Joint single cell DNA-seq and RNA-seq of gastric cancer cell lines reveals rules of in vitro evolution.
ABSTRACT: Cancer cell lines are not homogeneous nor are they static in their genetic state and biological properties. Genetic, transcriptional and phenotypic diversity within cell lines contributes to the lack of experimental reproducibility frequently observed in tissue-culture-based studies. While cancer cell line heterogeneity has been generally recognized, there are no studies which quantify the number of clones that coexist within cell lines and their distinguishing characteristics. We used a single-cell DNA sequencing approach to characterize the cellular diversity within nine gastric cancer cell lines and integrated this information with single-cell RNA sequencing. Overall, we sequenced the genomes of 8824 cells, identifying between 2 and 12 clones per cell line. Using the transcriptomes of more than 28 000 single cells from the same cell lines, we independently corroborated 88% of the clonal structure determined from single cell DNA analysis. For one of these cell lines, we identified cell surface markers that distinguished two subpopulations and used flow cytometry to sort these two clones. We identified substantial proportions of replicating cells in each cell line, assigned these cells to subclones detected among the G0/G1 population and used the proportion of replicating cells per subclone as a surrogate of each subclone's growth rate.
Project description:We assessed single nucleotide variations (SNVs) between individual cells in two cancer cell lines; DU145, from brain metastasis of prostate tumor with deficient mismatch repair; and HT1080, a fibrosarcoma cell line. Clones of individual cells were isolated, and sequenced using Ion Ampliseq comprehensive cancer panel that covered the exomes of 409 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Five clones of DU145 and four clones of HT1080 cells were analyzed. We found from 7 to 12 unique SNVs between DU145 clones, while HT1080 clones showed no more than one unique SNV. We then sub-cloned individual cells from some of these isolated clones of DU145 and HT1080 cells. The sub-clones were expanded from a single cell to approximately one million cells after about 20 cell divisions. The sub-clones of DU145 cells had from one to four new unique SNVs within the sequenced regions. No unique SNVs were found between sub-clones of HT1080 cells. Our data demonstrate that the extent of genetic variation at the single nucleotide level in cultured cancer cells is significantly affected by the status of the DNA mismatch repair system.
Project description:With ongoing colony losses driven in part by the Varroa mite and the associated exacerbation of the virus load, there is an urgent need to protect honey bees (Apis mellifera) from fatal levels of virus infection and from the non-target effects of insecticides used in agricultural settings. A continuously replicating cell line derived from the honey bee would provide a valuable tool for the study of molecular mechanisms of virus-host interaction, for the screening of antiviral agents for potential use within the hive, and for the assessment of the risk of current and candidate insecticides to the honey bee. However, the establishment of a continuously replicating honey bee cell line has proved challenging. Here, we provide an overview of attempts to establish primary and continuously replicating hymenopteran cell lines, methods (including recent results) of establishing honey bee cell lines, challenges associated with the presence of latent viruses (especially Deformed wing virus) in established cell lines and methods to establish virus-free cell lines. We also describe the potential use of honey bee cell lines in conjunction with infectious clones of honey bee viruses for examination of fundamental virology.
Project description:Characterization of intratumoral heterogeneity is critical to cancer therapy, as the presence of phenotypically diverse cell populations commonly fuels relapse and resistance to treatment. Although genetic variation is a well-studied source of intratumoral heterogeneity, the functional impact of most genetic alterations remains unclear. Even less understood is the relative importance of other factors influencing heterogeneity, such as epigenetic state or tumor microenvironment. To investigate the relationship between genetic and transcriptional heterogeneity in a context of cancer progression, we devised a computational approach called HoneyBADGER to identify copy number variation and loss of heterozygosity in individual cells from single-cell RNA-sequencing data. By integrating allele and normalized expression information, HoneyBADGER is able to identify and infer the presence of subclone-specific alterations in individual cells and reconstruct the underlying subclonal architecture. By examining several tumor types, we show that HoneyBADGER is effective at identifying deletions, amplifications, and copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity events and is capable of robustly identifying subclonal focal alterations as small as 10 megabases. We further apply HoneyBADGER to analyze single cells from a progressive multiple myeloma patient to identify major genetic subclones that exhibit distinct transcriptional signatures relevant to cancer progression. Other prominent transcriptional subpopulations within these tumors did not line up with the genetic subclonal structure and were likely driven by alternative, nonclonal mechanisms. These results highlight the need for integrative analysis to understand the molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity in cancer.
