Estimation of German KIR Allele Group Haplotype Frequencies.
ABSTRACT: The impact of the highly polymorphic Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene cluster on the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCST) is subject of current research. To further understand the involvement of this gene family into Natural Killer (NK) cell-mediated graft-versus-leukemia reactions, knowledge of haplotype structures, and allelic linkage is of importance. In this analysis, we estimate population-specific KIR haplotype frequencies at allele group resolution in a cohort of n = 458 German families. We addressed the polymorphism of the KIR gene complex and phasing ambiguities by a combined approach. Haplotype inference within first-degree family relations allowed us to limit the number of possible diplotypes. Structural restriction to a pattern set of 92 previously described KIR copy number haplotypes further reduced ambiguities. KIR haplotype frequency estimation was finally accomplished by means of an expectation-maximization algorithm. Applying a resolution threshold of ½ n, we were able to identify a set of 551 KIR allele group haplotypes, representing 21 KIR copy number haplotypes. The haplotype frequencies allow studying linkage disequilibrium in two-locus as well as in multi-locus analyses. Our study reveals associations between KIR haplotype structures and allele group frequencies, thereby broadening our understanding of the KIR gene complex.
Project description:The immune responses of natural killer cells are regulated, in part, by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The 16 closely-related genes in the KIR gene system have been diversified by gene duplication and unequal crossing over, thereby generating haplotypes with variation in gene copy number. Allelic variation also contributes to diversity within the complex. In this study, we estimated allele-level haplotype frequencies and pairwise linkage disequilibrium statistics for 14 KIR loci. The typing utilized multiple methodologies by four laboratories to provide at least 2x coverage for each allele. The computational methods generated maximum-likelihood estimates of allele-level haplotypes. Our results indicate the most extensive allele diversity was observed for the KIR framework genes and for the genes localized to the telomeric region of the KIR A haplotype. Particular alleles of the stimulatory loci appear to be nearly fixed on specific, common haplotypes while many of the less frequent alleles of the inhibitory loci appeared on multiple haplotypes, some with common haplotype structures. Haplotype structures cA01 and/or tA01 predominate in this cohort, as has been observed in most populations worldwide. Linkage disequilibrium is high within the centromeric and telomeric haplotype regions but not between them and is particularly strong between centromeric gene pairs KIR2DL5?KIR2DS3S5 and KIR2DS3S5?KIR2DL1, and telomeric KIR3DL1?KIR2DS4. Although 93% of the individuals have unique pairs of full-length allelic haplotypes, large genomic blocks sharing specific sets of alleles are seen in the most frequent haplotypes. These high-resolution, high-quality haplotypes extend our basic knowledge of the KIR gene system and may be used to support clinical studies beyond single gene analysis.
Project description:Inhibitory Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) specific for HLA class I molecules enable human natural killer cells to monitor altered antigen presentation in pathogen-infected and tumor cells. KIR genes display extensive copy-number variation and allelic polymorphism. They organize in a series of variable arrangements, designated KIR haplotypes, which derive from duplications of ancestral genes and sequence diversification through point mutation and unequal crossing-over events. Genomic studies have established the organization of multiple KIR haplotypes-many of them are fixed in most human populations, whereas variants of those have less certain distributions. Whilst KIR-gene diversity of many populations and ethnicities has been explored superficially (frequencies of individual genes and presence/absence profiles), less abundant are in-depth analyses of how such diversity emerges from KIR-haplotype structures. We characterize here the genetic diversity of KIR in a sample of 414 Spanish individuals. Using a parsimonious approach, we manage to explain all 38 observed KIR-gene profiles by homo- or heterozygous combinations of six fixed centromeric and telomeric motifs; of six variant gene arrangements characterized previously by us and others; and of two novel haplotypes never detected before in Caucasoids. Associated to the latter haplotypes, we also identified the novel transcribed KIR2DL5B * 0020202 allele, and a chimeric KIR2DS2/KIR2DL3 gene (designated KIR2DL3 * 033) that challenges current criteria for classification and nomenclature of KIR genes and haplotypes.
