Active Instrument Engagement Combined with a Real-Time Database Search for Improved Performance of Sample Multiplexing Workflows.
ABSTRACT: Quantitative proteomics employing isobaric reagents has been established as a powerful tool for biological discovery. Current workflows often utilize a dedicated quantitative spectrum to improve quantitative accuracy and precision. A consequence of this approach is a dramatic reduction in the spectral acquisition rate, which necessitates the use of additional instrument time to achieve comprehensive proteomic depth. This work assesses the performance and benefits of online and real-time spectral identification in quantitative multiplexed workflows. A Real-Time Search (RTS) algorithm was implemented to identify fragment spectra within milliseconds as they are acquired using a probabilistic score and to trigger quantitative spectra only upon confident peptide identification. The RTS-MS3 was benchmarked against standard workflows using a complex two-proteome model of interference and a targeted 10-plex comparison of kinase abundance profiles. Applying the RTS-MS3 method provided the comprehensive characterization of a 10-plex proteome in 50% less acquisition time. These data indicate that the RTS-MS3 approach provides dramatic performance improvements for quantitative multiplexed experiments.
Project description:As a driver for many biological processes, phosphorylation remains an area of intense research interest. Advances in multiplexed quantitation utilizing isobaric tags (e.g., TMT and iTRAQ) have the potential to create a new paradigm in quantitative proteomics. New instrumentation and software are propelling these multiplexed workflows forward, which results in more accurate, sensitive, and reproducible quantitation across tens of thousands of phosphopeptides. This study assesses the performance of multiplexed quantitative phosphoproteomics on the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer. Utilizing a two-phosphoproteome model of precursor ion interference, we assessed the accuracy of phosphopeptide quantitation across a variety of experimental approaches. These methods included the use of synchronous precursor selection (SPS) to enhance TMT reporter ion intensity and accuracy. We found that (i) ratio distortion remained a problem for phosphopeptide analysis in multiplexed quantitative workflows, (ii) ratio distortion can be overcome by the use of an SPS-MS3 scan, (iii) interfering ions generally possessed a different charge state than the target precursor, and (iv) selecting only the phosphate neutral loss peak (single notch) for the MS3 scan still provided accurate ratio measurements. Remarkably, these data suggest that the underlying cause of interference may not be due to coeluting and cofragmented peptides but instead from consistent, low level background fragmentation. Finally, as a proof-of-concept 10-plex experiment, we compared phosphopeptide levels from five murine brains to five livers. In total, the SPS-MS3 method quantified 38?247 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 11?000 phosphorylation sites. With 10 measurements recorded for each phosphopeptide, this equates to more than 628?000 binary comparisons collected in less than 48 h.
Project description:Multiplexed quantitative analyses of complex proteomes enable deep biological insight. While a multitude of workflows have been developed for multiplexed analyses, the most quantitatively accurate method (SPS-MS3) suffers from long acquisition duty cycles. We built a new, real-time database search (RTS) platform, Orbiter, to combat the SPS-MS3 method’s longer duty cycles. RTS with Orbiter eliminates SPS-MS3 scans if no peptide matches to a given spectrum. With Orbiter’s online proteomic analytical pipeline, which includes RTS and false discovery rate analysis, it was possible to process a single spectrum database search in less than 10 milliseconds. The result is a fast, functional means to identify peptide spectral matches using Comet, filter these matches, and more efficiently quantify proteins of interest. Importantly, the use of Comet for peptide spectral matching allowed for a fully featured search, including analysis of post-translational modifications, with well-known and extensively validated scoring. These data could then be used to trigger subsequent scans in an adaptive and flexible manner. In this work we tested the utility of this adaptive data acquisition platform to improve the efficiency and accuracy of multiplexed quantitative experiments. We found that RTS enabled a two-fold increase in mass spectrometric data acquisition efficiency. Orbiter’s RTS quantified more than 8000 proteins across 10 proteomes in half the time of an SPS-MS3 analysis (18 hours for RTS, 36 hours for SPS-MS3).
Project description:The unbiased selection of peptide precursors makes data-independent acquisition (DIA) an advantageous alternative to data-dependent acquisition (DDA) for discovery proteomics, but traditional multiplexed quantification approaches employing mass difference labeling or isobaric tagging are incompatible with DIA. Here, we describe a strategy that permits multiplexed quantification by DIA using mass defect-based N,N-dimethyl leucine (mdDiLeu) tags and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) analysis. Millidalton mass differences between mdDiLeu isotopologues produce fragment ion multiplet peaks separated in mass by as little as 5.8 mDa, enabling up to 4-plex quantification in DIA MS2 spectra. Quantitative analysis of yeast samples displayed comparable accuracy and precision for MS2-based DIA and MS1-based DDA methods. Multiplexed DIA analysis of cerebrospinal fluid revealed the dynamic proteome changes in Alzheimer's disease, demonstrating its utility for discovery of potential clinical biomarkers. We show that the mdDiLeu tagging approach for multiplexed DIA is a viable methodology for investigating proteome changes, particularly for low-abundance proteins, in different biological matrices.
