Identification and Validation of Immune-Related Gene Prognostic Signature for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Immune-related genes (IRGs) have been identified as critical drivers of the initiation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study is aimed at constructing an IRG signature for HCC and validating its prognostic value in clinical application. The prognostic signature was developed by integrating multiple IRG expression data sets from TCGA and GEO databases. The IRGs were then combined with clinical features to validate the robustness of the prognostic signature through bioinformatics tools. A total of 1039 IRGs were identified in the 657 HCC samples. Subsequently, the IRGs were subjected to univariate Cox regression and LASSO Cox regression analyses in the training set to construct an IRG signature comprising nine immune-related gene pairs (IRGPs). Functional analyses revealed that the nine IRGPs were associated with tumor immune mechanisms, including cell proliferation, cell-mediated immunity, and tumorigenesis signal pathway. Concerning the overall survival rate, the IRGPs distinctly grouped the HCC samples into the high- and low-risk groups. Also, we found that the risk score based on nine IRGPs was related to clinical and pathologic factors and remained a valid independent prognostic signature after adjusting for tumor TNM, grade, and grade in multivariate Cox regression analyses. The prognostic value of the nine IRGPs was further validated by forest and nomogram plots, which revealed that it was superior to the tumor TNM, grade, and stage. Our findings suggest that the nine-IRGP signature can be effective in determining the disease outcomes of HCC patients.
Project description:<h4>Abstract</h4>Aberrant immunity has been associated with the initiation and progression of cancers such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we aim to develop a signature based on immune-related genes (IRGs) to predict the prognosis of HCC patients. The gene expression profiles of 891 HCC samples were derived from 4 publicly accessible datasets. A total of 1534 IRGs from Immunology Database and Analysis Portal website were obtained as candidate genes for prognostic assessment. Using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis, 12 IRGs were selected as prognostic biomarkers and were then aggregated to generate an IRG score for each HCC sample. In the training dataset (n = 365), patients with high IRG scores showed a remarkably poorer overall survival than those with low IRG scores (log-rank P < .001). Similar results were documented in 3 independent testing datasets (n = 226, 221, 79, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression and stratified analyses indicated that the IRG score was an independent and robust signature to predict the overall survival in HCC patients. Patients with high IRG scores tended to be in advanced TNM stages, with increased risks of tumor recurrence and metastasis. More importantly, the IRG score was strongly associated with certain immune cell counts, gene expression of immune checkpoints, estimated immune score, and mutation of critical genes in HCC. In conclusion, the proposed IRG score can predict the prognosis and reflect the tumor immune microenvironment of HCC patients, which may facilitate the individualized treatment and provide potential immunotherapeutic targets.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent and inflammation-associated cancers. ?The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an essential role in HCC development and metastasis, leading to poor prognosis. The overall TME immune cells infiltration characterizations mediated by immune-related genes (IRGs) remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether immune-related genes could be indicators for the prognosis of HCC patients and TME cell infiltration characterization as well as responses to immunotherapy.<h4>Methods</h4>We obtained differentially expressed immune-related genes (DE IRGs) between normal liver tissues and liver cancer tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. To identify the prognostic genes and establish an immune risk signature, we performed univariable Cox regression survival analysis and the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selector Operation (LASSO) regression based on the DE IRGs by robust rank aggregation method. Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent prognostic factors in HCC. We estimated the immune cell infiltration in TME via CIBERSORT and immunotherapy response through TIDE algorithm.<h4>Results</h4>We constructed an immune signature and validated its predictive capability. The immune signature included 7 differentially expressed IRGs: BIRC5, CACYBP, NR0B1, RAET1E, S100A8, SPINK5, and SPP1. The univariate and multivariate cox analysis showed that the 7-IRGs signature was a robust independent prognostic factor in the overall survival of HCC patients. The 7-IRG signature was associated with some clinical features, including gender, vascular invasion, histological grade, clinical stage, T stage. We also found that the 7-IRG signature could reflect the infiltration characterization of different immunocytes in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and had a good correlation with immune checkpoint molecules, revealing that the poor prognosis might be partly due to immunosuppressive TME. The Tumour Immune Dysfunction and Exclusion (TIDE) analysis data showed that the 7-IRG signature had great potential for indicating the immunotherapy response in HCC patients. The mutation analysis demonstrated a significant difference in the tumor mutation burden (TMB) between the high- and low-risk groups, partially explaining this signature's predictive value.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In a word, we constructed and validated a novel, immune-related prognostic signature for HCC patients. This signature could effectively indicate HCC patients' survival and immunotherapy response. And it might act as potential immunotherapeutic targets for HCC patients.
