and chronic infection for each virus. Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 were shed at high rates following primary infection. The rate of oral herpes simplex virus (HSV) shedding was lower overall, and children and mothers with chronic HSV infection had lower shedding rates than children with primary infection. CMV shedding rate and viral load were higher in children with primary infection compared to children with chronic infection, and even lower in mothers with chronic infection. HHV-6 shedding rate and viral load were similar between children with primary or chronic infection, but lower in mothers. EBV shedding rate and quantity decreased less dramatically in mothers versus children, with HIV-positive mothers shedding at a higher rate than HIV-negative mothers. Each HHV has a distinct pattern of oral shedding which depends partially on the age and immune status of the host.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Human herpesvirus (HHV) infections are common during infancy. Primary infections are frequently asymptomatic and best studied prospectively by using direct viral detection.<h4>Methods</h4>Oropharyngeal swab specimens were collected weekly from Ugandan newborn infants, their mothers, and other children in the household. Blood specimens were collected every 4 months. Samples were tested for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-8, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.<h4>Results</h4>Thirty-two infants, 32 mothers, and 49 other household children were followed for a median of 57 weeks. Seventeen mothers had human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection; no infants acquired HIV-1. The 12-month incidence of postnatal infection was 76% for HHV-6B, 59% for CMV, 47% for EBV, 8% for HSV-1, and 0% for HHV-8. The quantity of oropharyngeal shedding by contacts was associated with HHV-6A or HHV-6B transmission. Maternal HIV-1 infection was associated with EBV transmission, while breastfeeding and younger child contacts were associated with CMV transmission. Except for HSV-1, primary HHV infections were subclinical.<h4>Conclusions</h4>By capturing exposures and acquisition events, we found that the incidence and risk factors of infection vary by HHV type. HSV-1 infection, unlike other HHV infections, caused acute clinical illness in these infants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Most infants with congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are born to seropositive women as a result of maternal CMV nonprimary infection (reinfection or reactivation). Although infected children are known to transmit CMV to their seronegative mothers, the frequency and magnitude of nonprimary maternal CMV infection after exposure to viral shedding by children in their household have not been characterized. METHODS:A cohort of Ugandan newborns and their mothers were tested weekly for CMV by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of oral swabs. Infant primary infection and maternal nonprimary infection were defined by the onset of persistent high-level oral CMV shedding. Strain-specific antibody testing was used to assess maternal reinfection. Cox regression models with time-dependent covariates were used to evaluate risk factors for nonprimary maternal infection. RESULTS:Nonprimary CMV infection occurred in 15 of 30 mothers, all after primary infection of their infants by a median of 6 weeks (range: 1-10) in contrast to none of the mothers of uninfected infants. The median duration of maternal oral shedding lasted 18 weeks (range: 4-42) reaching a median maximum viral load of 4.69 log copies/mL (range: 3.22-5.64). Previous-week infant CMV oral quantities strongly predicted maternal nonprimary infection (hazard ratio: 2.32 per log10 DNA copies/swab increase; 95% confidence interval: 1.63-3.31). Maternal nonprimary infections were not associated with changes in strain-specific antibody responses. CONCLUSIONS:Nonprimary CMV infection was common in mothers after primary infection in their infants, consistent with infant-to-mother transmission. Because infants frequently acquire CMV from their mothers, for example, through breast milk, this suggests the possibility of "ping-pong" infections. Additional research is needed to characterize the antigenic and genotypic strains transmitted among children and their mothers.
Project description:Human herpes viruses (HHVs) are widely distributed pathogens. In immuno-competent individuals their clinical outcomes are generally benign but in immuno-compromised hosts, primary infection or extensive viral reactivation can lead to critical diseases. Plasmodium falciparum malaria profoundly affects the host immune system. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the direct effect of acute P. falciparum infection on reactivation and shedding of all known human herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8). We monitored their presence by real time PCR in plasma and saliva of Ugandan children with malaria at the day of admission to the hospital (day-0) and 14 days later (after treatment), or in children with mild infections unrelated to malaria. For each child screened in this study, at least one type of HHV was detected in the saliva. HHV-7 and HHV-6 were detected in more than 70% of the samples and CMV in approximately half. HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and HHV-8 were detected at lower frequency. During salivary shedding the highest mean viral load was observed for HSV-1 followed by EBV, HHV-7, HHV-6, CMV and HHV-8. After anti-malarial treatment the salivary HSV-1 levels were profoundly diminished or totally cleared. Similarly, four children with malaria had high levels of circulating EBV at day-0, levels that were cleared after anti-malarial treatment confirming the association between P. falciparum infection and EBV reactivation. This study shows that acute P. falciparum infection can contribute to EBV reactivation in the blood and HSV-1 reactivation in the oral cavity. Taken together our results call for further studies investigating the potential clinical implications of HHVs reactivation in children suffering from malaria.