Project description:Cancers acquire resistance to systemic treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy (eg, cisplatin [CDDP]) as a result of a dynamic intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) and clonal repopulation. However, little is known about the influence of chemotherapy on ITH at the single-cell level. Here, mapping the transcriptome of cancers treated with CDDP by scRNA-seq, we uncovered a novel gene, COX7B, associated with platinum-resistance, and surrogate marker, CD63. Knockdown of COX7B in cancer cells decreased the sensitivity of CDDP whereas overexpression recovered the sensitivity of CDDP. Low COX7B levels correlated with higher mortality rates in patients with various types of cancer and were significantly associated with poor response to chemotherapy in urinary bladder cancer. Tumor samples from patients, who underwent CDDP therapy, showed decreased COX7B protein levels after the treatment. Analyzing scRNA-seq data from platinum-naïve cancer cells demonstrated a low-COX7B subclone that could be sorted out from bulk cancer cells by assaying CD63. This low-COX7B subclone behaved as cells with acquired platinum-resistance when challenged to CDDP. Our results offer a new transcriptome landscape of platinum-resistance that provides valuable insights into chemosensitivity and drug resistance in cancers, and we identify a novel platinum resistance gene, COX7B, and a surrogate marker, CD63.
Project description:In this study, the CRISPR/Cas9 technology was used to establish murine tumor cell lines, devoid of MHC I or MHC II surface expression, respectively. The melanoma cell line B16F10 and the murine breast cancer cell line EO-771, the latter stably expressing the tumor antigen NY-BR-1 (EO-NY), were transfected with an expression plasmid encoding a ?2m-specific single guide (sg)RNA and Cas9. The resulting MHC I negative cells were sorted by flow cytometry to obtain single cell clones, and loss of susceptibility of peptide pulsed MHC I negative clones to peptide-specific CTL recognition was determined by IFN? ELISpot assay. The ?2m knockout (KO) clones did not give rise to tumors in syngeneic mice (C57BL/6N), unless NK cells were depleted, suggesting that outgrowth of the ?2m KO cell lines was controlled by NK cells. Using sgRNAs targeting the ?-chain encoding locus of the IAb molecule we also generated several B16F10 MHC II KO clones. Peptide loaded B16F10 MHC II KO cells were insusceptible to recognition by OT-II cells and tumor growth was unaltered compared to parental B16F10 cells. Thus, in our hands the CRISPR/Cas9 system has proven to be an efficient straight forward strategy for the generation of MHC knockout cell lines. Such cell lines could serve as parental cells for co-transfection of compatible HLA alleles together with human tumor antigens of interest, thereby facilitating the generation of HLA matched transplantable tumor models, e.g. in HLAtg mouse strains of the newer generation, lacking cell surface expression of endogenous H2 molecules. In addition, our tumor cell lines established might offer a useful tool to investigate tumor reactive T cell responses that function independently from MHC molecule surface expression by the tumor.
Project description:Cancer cell lines serve as invaluable model systems for cancer biology research and help in evaluating the efficacy of new therapeutic agents. However, cell line contamination and misidentification have become one of the most pressing problems affecting biomedical research. Available methods of cell line authentication suffer from limited access, time-consuming and often costly for many researchers, hence a new and cost-effective approach for cell line authentication is needed. In this regard, we developed a new method called CeL-ID for cell line authentication using genomic variants as a byproduct derived from RNA-seq data. CeL-ID was trained and tested on publicly available more than 900 RNA-seq dataset derived from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) project; including most frequently used adult and pediatric cancer cell lines. We generated cell line specific variant profiles from RNA-seq data using our in-house pipeline followed by pair-wise variant profile comparison between cell lines using allele frequencies and depth of coverage values of the entire variant set. Comparative analysis of variant profiles revealed that they differ significantly from cell line to cell line whereas identical, synonymous and derivative cell lines share high variant identity and their allelic fractions are highly correlated, which is the basis of this cell line authentication protocol. Additionally, CeL-ID also includes a method to estimate the possible cross-contamination using a linear mixture model with any possible CCLE cells in case no perfect match was detected.