Project description:Immune-related gene pairs (IRGPs) have been associated with prognosis in various cancer types, but few studies have examined their prognostic capabilities in glioma patients. Here, we gathered the gene expression and clinical profile data of primary lower-grade glioma (LGG) patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA, containing CGGAseq1 and CGGAseq2), the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE16011), and Rembrandt datasets. In the TCGA dataset, univariate Cox regression was performed to detect overall survival (OS)-related IRGs, Lasso regression, and multivariate Cox regression were used to screen robust prognosis-related IRGs, and 19 IRGs were selected for the construction of an IRGP prognostic signature. All patients were allotted to high- and low-risk subgroups based on the TCGA dataset median value risk score. Validation analysis indicated that the IRGP signature returned a stable prognostic value among all datasets. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses indicated that the IRG -signature could efficiently predict the prognosis of primary LGG patients. The IRGP-signature-based nomogram model was built, revealing the reliable ability of the IRGP signature to predict clinical prognosis. The single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) suggested that high-risk samples contained higher numbers of immune cells but featured lower tumor purity than low-risk samples. Finally, we verified the prognostic ability of the IRGP signature using experiments performed in LGG cells. These results indicated that the IRGP signature could be regarded as a stable prognostic assessment predictor for identifying high-risk primary LGG patients.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common internal malignancies worldwide and is associated with a poor prognosis. There is an urgent need to identify diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of HCC pathogenesis and progression. Accordingly, in this study, we analyzed differentially expressed immune-related genes (IRGs) from 329 patients with HCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets. Functional analysis revealed that the IRGs had potential effects on tumor immune processes, such as inflammatory responses and growth factor activity. In the training group, we constructed a nine-IRG formula to predict prognosis in patients with HCC. To validate the protein and mRNA levels of these IRGs, we used the Human Protein Atlas database and quantitative PCR analysis and found that most protein expression levels matched the corresponding mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, we also validated the prognostic value of the new risk model in another independent cohort (n = 277) from a Gene Expression Omnibus dataset (GSE14520). Our data suggested that there was a significant association between our risk model and patient prognosis. Stratification analysis showed that the nine-IRG signature was significantly associated with overall survival in men. Finally, the signature was found to be correlated with various clinicopathological features. Intriguingly, the prognostic index based on the IRGs reflected infiltration by several types of immune cells. In summary, our data provided evidence that the nine-IRG signature could serve as an independent biomarker to predict prognosis in patients with HCC.
Project description:With the increasing prevalence of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the poor prognosis of immunotherapy, reliable immune-related gene pairs (IRGPs) prognostic signature is required for personalized management and treatment of patients. Gene expression profiles and clinical information of HCC patients were obtained from the TCGA and ICGC databases. The IRGPs are constructed using immune-related genes (IRGs) with large variations. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis was used to construct IRGPs signature. The IRGPs signature was verified through the ICGC cohort. 1,309 IRGPs were constructed from 90 IRGs with high variability. We obtained 50 IRGPs that were significantly connected to the prognosis and constructed a signature that included 17 IRGPs. In the TCGA and ICGC cohorts, patients were divided into high and low-risk patients by the IRGPs signature. The overall survival time of low-risk patients is longer than that of high-risk patients. After adjustment for clinical and pathological factors, multivariate analysis showed that the IRGPs signature is an independent prognostic factor. The Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve confirmed the accuracy of the signature. Besides, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that the signature is related to immune biological processes, and the immune microenvironment status is distinct in different risk patients. The proposed IRGPs signature can effectively assess the overall survival of HCC, and provide the relationship between the signature and the reactivity of immune checkpoint therapy and the sensitivity of targeted drugs, thereby providing new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
Project description:Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an invasive malignancy with high worldwide mortality. Growing evidence has indicated a pivotal correlation between HNSCC prognosis and immune signature. This study investigated an immune-related gene pairs (IRGPs) signature to predict the prognostic value of HNSCC patients. We constructed IRGPs via integrating multiple IRG expression data sets. Moreover, we established the predictive model base on the IRGPs for HNSCC, and utilized multidimensional bioinformatics methods to validate the robustness of prognostic value of the IRGPs signature. In addition, we explored the relationship between the IRGPs model and immune status. Seventeen IRGPs signature was built as the predictive model which predicted prognosis independently and reliably for HNSCC. Compared to the high-risk group, the low-risk group demonstrated a distinctly favorable prognosis including overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and progression-free survival (PFS). The low-risk group showed higher-immune score and lower-tumor purity than the high-risk group. In addition, the low-risk group exhibited higher expression of Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and Microsatellite instability (MSI) score, and lower expression of Tumor Immune Dysfunction and Exclusion (TIDE), which indicated the low-risk group was much more sensitive to immunotherapy. Lastly, the IRGs signature has achieved a higher accuracy than clinical properties for estimation of survival. The IRGPs model is an independent biomarker for estimating the prognosis, and could be also used to predict immunotherapeutic response in HNSCC patients. These findings may provide new ideas for novel biomarkers and may be helpful to formulate personalized immunotherapy strategy.