Project description:To further refine and improve biomedical research in rhesus macaques, it is necessary to increase our knowledge concerning both the degree of allelic variation (polymorphism) and diversity (gene copy number variation) in the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene cluster. Pedigreed animals in particular should be studied, as segregation data will provide clues to the linkage of particular KIR genes/alleles segregating on a haplotype and to its gene content as well. A dual strategy allowed us to screen the presence and absence of genes and the corresponding transcripts, as well as to track differences in transcription levels. On the basis of this approach, 14 diverse KIR haplotypes have been described. These haplotypes consist of multiple inhibitory and activating Mamu-KIR genes, and any gene present on one haplotype may be absent on another. This suggests that the cost of accelerated evolution by recombination may be the loss of certain framework genes on a haplotype.
Project description:Classical human leukocyte antigens (HLA) genes confer the strongest, but not the only, genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), on natural killer (NK) cells, bind ligands including class I HLA. We examined presence or absence, with copy number, of KIR loci in 1698 individuals, from 339 multiplex type 1 diabetes families, from the Human Biological Data Interchange, previously genotyped for HLA. Combining family data with KIR copy number information allowed assignment of haplotypes using identity by descent. This is the first disease study to use KIR copy number typing and unambiguously define haplotypes by gene transmission. KIR A1 haplotypes were positively associated with T1D in the subset of patients without the high T1D risk HLA genotype, DR3/DR4 (odds ratio=1.29, P=0.0096). The data point to a role for KIR in type 1 diabetes risk in late-onset patients. In the top quartile (age of onset>14), KIR A2 haplotype was overtransmitted (63.4%, odds ratio=1.73, P=0.024) and KIR B haplotypes were undertransmitted (41.1%, odds ratio=0.70, P=0.0052) to patients. The data suggest that inhibitory 'A' haplotypes are predisposing and stimulatory 'B' haplotypes confer protection in both DR3/DR4-negative and late-onset patient groups.
Project description:Interactions between killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands regulate the development and response of human natural killer (NK) cells. Natural selection drove an allele-level group A KIR haplotype and the HLA-C1 ligand to unusually high frequency in the Japanese, who provide a particularly informative population for investigating the mechanisms by which KIR and HLA polymorphism influence NK cell repertoire and function. HLA class I ligands increase the frequencies of NK cells expressing cognate KIR, an effect modified by gene dose, KIR polymorphism, and the presence of other cognate ligand-receptor pairs. The five common Japanese KIR3DLI allotypes have distinguishable inhibitory capacity, frequency of cellular expression, and level of cell surface expression as measured by antibody binding. Although KIR haplotypes encoding 3DL1*001 or 3DL1*005, the strongest inhibitors, have no activating KIR, the dominant haplotype encodes a moderate inhibitor, 3DL1*01502, plus functional forms of the activating receptors 2DL4 and 2DS4. In the population, certain combinations of KIR and HLA class I ligand are overrepresented or underrepresented in women, but not men, and thus influence female fitness and survival. These findings show how KIR-HLA interactions shape the genetic and phenotypic KIR repertoires for both individual humans and the population.
Project description:Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) regulate natural killer cell response against infection and malignancy. KIR genes are variable in the number and type, thereby discriminating individuals and populations. Herein, we analyzed the KIR gene content diversity in four native populations of Iran. The KIR genomic diversity was comparable between Bakhtiari and Persian and displayed a balance of A and B KIR haplotypes, a trend reported in Caucasian and African populations. The KIR gene content profiles of Arab and Azeri were comparable and displayed a preponderance of B haplotypes, a scenario reported in the natives of America, India, and Australia. A majority of the B haplotype carriers of Azeri and Arab had a centromeric gene-cluster (KIR2DS2-2DL2-2DS3-2DL5). Remarkably, this cluster was totally absent from the American natives but occurred at highest frequencies in the natives of India and Australia in combination with another gene cluster at the telomeric region (KIR3DS1-2DL5-2DS5-2DS1). Therefore, despite having similar frequencies of B haplotypes, the occurrence of B haplotype-specific KIR genes, such as 2DL2, 2DL5, 3DS1, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, and 2DS5 in Azeri and Arab were substantially different from the natives of America, India, and Australia. In conclusion, each Iranian population exhibits distinct KIR gene content diversity, and the Indo-European KIR genetic signatures of the Iranians concur with geographic proximity, linguistic affinity, and human migrations.