Project description:Quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics is highly versatile but not easily multiplexed. Isobaric labeling strategies allow mass spectrometry-based multiplexed proteome quantification; however, ratio distortion owing to protein quantification interference is a common effect. We present a two-proteome model (mixture of human and yeast proteins) in a sixplex isobaric labeling system to fully document the interference effect, and we report that applying triple-stage mass spectrometry (MS3) almost completely eliminates interference.
Project description:Quantitative analysis of proteomes across multiple time points, organelles, and perturbations is essential for understanding both fundamental biology and disease states. The development of isobaric tags (e.g., TMT) has enabled the simultaneous measurement of peptide abundances across several different conditions. These multiplexed approaches are promising in principle because of advantages in throughput and measurement quality. However, in practice, existing multiplexing approaches suffer from key limitations. In its simple implementation (TMT-MS2), measurements are distorted by chemical noise leading to poor measurement accuracy. The current state-of-the-art (TMT-MS3) addresses this but requires specialized quadrupole-iontrap-Orbitrap instrumentation. The complement reporter ion approach (TMTc) produces high accuracy measurements and is compatible with many more instruments, like quadrupole-Orbitraps. However, the required deconvolution of the TMTc cluster leads to poor measurement precision. Here, we introduce TMTc+, which adds the modeling of the MS2-isolation step into the deconvolution algorithm. The resulting measurements are comparable in precision to TMT-MS3/MS2. The improved duty cycle and lower filtering requirements make TMTc+ more sensitive than TMT-MS3 and comparable with TMT-MS2. At the same time, unlike TMT-MS2, TMTc+ is exquisitely able to distinguish signal from chemical noise even outperforming TMT-MS3. Lastly, we compare TMTc+ to quantitative label-free proteomics of total HeLa lysate and find that TMTc+ quantifies 7.8k versus 3.9k proteins in a 5-plex sample. At the same time, the median coefficient of variation improves from 13% to 4%. Thus, TMTc+ advances quantitative proteomics by enabling accurate, sensitive, and precise multiplexed experiments on more commonly used instruments.
Project description:Protein phosphorylation is critically important for many cellular processes, including progression through the cell cycle, cellular metabolism, and differentiation. Isobaric labeling, for example, tandem mass tags (TMT), in phosphoproteomics workflows enables both relative and absolute quantitation of these phosphorylation events. Traditional TMT workflows identify peptides using fragment ions at the MS2 level and quantify reporter ions at the MS3 level. However, in addition to the TMT reporter ions, MS3 spectra also include fragment ions that can be used to identify peptides. Here we describe using MS3 spectra for both phosphopeptide identification and quantification, a process that we term MS3-IDQ. To maximize quantified phosphopeptides, we optimize several instrument parameters, including the modality of mass analyzer (i.e., ion trap or Orbitrap), MS2 automatic gain control (AGC), and MS3 normalized collision energy (NCE), to achieve the best balance of identified and quantified peptides. Our optimized MS3-IDQ method included the following parameters for the MS3 scan: NCE = 37.5 and AGC target = 1.5 × 105, and scan range = 100-2000. Data from the MS3 scan were complementary to those of the MS2 scan, and the combination of these scans can increase phosphoproteome coverage by >50%, thereby yielding a greater number of quantified and accurately localized phosphopeptides.
Project description:In the young field of single-cell proteomics (scMS), there is a great need for improved global proteome characterization, both in terms of proteins quantified per cell and quantitative performance thereof. The recently introduced real-time search (RTS) on the Orbitrap Eclipse Tribrid mass spectrometer in combination with SPS-MS3 acquisition has been shown to be beneficial for the measurement of samples that are multiplexed using isobaric tags. Multiplexed single-cell proteomics requires high ion injection times and high-resolution spectra to quantify the single-cell signal, however the carrier channel facilitates peptide identification and thus offers the opportunity for fast on-the-fly precursor filtering before committing to the time intensive quantification scan. Here, we compared classical MS2 acquisition against RTS-SPS-MS3, both using the Orbitrap Eclipse Tribrid MS with the FAIMS Pro ion mobility interface and we present a new acquisition strategy termed RETICLE (RTS Enhanced Quant of Single Cell Spectra) that makes use of fast real-time searched linear ion trap scans to preselect MS1 peptide precursors for quantitative MS2 Orbitrap acquisition. Here we show that classical MS2 acquisition is outperformed by both RTS-SPS-MS3 through increased quantitative accuracy at similar proteome coverage, and RETICLE through higher proteome coverage, with the latter enabling the quantification of over 1000 proteins per cell at a MS2 injection time of 750ms using a 2h gradient.