Project description:Multiple viruses coinfect the male genital tract, influencing each other’s replication and perhaps affecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis and disease progression.This study included 453 longitudinal seminal samples from 195 HIV-infected men from the San Diego Primary Infection Resource Consortium and 67 seminal samples from HIV-negative healthy controls. Seminal HIV RNA and DNA from 7 human herpesviruses (HHVs) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Longitudinal shedding rates were determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Predictors of viral shedding were determined using backwards selection in a multivariable generalized estimating equation model.HIV-infected participants presented significantly increased rates of seminal HHV shedding compared with HIV-uninfected controls. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were the most commonly detected HHV in semen of HIV-infected participants. Persistent shedding was more common for CMV and EBV when compared to other HHVs. With exception of HHV-7, HHV shedding was not significantly influenced by HIV RNA levels, CD4+ cell counts, or antiretroviral therapy. Presence of CMV, EBV, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) were independent predictors of genital HIV RNA shedding after adjusting for plasma HIV RNA and longitudinal measurements.Seminal replication of multiple HHVs is common in our HIV primary infection cohort. Genital replication of CMV and EBV was the most common and was significantly associated with seminal HIV RNA shedding. Prevalence of HSV shedding was lower and mostly intermittent, but its association with seminal HIV RNA was the strongest. Understanding the complex viral milieu in semen is important for HIV transmission but might also play a role in HIV pathogenesis and disease progression.
Project description:Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is acquired by the oral route in children, and primary infection is associated with abundant mucosal replication, as well as the establishment of latency in myeloid cells that results in lifelong infection. The efficiency of primary CMV infection in humans following oral exposure, however, is unknown. We consistently detected self-limited, low-level oral CMV shedding events, which we termed transient CMV infections, in a prospective birth cohort of 30 highly exposed CMV-uninfected infants. We estimated the likelihood of transient oral CMV infections by comparing their observed frequency to that of established primary infections, characterized by persistent high-level shedding, viremia, and seroconversion. We developed mathematical models of viral dynamics upon initial oral CMV infection and validated them using clinical shedding data. Transient infections comprised 76 to 88% of oral CMV shedding events. For this high percentage of transient infections to occur, we identified two mathematical prerequisites: a very small number of initially infected oral cells (1 to 4) and low viral infectivity (<1.5 new cells infected/cell). These observations indicate that oral CMV infection in infants typically begins with a single virus that spreads inefficiently to neighboring cells. Thus, although the incidence of CMV infection is high during infancy, our data provide a mechanistic framework to explain why multiple CMV exposures are typically required before infection is successfully established. These findings imply that a sufficiently primed immune response could prevent CMV from establishing latent infection in humans and support the achievability of a prophylactic CMV vaccine.IMPORTANCE CMV infects the majority of the world's population and is a major cause of birth defects. Developing a vaccine to prevent CMV infection would be extremely valuable but would be facilitated by a better understanding of how natural human CMV infection is acquired. We studied CMV acquisition in infants and found that infections are usually brief and self-limited and are successfully established relatively rarely. Thus, although most people eventually acquire CMV infection, it usually requires numerous exposures. Our analyses indicate that this is because the virus is surprisingly inefficient, barely replicating well enough to spread to neighboring cells in the mouth. Greater knowledge of why CMV infection usually fails may provide insight into how to prevent it from succeeding.