Project description:The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) mediate human natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity via activating or inhibiting signals. Although informative and functional haplotype patterns have been reported, most genotyping has been performed at resolutions that are structurally ambiguous. In order to leverage structural information given low-resolution genotypes, we performed experiments to quantify the effects of population variations, reference haplotypes, and genotyping resolutions on population-level haplotype frequency estimations as well as predictions of individual haplotypes. We genotyped 10,157 unrelated individuals in 5 populations (518 African American[AFA], 258 Asian or Pacific Islander[API], 8,245 European[EUR], 1,073 Hispanic[HIS], and 63 Native American[NAM]) for KIR gene presence/absence (PA), and additionally half of the AFA samples for KIR gene copy number variation (CNV). A custom EM algorithm was used to estimate haplotype frequencies for each population by interpretation in the context of three sets of reference haplotypes. The algorithm also assigns each individual the haplotype pairs of maximum likelihood. Generally, our haplotype frequency estimates agree with similar previous publications to within <5% difference for all haplotypes. The exception is that estimates for NAM from the U.S. showed higher frequency association of cB02 with tA01 (+14%) instead of tB01 (-8.5%) compared to a previous study of NAM from south of the U.S. The higher-resolution CNV genotyping on the AFA samples allowed unambiguous haplotype-pair assignments for the majority of individuals, resulting in a 22% higher median typing resolution score (TRS), which measures likelihood of self-match in the context of population-specific haplo- and geno-types. The use of TRS to quantify reduced ambiguity with CNV data clearly revealed the few individuals with ambiguous genotypes as outliers. It is observed that typing resolution and reference haplotype set influence haplotype frequency estimates. For example, PA resolution may be used with reference haplotype sets up to the point where certain haplotypes are gene-content subsets of others. At that point, CNV must be used for all genes.
Project description:The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) region of human chromosome 19 contains up to 16 genes for natural killer (NK) cell receptors that recognize human leukocyte antigen (HLA)/peptide complexes and other ligands. The KIR proteins fulfill functional roles in infections, pregnancy, autoimmune diseases and transplantation. However, their characterization remains a constant challenge. Not only are the genes highly homologous due to their recent evolution by tandem duplications, but the region is structurally dynamic due to frequent transposon-mediated recombination. A sequencing approach that precisely captures the complexity of KIR haplotypes for functional annotation is desirable. We present a unique approach to haplotype the KIR loci using single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing. Using this method, we have-for the first time-comprehensively sequenced and phased sixteen KIR haplotypes from eight individuals without imputation. The information revealed four novel haplotype structures, a novel gene-fusion allele, novel and confirmed insertion/deletion events, a homozygous individual, and overall diversity for the structural haplotypes and their alleles. These KIR haplotypes augment our existing knowledge by providing high-quality references, evolutionary informers, and source material for imputation. The haplotype sequences and gene annotations provide alternative loci for the KIR region in the human genome reference GrCh38.p8.
Project description:The Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) gene complex has considerable biomedical importance. Patterns of polymorphism in the KIR region include variability in the gene content of haplotypes and diverse structural arrangements. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to identify different haplotype motifs and to enumerate KIR copy number variants (CNVs). ddPCR detected a variety of KIR haplotype configurations in DNA from well-characterized cell lines. Mendelian segregation of ddPCR-estimated KIR2DL5 CNVs was observed in Gambian families and CNV typing of other KIRs was shown to be accurate when compared to an established quantitative PCR method.
Project description:NK cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) haplotype-specific DNA fragments were sequenced to identify centromeric and telomeric allele-level haplotype structures and their frequencies from 76 unrelated individuals with European ancestry. Analysis was simplified by redefining the 5' boundary of the centromeric KIR gene cluster to include only exons 7-9 of KIR3DL3. Three consensus allele-level haplotypes were identified for a centromeric gene presence/absence structure designated as Cen-A1. KIR3DL3*00201 (exons 7-9)?KIR2DL3*001?KIR2DL1*00302 was the most frequent (37.5%) centromeric structure. Single consensus haplotypes were observed for haplotype structures Cen-B1 and Cen-B2. Six Tel-A1 and two Tel-B1 consensus haplotypes were observed; the most prevalent (23.0%) was KIR2DL4*00102?KIR3DL1*002?KIR2DS4*00101?KIR3DL2*002. A small number of nucleotide substitutions (?3) in the coding regions of the functional KIR genes created microvariants of the consensus haplotypes. Eight less common haplotype structures were also detected. Four carried hybrid genes formed during gene deletion events, two carried an insertion with a 2DL5/3DP1 fusion gene and two included a very large insertion. These data show that the KIR gene complex is composed of a limited number of conserved allele-level centromeric and telomeric haplotypes that have diversified by mutation, recombination within a locus and unequal crossing over.