Project description:PURPOSE:Stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) is one of the most common malignant tumors, and its occurrence and prognosis are closely related to inflammation. The aim of the present study was to identify gene signatures and construct an immune-related gene (IRG) prognostic model in STAD using bioinformatics analysis. METHODS:RNA sequencing data from healthy samples and samples with STAD, IRGs, and transcription factors were analyzed. The hub IRGs were identified using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Using the hub IRGs, we constructed an IRG prognostic model. The relationships between IRG prognostic models and clinical data were tested. RESULTS:A total of 289 differentially expressed IRGs and 20 prognostic IRGs were screened with a threshold of P<0.05. Through multivariate stepwise Cox regression analysis, we developed a prognostic model based on seven IRGs. The prognostic model was validated using a GEO dataset (GSE 84437). The IRGs were significantly correlated with the clinical outcomes (age, histological grade, N, and M stage) of STAD patients. The infiltration abundances of dendritic cells and macrophages were higher in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group. CONCLUSIONS:Our results provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of STAD. An IRG prognostic model based on seven IRGs exhibited the predictive value, and have potential application value in clinical decision-making and individualized treatment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Bladder cancer (BLCA) is the major tumor of the urinary system, and immune-related genes (IRGs) contribute significantly to its initiation and prognosis.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 51 prognostic IRGs significantly associated with overall survival were identified. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that these genes were actively involved in tumor-related functions and pathways. Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, we detected 11 optimal IRGs (ADIPOQ, PPY, NAMPT, TAP1, AHNAK, OLR1, PDGFRA, IL34, MMP9, RAC3, and SH3BP2). We validated the prognostic value of this signature in two validation cohorts: GSE13507 (n = 165) and GSE32894 (n = 224). Furthermore, we performed a western blot and found that the expression of these IRGs matched their mRNA expression in TCGA. Moreover, correlations between risk score and immune-cell infiltration indicated that the prognostic signature reflected infiltration by several types of immune cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We identified and validated an 11-IRG-based risk signature that may be a reliable tool to evaluate the prognosis of BLCA patients and help to devise individualized immunotherapies.<h4>Methods</h4>Bioinformatics analysis was performed using TCGA and ImmPort databases. Cox regression was used to identify prognostic signatures. Two external GEO cohorts and western blotting of samples were performed to validate the IRG signature.
Project description:Cancer immune plays a critical role in cancer progression. Tumour immunology and immunotherapy are one of the exciting areas in bladder cancer research. In this study, we aimed to develop an immune-related gene signature to improve the prognostic prediction of bladder cancer. Firstly, we identified 392 differentially expressed immune-related genes (IRGs) based on TCGA and ImmPort databases. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that these genes were enriched in inflammatory and immune-related pathways, including in 'regulation of signaling receptor activity', 'cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction' and 'GPCR ligand binding'. Then, we separated all samples in TCGA data set into the training cohort and the testing cohort in a ratio of 3:1 randomly. Data set GSE13507 was set as the validation cohort. We constructed a prognostic six-IRG signature with LASSO Cox regression in the training cohort, including AHNAK, OAS1, APOBEC3H, SCG2, CTSE and KIR2DS4. Six IRGs reflected the microenvironment of bladder cancer, especially immune cell infiltration. The prognostic value of six-IRG signature was further validated in the testing cohort and the validation cohort. The results of multivariable Cox regression and subgroup analysis revealed that six-IRG signature was a clinically independent prognostic factor for bladder cancer patients. Further, we constructed a nomogram based on six-IRG signature and other clinicopathological risk factors, and it performed well in predict patients' survival. Finally, we found six-IRG signature showed significant difference in different molecular subtypes of bladder cancer. In conclusions, our research provided a novel immune-related gene signature to estimate prognosis for patients' survival with bladder cancer.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the malignant tumors with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunotherapy has emerged as an increasingly important cancer treatment modality. However, the potential relationship between immune genes and HCC still needs to be explored. The purpose of this study is to construct a new prognostic risk signature to predict the prognosis of HCC patients based on the expression of immune-related genes (IRGs) and explore its potential mechanism.<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed the gene expression data of 332 HCC patient samples and 46 adjacent normal tissues samples (Solid Tissue Normal including cirrhotic tissue) in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and clinical characteristics. We analyzed the gene expression data, identified differentially expressed IRGs in HCC tissues, filtered IRGs with prognostic value to construct an IRG signature, and classified patients into high and low gene expression groups based on the expression of IRGs in their tumor tissues. We also investigated the potential molecular mechanisms of IRGs through a bioinformatics approach using Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database analysis and Gene Ontology (GO) database analysis. Differentially expressed IRGs associated with significant clinical outcomes (SIRGs) were identified by univariate Cox regression analysis. An immune-related risk score model (IRRSM) was established based on Lasso Cox regression analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Based on the IRRSM, the immune score of the patients was calculated, and the patients were divided into high-risk and low-risk patients according to the median score, and the differences in survival between the two groups were compared. Then, the correlation analysis between the IRRSM and clinical characteristics was performed, and the IRRSM was validated using the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) database.<h4>Results</h4>The IRRSM was eventually constructed and confirmed to be an independent prognostic model for HCC patients. The IRRSM was shown to be positively correlated with the infiltration of four types of immune cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results showed that some SIRGs have potential value for predicting the prognosis and clinical outcomes of HCC patients. IRGs affect the prognosis of HCC patients by regulating the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). This study provides a new insight for immune research and treatment strategies in HCC patients.