Project description:Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs frequently in young children, who, when infected, are then a major source of transmission. Oral CMV shedding by 14 infants with primary infection was comprehensively characterized using quantitative polymerase chain reaction weekly for ?9 months. Three phases of oral shedding were identified: expansion, transition, and clearance. Viral expansion occurred over a median of 7 weeks, with a median doubling time of 3 days. During the transition phase, expansion slowed over a median of 6 weeks before peak viral load was reached. Clearance was slow (22-day median half-life), and shedding did not resolve during observation for any infant. Mathematical modeling demonstrated that prolonged oral CMV expansion is explained by a low within-host reproduction number (median, 1.63) and a delayed immune response that only decreases the infected cell half-life by 44%. Thus, the prolonged oral CMV shedding observed during primary infection can be explained by slow viral expansion and inefficient immunologic control.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This longitudinal study described Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA, Epstein-Barr (EBV) DNA and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA asymptomatic salivary shedding in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). We aimed to 1-analyze frequency and persistence of herpesvirus shedding, 2-correlate herpesvirus positivity and HIV viroimmunological parameters and 3-assess the association between HIV-RNA suppression and herpesvirus replication. METHODS:Herpesvirus DNA was tested with an in-house real-time PCR in 2 salivary samples obtained at T0 and T1 (24 months after T0). HIV-RNA was evaluated in the 24 months prior to T0 and in the 24 months prior to T1; MSM were classified as successfully suppressed patients (SSPs), viremic patients (VPs) and partially suppressed patients (PSPs). EBV DNA load was classified as low viral load (EBV-LVL, value ≤10,000 copies/ml) and as high viral load (EBV-HVL,> 10,000 copies/ml). Mann-Whitney U test tested the difference of the median between groups of patients. Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test compared categorical variables according to the frequencies. Kruskal-Wallis test compared continuous data distributions between levels of categorical variables. RESULTS:Ninety-two patients (median CD4+ count 575 cells/mm3, median nadir 330 CD4+ cells/mm3) were included: 40 SSPs,33 VPs and 19 PSPs. The more frequently single virus detected was EBV, both at T0 and at T1 (in 67.5 and 70% of SSPs, in 84.8 and 81.8% of VPs and in 68.4 and 73.7% of SPSs) and the most frequently multiple positivity detected was EBV + HHV-8. At T1, the percentage of CMV positivity was higher in VPs than in SSPs (36.4% vs 5%, p < 0.001), the combined shedding of HHV-8, CMV and EBV was present only in VPs (15.1%, p = 0.01 respect to SSPs) and no VPs confirmed the absence of shedding found at T0 (vs 17.5% of SSPs, p = 0.01). EBV-HVL was more frequent in VPs than in SSPs: 78.6% at T0 (p = 0.03) and 88.9% at T1 (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:The relationship between uncontrolled plasma HIV viremia and CMV, EBV, and HHV-8 shedding is multifaceted, as demonstrated by the focused association with EBV DNA load and not with its frequency and by the persistent combined detection of two oncogenic viruses as EBV and HHV-8 regardless of HIV virological control.
Project description:To investigate the impact of pregnancy on human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) reactivation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women, the HHV-8 DNA presence and load were analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and cervicovaginal secretions (CVSs) from 15 pregnant women coinfected with HIV-1 and HHV-8. HHV-8 detection was analyzed in relation to anti-HHV-8 antibodies and HIV-1-related parameters. Nucleotide sequence analysis of an ORFK1 hypervariable region of the HHV-8 strains was performed. HHV-8 was detected in maternal PBMCs (5/15 women) from the second trimester and in CVSs (5/15 women) mainly from the third trimester. The HHV-8 load significantly increased late in pregnancy in both maternal compartments and was associated with a significant increase in HIV-1 shedding in the genital tract. Antilytic antibodies were significantly more common in HHV-8 DNA-positive women. An elevated HHV-8 load was found in the PBMCs of an infant born to a mother with large amounts of HHV-8 in both compartments at delivery. Different ORFK1 subtypes were found in maternal samples, whereas the same subtype was identified in the mother-child pair. These data suggest that pregnancy may induce HHV-8 replication in HIV-1-infected women. An augmented HHV-8 load may, in turn, influence mother-to-child transmission, since one of the HIV-1-infected mothers with HHV-8 reactivation transmitted her ORFK1 subtype to the infant, who showed a high level of HHV-8 viremia indicative of a primary infection. This finding documents for the first time the perinatal transmission of a specific HHV-8 subtype. Vertical transmission may thus play a role in HHV-8 spread also in areas of subendemicity among HIV-1-infected women.
Project description:Background:There are limited nationally representative data on correlates of cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding among children and adolescents. In addition, the genotype distribution of CMV infections has not been well characterized among general populations in the United States. Methods:This study characterized urinary CMV shedding among CMV immunoglobulin G-positive 6- to 19-year-olds in the US household population using data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Multivariable Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses were weighted and multiple imputation was performed to handle missing data (with the exception of CMV genotypes). Results:Prevalence of urinary CMV shedding was significantly lower among 9- to 11-year-olds (20.6%; aPR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44-0.83) and 12- to 19-year-olds (7.0%; aPR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.14-0.30) compared with 6- to 8-year-olds (34.4%). Among CMV shedders, the youngest age group also had the highest urinary CMV viral loads. The prevalence of urinary CMV shedding among obese individuals was significantly lower compared with lean individuals (aPR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.99). Among CMV shedders, glycoprotein B (gB)1 (51%) was the most prevalent gB variant, followed by gB2 (29%), gB3 (21%), and gB4 (13%); glycoprotein H (gH)2 (60%) was more prevalent than gH1 (48%). Multiple (?2) gB (14%) and multiple gH (7%) infections were detected among CMV shedders. Conclusions:This study underscores the importance of young children even above the age of 5 years as a potential source of CMV transmission. The detection of multiple CMV strains among CMV shedders may have implications for the transmission of viral diversity as well as vaccine development.