Project description:Metastatic breast cancer cells are characterized by their high propensity to colonize the skeleton and form bone metastases, causing major morbidity and mortality. Identifying key proteins involved in the osteotropic phenotype would represent a major step toward the development of both new prognostic markers and new effective therapies. Cell surface proteins differentially expressed in cancer cells are preferred potential targets for antibody-based targeted therapies. In this study, using cell surface biotinylation and a mass spectrometric approach, we have compared the profile of accessible cell surface proteins between the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and its highly osteotropic B02 subclone. This strategy allowed the identification of several proteins either up- or downregulated in the osteotropic cell line, and differential protein expressions were validated using antibody-based techniques. Class I HLAs were down-regulated in the bone metastatic variant, whereas alpha(v)beta(3) integrins, among others, were consistently up-regulated in this latter cell line. These results show that comprehensive profiling of the cell surface proteome of mother cancerous cell lines and derived organ-specific metastatic cell lines provides an effective approach for the identification of potential accessible marker proteins for both prognosis and antibody-based targeted therapies.
Project description:Background:Third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) such as osimertinib are the last line of targeted treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) EGFR-mutant harboring T790M. Different mechanisms of acquired resistance to third-generation EGFR-TKIs have been proposed. It is therefore crucial to identify new and effective strategies to overcome successive acquired mechanisms of resistance. Methods:For Amplicon-seq analysis, samples from the index patient (primary and metastasis lesions at different timepoints) as well as the patient-derived orthotopic xenograft tumors corresponding to the different treatment arms were used. All samples were formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded, selected and evaluated by a pathologist. For droplet digital PCR, 20 patients diagnosed with NSCLC at baseline or progression to different lines of TKI therapies were selected. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks corresponding to either primary tumor or metastasis specimens were used for analysis. For single-cell analysis, orthotopically grown metastases were dissected from the brain of an athymic nu/nu mouse and cryopreserved at?-80°C. Results:In a brain metastasis lesion from a NSCLC patient presenting an EGFR T790M mutation, we detected MET gene amplification after prolonged treatment with osimertinib. Importantly, the combination of capmatinib (c-MET inhibitor) and afatinib (ErbB-1/2/4 inhibitor) completely suppressed tumor growth in mice orthotopically injected with cells derived from this brain metastasis. In those mice treated with capmatinib or afatinib as monotherapy, we observed the emergence of KRAS G12C clones. Single-cell gene expression analyses also revealed intratumor heterogeneity, indicating the presence of a KRAS-driven subclone. We also detected low-frequent KRAS G12C alleles in patients treated with various EGFR-TKIs. Conclusion:Acquired resistance to subsequent EGFR-TKI treatment lines in EGFR-mutant lung cancer patients may induce genetic plasticity. We assess the biological insights of tumor heterogeneity in an osimertinib-resistant tumor with acquired MET-amplification and propose new treatment strategies in this situation.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication appears to be restricted to the human hepatoma cell line Huh-7, indicating that a favorable cellular environment exists within these cells. Although adaptive mutations in the HCV nonstructural proteins typically enhance the replicative capacity of subgenomic replicons in Huh-7 cells, replication can only be detected in a subpopulation of these cells. Here we show that self-replicating subgenomic RNA could be eliminated from Huh-7 clones by prolonged treatment with alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) and that a higher frequency of cured cells could support both subgenomic and full-length HCV replication. The increased permissiveness of one of the cured cell lines allowed us to readily detect HCV RNA and antigens early after RNA transfection, eliminating the need for selection of replication-positive cells. We also demonstrate that a single amino acid substitution in NS5A is sufficient for establishing HCV replication in a majority of cured cells and that the major phosphate acceptor site of subtype 1b NS5A is not essential for HCV replication.
Project description:In the present study we engineered a micro-machined polyimide cantilever with an embedded sensing element to investigate cellular adhesion, in terms of its relative ability to stick to a cross-linker, 3,3'-dithiobis[sulfosuccinimidylpropionate], coated on the cantilever surface. To achieve this objective, we investigated adhesive properties of three human prostate cancer cell lines, namely, a bone metastasis derived human prostate cancer cell line (PC3), a brain metastasis derived human prostate cancer cell line (DU145), and a subclone of PC3 (PC3-EMT14). We found that PC3-EMT14, which displays a mesenchymal phenotype, has the least adhesion compared to PC3 and DU145, which exhibit an epithelial phenotype.