Project description:Multiplexed, isobaric tagging methods are powerful techniques to increase throughput, precision, and accuracy in quantitative proteomics. The dynamic range and accuracy of quantitation, however, can be limited by coisolation of tag-containing peptides that release reporter ions and conflate quantitative measurements across precursors. Methods to alleviate these effects often lead to the loss of protein and peptide identifications through online or offline filtering of interference containing spectra. To alleviate this effect, high-Field Asymmetric-waveform Ion Mobility Spectroscopy (FAIMS) has been proposed as a method to reduce precursor coisolation and improve the accuracy and dynamic range of multiplex quantitation. Here we tested the use of FAIMS to improve quantitative accuracy using previously established TMT-based interference standards (triple-knockout [TKO] and Human-Yeast Proteomics Resource [HYPER]). We observed that FAIMS robustly improved the quantitative accuracy of both high-resolution MS2 (HRMS2) and synchronous precursor selection MS3 (SPS-MS3)-based methods without sacrificing protein identifications. We further optimized and characterized the main factors that enable robust use of FAIMS for multiplexed quantitation. We highlight these factors and provide method recommendations to take advantage of FAIMS technology to improve isobaric-tag-quantification moving forward.
Project description:We have developed a novel amine-reactive mass defect-based chemical tag, dimethyl pyrimidinyl ornithine (DiPyrO), that is compact in size, is suitable for various biological samples, and enables highly multiplexed quantification of peptides at the MS1 level without increasing mass spectral complexity. The DiPyrO tag structure incorporates heavy isotopes in a variety of configurations to impart as much as 45.3 mDa or as little as 5.8 mDa per tag between labeled peptides. Notably, peptides containing lysine are labeled with two tags, doubling the imparted mass defect to up to 90.6 mDa for the duplex tags and effectively reducing the resolving power requirement compared to previously reported mass defect-based quantification approaches. This permits current and previous generation LTQ-Orbitrap platforms to perform confident quantitative analyses of two DiPyrO-labeled samples at 100K resolving power, whereas 3-plex and 6-plex quantifications are possible at 240K and 480K resolving powers, respectively. In this work, we discuss the design and synthesis of the DiPyrO tag, characterize its effect on labeled proteome analysis by nanoLC-MS2, and demonstrate proof-of-principle applications of the duplex and triplex tags for quantitative proteomics using high-resolution MS acquisition on the Orbitrap Elite and Orbitrap Fusion Lumos.
Project description:Background:Blood-based protein measurement is a routine practice for detecting biomarkers in human disease. Comprehensive profiling of blood/plasma/serum proteome is a challenge due to an extremely large dynamic range, as exemplified by a small subset of highly abundant proteins. Antibody-based depletion of these abundant proteins alleviates the problem but introduces experimental variations. We aimed to establish a method for direct profiling of undepleted human serum and apply the method toward biomarker discovery for Alzheimer's disease (AD), as AD is the most common form of dementia without available blood-based biomarkers in clinic. Methods:We present an ultra-deep analysis of undepleted human serum proteome by combining the latest 11-plex tandem-mass-tag (TMT) labeling, exhaustive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC/LC) fractionation (the 1st LC: 3 h for 180 fractions, and the 2nd LC: 3 h gradient per fraction), coupled with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). AD (n?=?6) and control (n?=?5) sera were analyzed in this pilot study. In addition, we implemented a multiplexed targeted LC-MS3 method (TOMAHAQ) for the validation of selected target proteins. Results:The TMT-LC/LC-MS/MS platform is capable of analyzing 4826 protein components (4368 genes), covering at least 6 orders of magnitude in dynamic range, representing one of the deepest serum proteome analysis. We defined intra- and inter- group variability in the AD and control groups. Statistical analysis revealed differentially expressed proteins in AD (26 decreased and 4 increased). Notably, these altered proteins are enriched in the known pathways of mitochondria, fatty acid beta oxidation, and AGE/RAGE. Finally, we set up a TOMAHAQ method to confirm the decrease of PCK2 and AK2 in our AD samples. Conclusions:Our results show an ultra-deep serum discovery study by TMT-LC/LC-MS/MS, and a validation experiment by TOMAHAQ targeted LC-MS3. The MS-based discovery and validation methods are of general use for biomarker discovery from complex biofluids (e.g. serum proteome). This pilot study also identified deregulated proteins, in particular proteins associated with mitochondrial function in the AD serum samples. These proteins may serve as novel AD candidate biomarkers.